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Apocynin attenuates left ventricular remodeling in diabetic rabbits.


PMID 28388570

Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, producing vascular and myocardial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. However, the potential benefits of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling remain unknown. In the diabetic group, interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness were markedly increased compared to control. These changes were accompanied by increased LV cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and greater degree of interstitial fibrosis. NO, myeloperoxidase, and malonaldehyde levels in the serum were significantly increased Moreover, protein expression levels of rac1, nuclear factor-κB, transforming growth factor-β, p38, P-p38, and metalloproteinase-9 were also raised. Apocynin treatment prevented all of these structural, histological and biochemical changes and additionally increased superoxide dismutase levels. Thirty Japanese rabbits were randomized into three groups: control, alloxan-induced diabetes with and without apocynin treatment at 15 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (n = 10 for each group). Echocardiography was performed and hemodynamics were assessed by carotid and LV catheterization. LV cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis were evaluated by histology. Serum nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and activity of LV tissue NADPH oxidases was assessed. Expression of proteins involved in pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic signaling were determined by Western blotting. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase using apocynin is an effective upstream therapy for preventing diabetes-induced adverse remodeling of the left ventricular myocardium.

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295566
Nitric oxide, 98.5%
NO