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Acta biomaterialia

Biophysical characterization of functionalized titania nanoparticles and their application in dental adhesives.


PMID 28163237

Abstract

It is demonstrated that carboxylic acid-functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs produce significantly higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after visible light irradiation (400-800nm, 1600mW/cm(2)) in comparison to nonfunctionalized TiO2 NPs. The level of ROS produced under these irradiation conditions was not capable of generating oxidatively induced DNA damage in a cell-free system for TiO2 concentrations of 0.5mg/L or 5mg/L. In addition, specific incorporation of the acrylic acid-functionalized TiO2 NPs into dental composites allowed us to utilize the generated ROS to enhance photopolymerization (curing and degree of vinyl conversion (DC)) of resin adhesives and create mechanically superior and biocompatible materials for dental applications. Incorporation of the TiO2 NPs into selected dental composites increased the mean DC values by ≈7%. The modified TiO2 materials and dental composite materials were extensively characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. Notably, dental adhesives incorporated with acrylic acid-functionalized TiO2 NPs produced stronger bonds to human teeth following visible light curing in comparison to traditional dental adhesives not containing NPs with an increase in the shear bond strength of ≈29%. In addition, no leaching of the incorporated NPs was detectable from the dental adhesives after 2500 thermal cycles using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, indicating that biocompatibility of the adhesives was not compromised after extensive aging. These findings suggest that NP-induced ROS may be useful to produce enhanced nanocomposite materials for selected applications in the medical device field. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have unique photocatalytic, antibacterial and UV-absorbing properties that make them beneficial additives in adhesives and composites. However, there is concern that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photoactivated TiO2 NPs might pose toxicological risks. We demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate acid-functionalized TiO2 NPs into dental resins which can be applied as dental adhesives to human teeth. The ROS generated by these NPs through visible-light irradiation may be utilized to increase the degree of vinyl conversion of resins, leading to adhesives that have an enhanced shear-bond strength to human teeth. Investigation into the potential genotoxicity of the NPs and their potential for release from dental composites indicated a low risk of genotoxic effects.

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