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Oncotarget

Anti-helminthic niclosamide inhibits Ras-driven oncogenic transformation via activation of GSK-3.


PMID 28418865

Abstract

Despite the importance of Ras oncogenes as a therapeutic target in human cancer, their 'undruggable' tertiary structures limit the effectiveness of anti-Ras drugs. Canonical Wnt signaling contributes to Ras activity by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)-dependent phosphorylation at the C-terminus and subsequent degradation. In the accompanying report, we show that the anti-helminthic niclosamide directly binds to GSK-3 and inhibits Axin functions in colon cancer cells, with reversion of Snail-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In this study, we report that niclosamide effectively suppresses Ras and nuclear NFAT activities regardless of the mutational status of Ras at nM levels. Mechanistically, niclosamide increased endogenous GSK-3 activity, shortening the half-life of mutant Ras. Further, niclosamide activates Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein, a downstream target of Snail repressor. Niclosamide treatment attenuates Ras-induced oncogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide a clinically available repositioned Ras inhibitor as well as a novel strategy for inhibiting the Ras via GSK-3.

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B1686
BIO, ≥98% (HPLC)
C16H10BrN3O2