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The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Distinct Effects of miR-210 Reduction on Neurogenesis: Increased Neuronal Survival of Inflammation But Reduced Proliferation Associated with Mitochondrial Enhancement.


PMID 28188219

Abstract

Neurogenesis is essential to brain development and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs); however, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by postinjury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of miR-210 inhibition to enhance and protect mitochondrial function through upregulation of mitochondrial proteins. Here, miR-210 inhibition significantly increased neuronal survival and protected the activity of mitochondrial enzymes cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase in differentiating NSC cultures exposed to inflammatory mediators. Unexpectedly, we found that reducing miR-210 significantly attenuated NSC proliferation upon induction of differentiation. Further investigation revealed that increased mitochondrial function suppressed the shift to primarily glycolytic metabolism and reduced mitochondrial length characteristic of dividing cells. Activation of AMP-regulated protein kinase-retinoblastoma signaling is important in NSC proliferation and the reduction of this activation observed by miR-210 inhibition is one mechanism contributing to the reduced proliferation. Postinjury neurogenesis occurs as a burst of proliferation that peaks in days, followed by migration and differentiation over weeks. Our studies suggest that mitochondrial protective miR-210 inhibition should be delayed until after the initial burst of proliferation, but could be beneficial during the prolonged differentiation stage.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Increasing the success of endogenous neurogenesis after brain injury holds therapeutic promise. Postinjury inflammation markedly reduces newborn neuron survival. This study found that enhancement of mitochondrial function by reducing microRNA-210 (miR-210) levels could improve survival of young neurons under inflammatory conditions. miR-210 inhibition protected the activity of mitochondrial enzymes cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase. Conversely, we observed decreased precursor cell proliferation likely due to suppression of the AMP-regulated protein kinase-retinoblastoma axis with miR-210 inhibition. Therefore, mitochondrial protection is a double-edged sword: early inhibition reduces proliferation, but inhibition later significantly increases neuroblast survival. This explains in part the contradictory published reports of the effects of miR-210 on neurogenesis.