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69785 Fluka

DL-Lactic acid

~90% (T)

Synonym: 2-Hydroxypropionic acid

  • CAS Number 50-21-5

  • Linear Formula CH3CH(OH)COOH

  • Molecular Weight 90.08

  •  Beilstein Registry Number 1209341

  •  MDL number MFCD00004520

  • Popular Documents:  FTIR (PDF)  

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Properties

Related Categories Building Blocks, C1 to C5, Carbonyl Compounds, Carboxylic Acids, Chemical Synthesis,
assay   ~90% (T)
impurities   water, residual
refractive index   n20/D 1.425(lit.)
bp   122 °C/15 mmHg(lit.)
density   1.209 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

Description

Packaging

1, 2.5 L in glass bottle

250 mL in glass bottle

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.



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<SC>DL</SC>-Lactic acid

85 % (w/w), syrup

Lactic acid

tested according to Ph.Eur.

Lactic acid

85%, FCC

Lactic acid

meets USP testing specifications

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS05  GHS05
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
Xi
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
26-39
WGK Germany 
2
Flash Point(F) 
235.4 °F
Flash Point(C) 
113 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Lactic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Cancer-generated lactic acid: a regulatory, immunosuppressive metabolite? Choi SY, Collins CC, Gout PW, et al. J. Pathol. 230(4), 350-5, (2013)

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Perspectives on the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cheese flavor development. Steele J, Broadbent J, and Kok J Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 24(2), 135-41, (2013)

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From physiology to systems metabolic engineering for the production of biochemicals by lactic acid bacteria. Gaspar P, Carvalho AL, Vinga S, et al. Biotechnol. Adv. 31(6), 764-88, (2013)

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Performance of point-of-care diagnostics for glucose, lactate, and hemoglobin in the management of severe malaria in a resource-constrained hospital in Uganda. Hawkes M, Conroy AL, Opoka RO, et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90(4), 605-8, (2014)

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Cartilage repair: 2013 Asian update. Hui JH, Goyal D, Nakamura N, et al. Arthroscopy 29(12), 1992-2000, (2013)

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JMJD5 regulates PKM2 nuclear translocation and reprograms HIF-1α-mediated glucose metabolism. Wang HJ, Hsieh YJ, Cheng WC, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(1), 279-84, (2014)

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Engineering strategies aimed at control of acidification rate of lactic acid bacteria. Martinussen J, Solem C, Holm AK, et al. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 24(2), 124-9, (2013)

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Strategies to improve the bacteriocin protection provided by lactic acid bacteria. O' Shea EF, Cotter PD, Ross RP, et al. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 24(2), 130-4, (2013)

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Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes. Abdel-Rahman MA, Tashiro Y, and Sonomoto K Biotechnol. Adv. 31(6), 877-902, (2013)

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Lactic acidosis. Igah I, Ihediwa U, and Uzoigwe CE N. Engl. J. Med. 372(11), 1077, (2015)

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Lactic acidosis. Bellomo R, Marik P, and Kellum JA N. Engl. J. Med. 372(11), 1076, (2015)

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Lactic acidosis. Kraut JA and Madias NE N. Engl. J. Med. 372(11), 1078-9, (2015)

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Encephalopathy and high anion gap metabolic acidosis: an unusual herald of buried bumper syndrome. Lopez EM, Ghetmiri E, Gettle LM, et al. Lancet 385(9969), 744, (2015)

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Lactate in sepsis. Gomez H and Kellum JA JAMA 313(2), 194-5, (2015)

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Clinical predictors of a low central venous oxygen saturation after major surgery: a prospective prevalence study. Litton E, Silbert B, and Ho KM Anaesth. Intensive Care 43(1), 59-65, (2015)

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Attenuation of inflammatory response by 25- hydroxyvitamin D3-loaded polylactic acid microspheres in treatment of periodontitis in diabetic rats. Li H, Li B, Wang Q, et al. Chin. J. Dent. Res. 17(2), 91-8, (2014)

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Current status of bioresorbable scaffolds in the treatment of coronary artery disease. Wiebe J, Nef HM, and Hamm CW J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(23), 2541-51, (2014)

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Lactic acidosis. Kraut JA and Madias NE N. Engl. J. Med. 371(24), 2309-19, (2014)

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Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels. Lutas A, Birnbaumer L, and Yellen G J. Neurosci. 34(49), 16336-47, (2014)

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Modeling alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis in the mouse: a role for lactate in the tumor microenvironment. Goodwin ML, Jin H, Straessler K, et al. Cancer Cell 26(6), 851-62, (2014)

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A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Chang J, Jung HJ, Jeong SH, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 455(3-4), 290-7, (2014)

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Mosapride citrate improves nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with increased fecal lactic acid bacteria and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 level in a rodent model. Okubo H, Nakatsu Y, Sakoda H, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 308(2), G151-8, (2015)

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ALPHA glycolytic vasculogenesis better correlates with MRI and CT imaging techniques than the traditional oxygen vasculogenesis theory. Haaga JR, Haaga R, Patel I, et al. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 203(6), W724-34, (2014)

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Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections that may influence transmission of cell-associated HIV. Cone RA J. Infect. Dis. 210 Suppl 3, S616-21, (2014)

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Alendronate-eluting polyglucose-lignol composite (POGLICO): a new biomaterial for fracture fixating implants. Aspenberg P Acta Orthop. 85(6), 687-90, (2014)

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Lactate minimum test during incremental running after a submaximal cycling exercise: a novel test with training applications for triathletes. Vicente-Campous D, Barbado C, Nuñez MJ, et al. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 54(6), 742-9, (2014)

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Glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway after human traumatic brain injury: microdialysis studies using 1,2-(13)C2 glucose. Jalloh I, Carpenter KL, Grice P, et al. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 35(1), 111-20, (2015)

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Monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4: expression and regulation by PPARα in ovine ruminal epithelial cells. Benesch F, Dengler F, Masur F, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 307(12), R1428-37, (2014)

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The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth. Witkin SS BJOG 122(2), 213-8, (2015)

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Stereospecific mechanism of DJ-1 glyoxalases inferred from their hemithioacetal-containing crystal structures. Choi D, Kim J, Ha S, et al. FEBS J. 281(24), 5447-62, (2014)

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Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal. Chang CH, Chen YS, Lee TT, et al. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 65(Pt 1), 101-6, (2015)

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Spectroscopy of reperfused tissue after stroke reveals heightened metabolism in patients with good clinical outcomes. Bivard A, Krishnamurthy V, Stanwell P, et al. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34(12), 1944-50, (2014)

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Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood. Gaspar P, Al-Bayati FA, Andrew PW, et al. Infect. Immun. 82(12), 5099-109, (2014)

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Gastric pneumatosis: Laboratory and imaging findings associated with mortality in adults. Spektor M, Chernyak V, McCann TE, et al. Clin. Radiol. 69(11), e445-9, (2014)

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Influence of l-carnosine on pro-antioxidant status in elite kayakers and canoeists. Slowinska-Lisowska M, Zembron-Lacny A, Rynkiewicz M, et al. Acta Physiol. Hung. 101(4), 461-70, (2014)

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The utility of scoring systems in critically ill cirrhotic patients admitted to a general intensive care unit. Emerson P, McPeake J, O'Neill A, et al. J. Crit. Care 29(6), 1131.e1-6, (2014)

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Dicer mediating the expression of miR-143 and miR-155 regulates hexokinase II associated cellular response to hypoxia. Yao M, Wang X, Tang Y, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 307(11), L829-37, (2014)

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Multi-lineage MSC differentiation via engineered morphogen fields. Arany PR, Huang GX, Gadish O, et al. J. Dent. Res. 93(12), 1250-7, (2014)

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Effects of pyruvate-enriched peritoneal dialysis solution on intestinal barrier in peritoneal resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock in rats. Lu XG, Kang X, Zhou FQ, et al. J. Surg. Res. 193(1), 368-76, (2015)

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17α-Ethynylestradiol-3-sulfate treatment of severe blood loss in rats. Hubbard W, Keith J, Berman J, et al. J. Surg. Res. 193(1), 355-60, (2015)

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Randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide for the treatment of microcirculatory dysfunction in patients with sepsis*. Trzeciak S, Glaspey LJ, Dellinger RP, et al. Crit. Care Med. 42(12), 2482-92, (2014)

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Keeping those telomeres short! an innovative intratumoral long-term drug delivery system. Laster BH, Isaacson C, Perets E, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 141(1), 23-34, (2015)

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[Acute mesenteric ischemia emergency. The pitfalls of a false relief]. MMW Fortschr. Med. 156(8), 20, (2014)

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Performance assessment of two-stage anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes. Bo Z and Pin-Jing H Environ. Technol. 35(9-12), 1277-85, (2014)

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Sorption and solubility of self-etching adhesives immersed in organic acids present in oral biofilm. da Silva Nunes Gomes Miranda ME, de Oliveira Scudine KG, Noronha Filho JD, et al. J. Adhes. Dent. 16(2), 115-22, (2014)

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[A man in his 70s found confused on his training ride]. Salomonsen M, Hardersen R, Carlsson M, et al. Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. 133(23-24), 2483-7, (2013)

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[The metabolic abnormalities in plaques of multiple sclerosis patients - the assessment in proton MR spectroscopy (1HMRS)]. Szafirska M, Urbanik A, and Róg T Prz. Lek. 70(5), 328-34, (2013)

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[Proton spectroscopy of the lower leg muscles before and after exercise]. Karcz P and Urbanik A Prz. Lek. 70(5), 286-92, (2013)

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Ischemic stroke penumbra and extracorporeal ozone treatment. Wasser G Neuroradiol. J. 26(3), 243-51, (2013)

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[Construction of cell surface display system in lactic acid bacteria by using ice nucleation protein]. Zhang Q, Hou H, Lu Y, et al. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(4), 397-402, (2013)

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[Production of L-lactic acid from pentose by a genetically engineered Escherichia coli]. Zhao J, Xu L, Wang Y, et al. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(4), 328-37, (2013)

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[The effectiveness of certain magnesium salts in nephrolithiasis caused by the use of sodium oxalate and celecoxib]. Spasov AA, Iezhitsa IN, Kharitonova MV, et al. Urologiia. (1), 29-34, (2013)

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Neuromonitoring with microdialysis in severe traumatic brain injury patients. Sanchez JJ, Bidot CJ, O'Phelan K, et al. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 118, 223-7, (2013)

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Towards metagenome-scale models for industrial applications--the case of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Branco dos Santos F, de Vos WM, and Teusink B Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 24(2), 200-6, (2013)

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[Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria]. Livins'ka OP, Harmasheva IL, and Kovalenko NK Mikrobiol. Z. 74(4), 87-94, (2012)

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Comparison of biochemical stress indicators in juvenile captive estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) following physical restraint or chemical restraint by midazolam injection. Olsson A and Phalen D J. Wildl. Dis. 49(3), 560-7, (2013)

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Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation. Di Cagno R, Coda R, De Angelis M, et al. Food Microbiol. 33(1), 1-10, (2013)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Regional blood acidification enhances extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: a 48-hour animal study. Zanella A, Mangili P, Redaelli S, et al. Anesthesiology 120(2), 416-24, (2014)

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Improved biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) orv and poly-L-lactic acid blended with nanoparticulate amorphous calcium phosphate in vascular stent applications. Zheng X, Wang Y, Lan Z, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 900-10, (2014)

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From heart-rate data to training quantification: a comparison of 3 methods of training-intensity analysis. Sylta O, Tønnessen E, and Seiler S Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 9(1), 100-7, (2014)

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Bi-layer scaffold of chitosan/PCL-nanofibrous mat and PLLA-microporous disc for skin tissue engineering. Lou T, Leung M, Wang X, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 1105-13, (2014)

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Enhanced cellular uptake and biodistribution of a synthetic cannabinoid loaded in surface-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles. Durán-Lobato M, Muñoz-Rubio I, Holgado MA, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 1068-79, (2014)

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Fabrication of seamless electrospun collagen/PLGA conduits whose walls comprise highly longitudinal aligned nanofibers for nerve regeneration. Ouyang Y, Huang C, Zhu Y, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 931-43, (2013)

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Direct evidence for activity-dependent glucose phosphorylation in neurons with implications for the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle. Patel AB, Lai JC, Chowdhury GM, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(14), 5385-90, (2014)

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Sodium bicarbonate and high-intensity-cycling capacity: variability in responses. Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, et al. Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 9(4), 627-32, (2014)

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Hepatocellular toxicity of benzbromarone: effects on mitochondrial function and structure. Felser A, Lindinger PW, Schnell D, et al. Toxicology 324, 136-46, (2014)

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Biocompatibility and bone-repairing effects: comparison between porous poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) scaffolds. Zong C, Qian X, Tang Z, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 1091-104, (2014)

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Optimized PLGA nanoparticle platform for orally dosed trans-resveratrol with enhanced bioavailability potential. Singh G and Pai RS Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(5), 647-59, (2014)

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Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Østergaard NB, Eklöw A, and Dalgaard P Int. J. Food Microbiol. 188, 15-25, (2014)

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Assessment of high and low enterotoxin A producing Staphylococcus aureus strains on pork sausage. Zeaki N, Cao R, Skandamis PN, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 182-183, 44-50, (2014)

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Poly(lactic acid) microparticles coated with insulin-containing layer-by-layer films and their pH-dependent insulin release. Hashide R, Yoshida K, Hasebe Y, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(4), 3100-5, (2014)

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Tumor microenvironment and metabolic synergy in breast cancers: critical importance of mitochondrial fuels and function. Martinez-Outschoorn U, Sotgia F, and Lisanti MP Semin. Oncol. 41(2), 195-216, (2014)

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Intravitreal administration of dexamethasone-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles for the treatment of posterior segment diseases. Yang C, Jiang L, Bu S, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 1617-23, (2013)

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Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products. Capozzi V, Russo P, Dueñas MT, et al. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 96(6), 1383-94, (2012)

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Cardiovascular responses to rowing on a novel ergometer designed for both resistance and aerobic training in space. Tesch PA, Pozzo M, Ainegren M, et al. Aviat. Space. Environ. Med. 84(5), 516-21, (2013)

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Comparison of energy metabolism in liver grafts from donors after circulatory death and donors after brain death during cold storage and reperfusion. Perera MT, Richards DA, Silva MA, et al. Br. J. Surg. 101(7), 775-83, (2014)

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PI3K-Akt signaling activates mTOR-mediated epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal culture model of post-traumatic epilepsy. Berdichevsky Y, Dryer AM, Saponjian Y, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(21), 9056-67, (2013)

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Cytotoxic enhancement of hexapeptide-conjugated micelles in EGFR high-expressed cancer cells. Lin WJ and Kao LT Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(10), 1537-50, (2014)

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Rate of increase in serum lactate level risk-stratifies infants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Schumacher KR, Reichel RA, Vlasic JR, et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148(2), 589-95, (2014)

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Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 23-2013. A 54-year-old woman with abdominal pain, vomiting, and confusion. Kalantar-Zadeh K, Uppot RN, and Lewandrowski KB N. Engl. J. Med. 369(4), 374-82, (2013)

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Resveratrol suppresses cancer cell glucose uptake by targeting reactive oxygen species-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation. Jung KH, Lee JH, Thien Quach CH, et al. J. Nucl. Med. 54(12), 2161-7, (2013)

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Analysis of perfusates during hypothermic machine perfusion by NMR spectroscopy: a potential tool for predicting kidney graft outcome. Bon D, Claire B, Thuillier R, et al. Transplantation 97(8), 810-6, (2014)

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PLGA nanoparticles as delivery systems for protoporphyrin IX in topical PDT: cutaneous penetration of photosensitizer observed by fluorescence microscopy. da Silva CL, Del Ciampo JO, Rossetti FC, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(10), 6533-40, (2013)

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Engineered nanomedicine for myeloma and bone microenvironment targeting. Swami A, Reagan MR, Basto P, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(28), 10287-92, (2014)

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miR-181a mediates metabolic shift in colon cancer cells via the PTEN/AKT pathway. Wei Z, Cui L, Mei Z, et al. FEBS Lett. 588(9), 1773-9, (2014)

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Electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) used as scaffold in drug delivery of extract of Sedum dendroideum. Santos LG, Oliveira DC, Santos MS, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(7), 4694-702, (2013)

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The reliability of a 30-s sprint test on the Wattbike cycle ergometer. Driller MW, Argus CK, and Shing CM Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 8(4), 379-83, (2013)

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Ultrasonic monitoring of malolactic fermentation in red wines. Novoa-Díaz D, Rodríguez-Nogales JM, Fernández-Fernández E, et al. Ultrasonics 54(6), 1575-80, (2014)

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Novel biodegradable drug-eluting stent composed of poly-L-lactic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles demonstrates improved structural and functional performance for coronary artery disease. Lan Z, Lyu Y, Xiao J, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 1194-204, (2014)

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Silymarin encapsulated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles: a prospective candidate for prostate cancer therapy. Snima KS, Arunkumar P, Jayakumar R, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 559-70, (2014)

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Docetaxel-loaded polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: formulation, physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies. Pradhan R, Poudel BK, Ramasamy T, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(8), 5948-56, (2013)

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Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. Zendo T Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 77(5), 893-9, (2013)

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Engineering the antioxidative properties of lactic acid bacteria for improving its robustness. Zhang Y and Li Y Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 24(2), 142-7, (2013)

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Preparation, characterization and uptake of PEG-coated, muco-inert nanoparticles in HGC-27 cells, a mucin-producing, gastric-cancer cell line. Lin D, Li G, Qin L, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 2017-23, (2013)

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A comparative study of low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with or without chemical peeling using Jessner's solution in melasma patients. Lee DB, Suh HS, and Choi YS J. Dermatolog. Treat. 25(6), 523-8, (2014)

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Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria. Pophaly SD, Singh R, Pophaly SD, et al. Microb. Cell Fact. 11, 114, (2012)

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Low and high dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy affect materno-fetal glucose metabolism in pigs. Metges CC, Görs S, Lang IS, et al. J. Nutr. 144(2), 155-63, (2014)

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The effects of tranexamic acid and prothrombin complex concentrate on the coagulopathy of trauma: an in vitro analysis of the impact of severe acidosis. Porta CR, Nelson D, McVay D, et al. J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 75(6), 954-60, (2013)

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Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for MRI-based cell tracking. Bennewitz MF, Williams SS, Nkansah MK, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 3778-83, (2013)

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Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN causes a tumor-promoting metabolic state. Li Z, Li J, Bi P, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(19), 3642-61, (2014)

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Goal directed fluid resuscitation decreases time for lactate clearance and facilitates early fascial closure in damage control surgery. Ghneim MH, Regner JL, Jupiter DC, et al. Am. J. Surg. 206(6), 995-9; discussion 999-1000, (2013)

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A decade of experience with injectable poly-L-lactic acid: a focus on safety. Bartus C, William Hanke C, and Daro-Kaftan E Dermatol. Surg. 39(5), 698-705, (2013)

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Quality of chest compressions during compression-only CPR: a comparative analysis following the 2005 and 2010 American Heart Association guidelines. Yang Z, Li H, Yu T, et al. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 32(1), 50-4, (2014)

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Nanoparticle delivery of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene to adipose-derived stem cells promotes articular cartilage repair in vitro and in vivo. Shi J, Zhang X, Zhu J, et al. Arthroscopy 29(12), 2001-2011.e2, (2013)

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Development of a phospholipidosis database and predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Naomi L Kruhlak et al Toxicol. Mech. Methods 18, 217-27, (2008)

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A patient with acute liver failure and extreme hypoglycaemia with lactic acidosis who was not in a coma: causes and consequences of lactate-protected hypoglycaemia. Oldenbeuving G, McDonald JR, Goodwin MI, et al. Anaesth. Intensive Care 42(4), 507-11, (2014)

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High thick layer-by-layer 3D multiscale fibrous scaffolds for enhanced cell infiltration and it's potential in tissue engineering. Shalumon KT, Chennazhi KP, Nair SV, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 2117-22, (2013)

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Acute glutathione depletion induces hepatic methylglyoxal accumulation by impairing its detoxification to D-lactate. Masterjohn C, Mah E, Park Y, et al. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood.) 238(4), 360-9, (2013)

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The free radical scavenger, edaravone, ameliorates delayed neuropsychological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in rabbits. Qingsong W, Yeming G, Xuechun L, et al. Undersea Hyperb. Med. 40(3), 223-9, (2013)

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Electrochemical sensing of H2O2 by the modified electrode with pd nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-g-poly(lactic acid). Han HS, You JM, Jeong H, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 4050-7, (2014)

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Development and optimization of doxorubicin loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanobubbles for drug delivery into HeLa cells. Deng L, Li L, Yang H, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(4), 2947-54, (2014)

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Gas dialysis: a new perspective on extracorporeal ventilation. Blum JM Anesthesiology 120(2), 266-7, (2014)

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Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism. Moreira L, Araújo I, Costa T, et al. Exp. Cell Res. 319(12), 1784-95, (2013)

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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein stimulates macrophage 18F-FDG uptake via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation through Nox2-dependent reactive oxygen species generation. Lee SJ, Thien Quach CH, Jung KH, et al. J. Nucl. Med. 55(10), 1699-705, (2014)

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Excitotoxicity and metabolic changes in association with infarct progression. Woitzik J, Pinczolits A, Hecht N, et al. Stroke 45(4), 1183-5, (2014)

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A polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine for inhibiting cancer migration followed by photo-triggered killing. Ramachandran R, Malarvizhi GL, Chandran P, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 1401-15, (2014)

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Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate to aquatic algae. Chen H, Zou Y, Zhang L, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 154, 114-20, (2014)

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Development of novel nanoparticle for bone cancer. Patricio BF, Albernaz Mde S, Sarcinelli MA, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 1242-8, (2014)

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Three monofunctional copolymers into one multifunctional Micelle: Part 1. Preparation and properties. Yu R, Zhao H, Zhu X, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 795-802, (2014)

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Blood lactate level during extracorporeal life support as a surrogate marker for survival. Park SJ, Kim SP, Kim JB, et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148(2), 714-20, (2014)

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Enhanced performance of a three-zone simulated moving bed chromatography for separation of succinic acid and lactic acid by simultaneous use of port-location rearrangement and partial-feeding. Mun S J. Chromatogr. A 1350, 72-82, (2014)

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Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion. Gurtler JB, Bailey RB, Jin TZ, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 189, 113-8, (2014)

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Sustained delivery of rhBMP-2 by means of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres: cranial bone regeneration without heterotopic ossification or craniosynostosis. Wink JD, Gerety PA, Sherif RD, et al. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 134(1), 51-9, (2014)

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Electrospun collagen/poly(L-lactic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) hybrid nanofibrous membranes combining with sandwich construction model for cartilage tissue engineering. He X, Fu W, Feng B, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 3818-25, (2013)

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Enhanced attachment of human osteoblasts on NH3-treated poly(L-lactic acid) membranes for guided bone regeneration. Byeon JH, Kim SG, Son JS, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 1691-5, (2013)

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Three-dimensional modeling of metabolic species transport in the cornea with a hydrogel intrastromal inlay. Pinsky PM Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3093-106, (2014)

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Evaluation of the lactate-to-N-acetyl-aspartate ratio defined with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging before radiation therapy as a new predictive marker of the site of relapse in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Deviers A, Ken S, Filleron T, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 90(2), 385-93, (2014)

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Hepatic glucose uptake and disposition during short-term high-fat vs. high-fructose feeding. Coate KC, Kraft G, Moore MC, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(2), E151-60, (2014)

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Mycobacterium mucogenicum infection following a cosmetic procedure with poly-L-lactic acid. Fiore R, Miller R, and Coffman SM Journal. of. Drugs in. Dermatology. 12(3), 353-7, (2013)

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Long-range correlations and complex regulation of pacing in long-distance road racing. Hoos O, Boeselt T, Steiner M, et al. Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 9(3), 544-53, (2014)

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Acute physiological response to aerobic short-interval training in trained runners. Wallner D, Simi H, Tschakert G, et al. Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 9(4), 661-6, (2014)

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Techniques for the optimization of facial and nonfacial volumization with injectable poly-l-lactic acid. Lorenc ZP Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 36(5), 1222-9, (2012)

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LUD, a new protein domain associated with lactate utilization. Hwang WC, Bakolitsa C, Punta M, et al. BMC Bioinformatics 14, 341, (2013)

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Shelf-life extension of vacuum-packaged meat from pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) by lactic acid treatment. Pfeifer A, Smulders FJ, and Paulsen P Poult. Sci. 93(7), 1818-24, (2014)

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Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 contributes to the recirculation of gluconeogenic precursors during postexercise glycogen recovery. Herbst EA, MacPherson RE, LeBlanc PJ, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 306(2), R102-7, (2014)

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Sydnone SYD-1 affects the metabolic functions of isolated rat hepatocytes. Brandt AP, Pires Ado R, Rocha ME, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 218, 107-14, (2014)

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Predictors of neurologic outcome in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using classification and regression tree analysis. Kaji AH, Hanif AM, Bosson N, et al. Am. J. Cardiol. 114(7), 1024-8, (2014)

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Effects of supplemental GAKIC ingestion on resistance training performance in trained men. Wax B, Kavazis AN, Brown SP, et al. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 84(2), 245-51, (2013)

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Lactic acid bacteria as oral delivery systems for biomolecules. Berlec A, Ravnikar M, and Strukelj B Pharmazie 67(11), 891-8, (2012)

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Ovarian tumor-initiating cells display a flexible metabolism. Anderson AS, Roberts PC, Frisard MI, et al. Exp. Cell Res. 328(1), 44-57, (2014)

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Utilization of by-products derived from bioethanol production process for cost-effective production of lactic acid. Moon SK, Wee YJ, and Choi GW J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 41(10), 1525-31, (2014)

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Integrative metabolome and transcriptome profiling reveals discordant glycolysis process between osteosarcoma and normal osteoblastic cells. Chen K, Zhu C, Cai M, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 140(10), 1715-21, (2014)

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Impact of poly(L-lactide) versus poly(L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) on biological characteristics of fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Scislowska-Czarnecka A, Pamula E, and Kolaczkowska E Folia Biol. (Krakow.) 61(1-2), 11-24, (2013)

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Comparison of the therapeutic effect between sodium bicarbonate and insulin on acute propafenone toxicity. Yi HY, Lee JY, Lee WS, et al. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 32(10), 1200-7, (2014)

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Prognostic use of lactate to predict inpatient mortality in acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Shah A, Chisolm-Straker M, Alexander A, et al. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 32(7), 752-5, (2014)

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A randomised clinical study to evaluate experimental children's toothpastes in an in-situ palatal caries model in children aged 11-14 years. Newby EE, Martinez-Mier EA, Hara A, et al. Int. Dent. J. 63 Suppl 2, 31-8, (2013)

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Staphylococcal biofilm formation as affected by type acidulant. Nostro A, Cellini L, Ginestra G, et al. APMIS 122(7), 648-53, (2014)

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Findings and patterns on MRI and MR spectroscopy in neonates after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treatment. Thakur NH, Spencer AJ, Kilbride HW, et al. South. Med. J. 106(6), 350-5, (2013)

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Blood lactate level responses and comparison with submaximal running and roller skiing in cross-country skiers. Cetin E, Bilgin U, Schurmann BC, et al. Coll. Antropol. 37(3), 867-70, (2013)

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Glucose dynamics can evaluate state of anaerobic fitness in wrestling?! Karnincić H Coll. Antropol. 37 Suppl 2, 101-6, (2013)

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Surgical delivery of drug releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) paste with in vivo effects against glioblastoma. Smith SJ, Rahman CV, Clarke PA, et al. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 96(7), 495-501, (2014)

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Antibacterial activity of selected standard strains of lactic acid bacteria producing bacteriocins--pilot study. Bodaszewska-Lubas M, Brzychczy-Wloch M, Gosiewski T, et al. Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. (Online) 66, 787-94, (2012)

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Poly-L-lactic acid facial rejuvenation: an alternative to autologous fat? Buckingham ED Facial Plast. Surg. Clin. North Am. 21(2), 271-84, (2013)

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In-silico identification and characterization of organic and inorganic chemical stress responding genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Barozai MY, Bashir F, Muzaffar S, et al. Gene 550(1), 74-80, (2014)

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Fluoride dentifrice containing xylitol: in vitro root caries formation. García-Godoy F, Kao LM, Flaitz CM, et al. Am. J. Dent. 26(1), 56-60, (2013)

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Dynamics of hydrogen-producing bacteria in a repeated batch fermentation process using lake sediment as inoculum. Romano S, Paganin P, Varrone C, et al. Arch. Microbiol. 196(2), 97-107, (2014)

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Gassericin A: a circular bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus gasseri. Pandey N, Malik RK, Kaushik JK, et al. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 29(11), 1977-87, (2013)

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Evaluation of a novel decorporation approach to prevent radioactivity uptake by using acidosis in experimental animals. Saxena P, Nishad DK, Singh T, et al. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 52(8), 793-8, (2014)

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Preparation and properties of a pH sensitive carrier based on three kinds of polymer blend to control the release of 5-amino salicylic acid. Dong Y, Zhou Z, Ding H, et al. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(8), 960-7, (2014)

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Formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: optimization of technique and process variables. Mobarak DH, Salah S, and Elkheshen SA Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(7), 891-900, (2014)

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A prospective, randomised trial comparing the use of absorbable and metallic screws in the fixation of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries: mid-term follow-up. Sun H, Luo CF, Zhong B, et al. Bone Joint J. 96-B(4), 548-54, (2014)

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The target of metformin in type 2 diabetes. Ferrannini E N. Engl. J. Med. 371(16), 1547-8, (2014)

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Patient factors associated with identification of sepsis in the ED. Wilson DK, Polito CC, Haber MJ, et al. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 32(10), 1280-1, (2014)

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Re: lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality. Odom SR J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 77(1), 183-4, (2014)

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Lactate metabolism in trauma. Goodwin ML and Rothberg DL J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 77(1), 182-3, (2014)

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Serum lactate increase during acute asthma treatment: a new piece of the puzzle. Rodrigo GJ Chest 145(1), 6-7, (2014)

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The authors reply. Monnet X and Teboul JL Crit. Care Med. 41(12), e490, (2013)

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Meaning of the venoarterial carbon dioxide difference/arterial-venous oxygen difference ratio. Berthet M and Durand M Crit. Care Med. 41(12), e489-90, (2013)

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Perplexity of a fungus in the sinus. Dasararaju R, Many WJ, and Samant JS Am. J. Med. 127(1), e1-2, (2014)

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Lactate and the mechanism of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes. Arbeláez AM and Cryer PE Diabetes 62(12), 3999-4001, (2013)

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Reply: from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis to cystic fibrosis: got lactate? Kottmann R, Phipps R, and Sime P Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 188(1), 111-2, (2013)

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Sweet and sour β-cells: ROS and Hif1α induce Warburg-like lactate production during type 2 diabetes. Cantley J and Biden TJ Diabetes 62(6), 1823-5, (2013)

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The venous saturation paradox: measure it early, but leave it alone afterward*. Amaral AC Crit. Care Med. 41(6), 1572-3, (2013)

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Central venous oxygen saturation: not easily replaced*. Nguyen HB Crit. Care Med. 41(6), 1570-1, (2013)

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Merck 14,5336

Beil. 3,268 / Beil. 3,IV,633

Aldrich MSDS 1, 1131:A / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 2061:D / FT-IR 1 (1), 517:C / IR-Spectra (3), 303:C / IR-Spectra (2), 273:H / RegBook 1 (1), 565:E / RegBook 92 (1), 565:E / Sax 6, 1681 / Structure Index 1, 80:A:8

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