EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP

Hazard assessment of germanium supplements.


PMID 9237323

Abstract

Germanium-containing dietary supplements became popular in the 1970s in Japan and later in other countries, as elixirs for certain diseases (e.g., cancer and AIDS). Germanium is not an essential element. Its acute toxicity is low. However, at least 31 reported human cases linked prolonged intake of germanium products with renal failure and even death. Signs of kidney dysfunction, kidney tubular degeneration, and germanium accumulation were observed. Other adverse effects were anemia, muscle weakness, and peripheral neuropathy. Recovery of renal function is slow and incomplete even long after germanium intake was stopped. The total dose of ingested germanium (as dioxide, carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide, germanium-lactate-citrate, or unspecified forms) varied from 15 to over 300 g; the exposure duration varied from 2 to 36 months. In laboratory animals, elevated germanium in tissues and impaired kidney and liver function were observed in a life-time drinking water (5 ppm germanium) study. Other toxicities associated with ingested germanium products in human cases were also demonstrated in animal studies with germanium dioxide and sometimes other germanium compounds. Based on the evidence of persistent renal toxicity associated with germanium dioxide, the lack of conclusive findings of differential nephrotoxicity of organic germanium compounds, and the possibility of contamination of the organic germanium products with inorganic germanium, it is clear that germanium products present a potential human health hazard.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

263230
Germanium, chips, 99.999% trace metals basis
Ge
203343
Germanium, chips, 99.999% trace metals basis
Ge
327395
Germanium, powder, −100 mesh, ≥99.999% trace metals basis
Ge
203351
Germanium, powder, −100 mesh, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Ge
GF58081451
Germanium, sheet, 50x50mm, thickness 3.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF99720647
Germanium, sheet, 50x50mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF31896366
Germanium, sheet, 7x24mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF46650090
Germanium, disks, 15mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 100%
Ge
GF90754858
Germanium, disks, 20mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, 100%
Ge
GF77697680
Germanium, microfoil, 25x25mm, thinness 0.25μm, specific density 166.3μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 100%
Ge
GF58880739
Germanium, microfoil, 25x25mm, thinness 0.5μm, specific density 333μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 100%
Ge
GF12210624
Germanium, microfoil, 50x50mm, thinness 0.25μm, specific density 166.3μg/cm2, 6 micron aluminum permanent support, 100%
Ge
GF57527219
Germanium, rod, 25mm, diameter 2.0mm, polycrystalline, n-type, 99.999%
Ge
GF65029417
Germanium, rod, 25mm, diameter 5mm, polycrystalline, n-type, 99.999%
Ge
GF14446346
Germanium, rod, 50mm, diameter 5mm, polycrystalline, n-type, 99.999%
Ge
GF04605780
Germanium, rod, 6mm, diameter 6.0mm, single crystal, 100%
Ge
GF09210417
Germanium, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.10mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF00633664
Germanium, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.25mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF09629859
Germanium, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.5mm, single crystal, -111, 100%
Ge
GF45727241
Germanium, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.6mm, single crystal, -111, 100%
Ge
GF44621580
Germanium, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF44356978
Germanium, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, 99.999%
Ge
GF20558022
Germanium, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 3.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF49319815
Germanium, sheet, 4x4mm, thickness 0.05mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge
GF73619107
Germanium, sheet, 50x50mm, thickness 0.5mm, single crystal, 99.999%
Ge
GF37208369
Germanium, sheet, 6x6mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Ge