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Biochimica et biophysica acta

Prostaglandin D2 and sleep regulation.


PMID 9989291

Abstract

Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is recognized as the most potent endogenous sleep-promoting substance whose action mechanism is the best characterized among the various sleep-substances thus far reported. The PGD2 concentration in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shows a circadian change coupled to the sleep-wake cycle and elevates with an increase in sleep propensity during sleep deprivation. Lipocalin-type PGD synthase is dominantly produced in the arachnoid membrane and choroid plexus of the brain, and is secreted into the CSF to become beta-trace, a major protein component of the CSF. The PGD synthase as well as the PGD2 thus produced circulates in the ventricular system, subarachnoidal space, and extracellular space in the brain system. PGD2 then interacts with DP receptors in the chemosensory region of the ventro-medial surface of the rostral basal forebrain to initiate the signal to promote sleep probably via the activation of adenosine A2A receptive neurons. The activation of DP receptors in the PGD2-sensitive chemosensory region results in activation of a cluster of neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area, which may promote sleep by inhibiting tuberomammillary nucleus, the source of the ascending histaminergic arousal system.