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Journal of virology

Minute Virus of Mice Inhibits Transcription of the Cyclin B1 Gene during Infection.


PMID 28446681

Abstract

Replication of minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus then exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective parvovirus takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is the establishment of a potent premitotic block, which we previously found to be independent of activated p21 and ATR/Chk1 signaling. This arrest, unlike others reported previously, depends upon a significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA, which precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex function, thus preventing mitotic entry. We show here that while the stability of cyclin B1 RNA was not affected by MVM infection, the production of nascent cyclin B1 RNA was substantially diminished at late times postinfection. Ectopic expression of NS1 alone did not reduce cyclin B1 expression. MVM infection also reduced the levels of cyclin B1 protein, and RNA levels normally increased in response to DNA-damaging reagents. We demonstrated that at times of reduced cyclin B1 expression during infection, there was a significantly reduced occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the essential mitotic transcription factor FoxM1 on the cyclin B1 gene promoter. Additionally, while total FoxM1 levels remained constant, there was a significant decrease of the phosphorylated, likely active, forms of FoxM1. Targeting of a constitutively active FoxM1 construct or the activation domain of FoxM1 to the cyclin B1 gene promoter via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-enzymatically inactive Cas9 in MVM-infected cells increased both cyclin B1 protein and RNA levels, implicating FoxM1 as a critical target for cyclin B1 inhibition during MVM infection.IMPORTANCE Replication of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is establishment of a potent premitotic block. This block depends upon a significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA that precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex functions necessary for mitotic entry. We show that reduced cyclin B1 expression is controlled primarily at the level of transcription initiation. Additionally, the essential mitotic transcription factor FoxM1 and RNA polymerase II were found to occupy the cyclin B1 gene promoter at reduced levels during infection. Recruiting a constitutively active FoxM1 construct or the activation domain of FoxM1 to the cyclin B1 gene promoter via CRISPR-catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) in MVM-infected cells increased expression of both cyclin B1 protein and RNA, implicating FoxM1 as a critical target mediating MVM-induced cyclin B1 inhibition.