The Journal of biological chemistry

Photoinduced inactivation of protein kinase C by dequalinium identifies the RACK-1-binding domain as a recognition site.

PMID 9442087


1,1'-Decamethylenebis-4-aminoquinaldinium diiodide (DECA; dequalinium) is an anti-tumor agent and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor whose mechanism of action with PKC is unknown. This study reports that with human PKC alpha, DECA exhibited competitive inhibition (Ki = 11.5 +/- 5 microM) with respect to RACK-1 (receptor for activated C kinase-1), an adaptor protein that has been proposed to bind activated PKC following translocation (Ron, D., Luo, J., and Mochly-Rosen, D. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 24180-24187). When exposed to UV light, DECA covalently modified and irreversibly inhibited PKC (alpha or beta), with IC50 = 7-18 microM. UV/DECA treatment of synthetic peptides modeled after the RACK-1-binding site in the C2 region of PKC beta induced modification of Ser218-Leu-Asn-Pro-Glu-Trp-Asn-Glu-Thr226, but not of a control peptide. This modification occurred at a tryptophan residue (Trp223) that is conserved in all conventional PKC isoforms. In overlay assays with native RACK-1 that had been immobilized on nitrocellulose, UV-treated control PKC alpha bound well to RACK-1, whereas UV/DECA-inactivated PKC alpha had reduced binding activity. The significance of these findings is shown with adenocarcinoma cells, which, when pretreated with 10 microM DECA and UV light, exhibited diminished 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced PKC alpha translocation. Overall, this work identifies DECA as a tool that prevents PKC translocation by inhibiting formation of the PKC.RACK-1 complex.

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Dequalinium chloride hydrate, ≥95% (titration)
C30H40Cl2N4 · xH2O