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Mutation research

Cyto-genotoxic and DNA methylation changes induced by different crystal phases of TiO2-np in bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells.


PMID 28212500

Abstract

With the increase in use of TiO2-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO2-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20-26nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles. Flow cytometry revealed cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Based on the results, toxicity of the particles could be correlated with their physico-chemical properties (i.e. smaller size and hydrodynamic diameter and larger surface area), anatase form being the most toxic. From the results of the cyto-genotoxicity assays, concentrations were determined for the epigenetic study. Effect on global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels were studied at cyto-genotoxic (25μg/ml), genotoxic (12.5μg/ml) and sub cyto-genotoxic (3.25μg/ml) concentrations using LC-MS/MS analysis. Though no significant changes were observed for 3h treatment schedule; significant hypomethylation were observed at 24h for anatase (significant at 3.25 and 25μg/ml), rutile (significant at 3.25 and 25μg/ml) and anatase: rutile mixture (significant at 25μg/ml) forms. The results suggest that epigenetic changes could occur at sub cyto-genotoxic concentrations. And hence for complete characterization of nanoparticle toxicity, epigenetic studies should be performed along with conventional toxicity testing methods.

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