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BMC neuroscience

Hypertonic saline attenuates expression of Notch signaling and proinflammatory mediators in activated microglia in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia and hypoxic BV-2 microglia.


PMID 28288585

Abstract

Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia injury. Notch signaling is recognized as the cell fate signaling but recent evidence indicates that it may be involved in the inflammatory response in activated microglia in cerebral ischemia. Previous report in our group demonstrated hypertonic saline (HS) could reduce the release of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in activated microglia, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have remained uncertain. This study was aimed to explore whether HS would partake in regulating production of proinflammatory mediators through Notch signaling. HS markedly attenuated the expression of Notch-1, NICD, RBP-JK and Hes-1 in activated microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Remarkably, HS also reduced the expression of iNOS in vivo, while the in vitro levels of inflammatory mediators Phos-NF-κB, iNOS and ROS were reduced by HS as well. Our results suggest that HS may suppress of inflammatory mediators following ischemia/hypoxic through the Notch signaling which operates synergistically with NF-κB pathway in activated microglia. Our study has provided the morphological and biochemical evidence that HS can attenuate inflammation reaction and can be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, thus supporting the use of hypertonic saline by clinicians in patients with an ischemia stroke.