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Biomedical materials (Bristol, England)

Ca:Mg:Zn:CO3 and Ca:Mg:CO3-tri- and bi-elemental carbonate microparticles for novel injectable self-gelling hydrogel-microparticle composites for tissue regeneration.


PMID 28223552

Abstract

Injectable composites for tissue regeneration can be developed by dispersion of inorganic microparticles and cells in a hydrogel phase. In this study, multifunctional carbonate microparticles containing different amounts of calcium, magnesium and zinc were mixed with solutions of gellan gum (GG), an anionic polysaccharide, to form injectable hydrogel-microparticle composites, containing Zn, Ca and Mg. Zn and Ca were incorporated into microparticle preparations to a greater extent than Mg. Microparticle groups were heterogeneous and contained microparticles of differing shape and elemental composition. Zn-rich microparticles were 'star shaped' and appeared to consist of small crystallites, while Zn-poor, Ca- and Mg-rich microparticles were irregular in shape and appeared to contain lager crystallites. Zn-free microparticle groups exhibited the best cytocompatibility and, unexpectedly, Zn-free composites showed the highest antibacterial activity towards methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Composites containing Zn-free microparticles were cytocompatible and therefore appear most suitable for applications as an injectable biomaterial. This study proves the principle of creating bi- and tri-elemental microparticles to induce the gelation of GG to create injectable hydrogel-microparticle composites.

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