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Pharmacotherapy

Bacampicillin hydrochloride: chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical use.


PMID 6762528

Abstract

Bacampicillin hydrochloride is an orally administered ester of ampicillin that is rapidly and completely hydrolyzed in vivo to ampicillin. The most notable advantage of bacampicillin over ampicillin is its superior bioavailability--bacampicillin achieves significantly higher blood and tissue levels and attains peak blood levels more rapidly than equimolar doses of oral ampicillin. In addition, the percentage of an oral dose of ampicillin that is absorbed decreases sharply as the size of the dose is increased from 500 mg to 2 g; this phenomenon is not observed with equipotent doses of bacampicillin. The enhanced absorption of bacampicillin in the upper gastrointestinal tract results in a frequency of diarrhea that appears to be markedly lower than that of ampicillin and similar to that observed with amoxicillin. Apart from the sizable differences between bacampicillin and ampicillin with regard to oral absorption, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic profiles of these two agents are essentially identical. Twice daily dosing (pulse dosing) with bacampicillin has been shown in numerous clinical trials to be of equivalent efficacy to ampicillin given four times daily or amoxicillin given three times daily in the treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, skin and soft tissues, and urinary tract. The unanswered question is whether twice daily ampicillin or amoxicillin would yield similar results.

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B0070000 Bacampicillin hydrochloride, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C21H27N3O7S · HCl