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G2536 Sigma

Ganciclovir

≥99% (HPLC), powder

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Description

Application

Ganciclovir is used in molecular biology for selection against random recombination events when homologous recombination of a gene of interest is required.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Ganciclovir is a pro-drug nucleoside analog that is activated by phosphorylation. It is useful in the study of gene therapy in cancer research.
Upon expression of a viral suicide gene encoding thymidine kinase, the non-toxic pro-drug is converted to a phosphorylated active analog and is incorporated into the DNA of replicating eukaryotic cells, causing death of the malignant dividing cell.1 The cell cycle is irreversibly arrested at the G2-M checkpoint.2 Gap junction involvement in the ganciclovir bystander effect has been studied.3 Ganciclovir has been used to study loss of telomeres4 and to evaluate sensitivity of viruses to antiviral treatments.5

Features and Benefits

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

This compound was developed by Roche. To browse the list of other pharma-developed compounds and Approved Drugs/Drug Candidates, click here.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Price and Availability


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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS08  GHS08
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
53-36/37/39-45
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
MF8407000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

A functional assay for microRNA target identification and validation

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small RNA molecules that regulate numerous critical cellular processes and bind to partially complementary sequences resulting in down-regulation of their target gene...
Joop Gäken, Azim M. Mohamedali, Jie Jiang, Farooq Malik, Doris Stangl, Alexander E. Smith, Constantinos Chronis, Austin G. Kulasekararaj, Nicolas S. B. Thomas, Farzin farzaneh, Mahavash Tavassoli, and Ghulam J. Maufi
Nucleic Acids Research 2012, 1-9
Keywords: Cellular processes, Sequences, Western blot

DNA Damage and Repair

Damage to cellular DNA is involved in mutagenesis and the development of cancer. The DNA in a human cell undergoes several thousand to a million damaging events per day, generated by both external (e...
BioFiles 2007, 2.4, 20.
Keywords: AGE, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Applications, Biochemistry, Cancer, Carcinogens, Catalysis, Clinical, DNA replication, Deaminations, Environmental, Error, Events, Gene expression, Metabolites, Methylations, Mutagens, Oxidations, Polymorphisms, Rearrangements, Recombination, Sequences, Substitutions, Transcription, Type

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for ADME/Tox

A significant number of drugs that fail in clinical trials have been associated with safety issues, including unexpected drug-drug interactions (DDI) or lack of efficacy due to poor pharmacokinetics....
Keywords: Absorption, Bioactive small molecules, Clinical, Metabolism

The MISSION® Target ID Library for Human miRNA Target Identification and Discovery

One of the main problems miRNA researchers face today is global identification of gene targets that are functionally regulated by their miRNA of interest. Unfortunately, bioinformatic predictions are...
Keywords: AGE, Amplification, Apoptosis, Cancer, Cell culture, Cloning, Degradations, Detection methods, Digestions, Electrophoresis, Environmental, Fractionation, Gel electrophoresis, Gene expression, Genomics, Immunoprecipitation, Melting, Methods, Microarray Analysis, Polymerase chain reaction, Polymerase chain reaction - quantitative, Purification, RNA immunoprecipitation, Reductions, Sequences, Sequencing, Support, Transfection, Western blot, transformation

Related Content

Genome-wide Screen for miRNA Targets Using the MISSION® Target ID Library [VIDEO]

The MISSION Target ID Library is designed to assist in discovery and identification of microRNA (miRNA) targets. The MISSION Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide cDNA library cloned into...
Keywords: PAGE, Sequencing

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

1. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of ganciclovir triphosphate in bystander cells cocultured with herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase-expressing human glioblastoma cells. Rubsam, L.Z., et al. Cancer Res. 59, 675, (1999)

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2. Irreversible G2-M arrest and cytoskeletal reorganization induced by cytotoxic nucleoside analogues. Halloran, P.J., and Fenton, R.G. Cancer Res. 58, 3855-3865, (1998)

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3. Role of connexin (gap junction) genes in cell growth control and carcinogenesis. Yamasaki, H., et al. C. R. Acad. Sci. III 322, 151-159, (1999)

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4. Chromosome healing in mouse embryonic stem cells. Sprung, C.N., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96, 6781-6786, (1999)

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5. Hepatitis B virus variants with lamivudine-related mutations in the DNA polymerase and the 'a' epitope of the surface antigen are sensitive to ganciclovir. Oon, C.J., et al. Antiviral Res. 41, 113-118, (1999)

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Human herpes virus 8-encoded thymidine kinase and phosphotransferase homologues confer sensitivity to ganciclovir. Cannon, J.S., et al. J. Virol. 73, 4786-4793, (1999)

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Ganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients: is there a role for clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring? Scott JC, Partovi N, and Ensom MH Ther. Drug Monit. 26(1), 68-77, (2004)

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Update in management of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection. Avery RK Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21(4), 433-7, (2008)

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Oral valganciclovir versus ganciclovir as delayed pre-emptive therapy for patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant: a pilot trial (04-0274) and review of the literature. Chawla JS, Ghobadi A, Mosley J, et al. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 14(3), 259-67, (2012)

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Suicide gene therapy with Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and ganciclovir is enhanced with connexins to improve gap junctions and bystander effects. Nicholas TW, Read SB, Burrows FJ, et al. Histol. Histopathol. 18(2), 495-507, (2003)

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Valganciclovir for symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease. Kimberlin DW, Jester PM, Sánchez PJ, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 372(10), 933-43, (2015)

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Valganciclovir for the prevention of complications of late cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a randomized trial. Boeckh M, Nichols WG, Chemaly RF, et al. Ann. Intern. Med. 162(1), 1-10, (2015)

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Conjunctival pseudotumor caused by herpes simplex virus infection. Vora GK, Marr B, Cummings TJ, et al. JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 105-7, (2015)

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Clinical features and management of cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis: analysis of 106 cases from the Japan corneal endotheliitis study. Koizumi N, Inatomi T, Suzuki T, et al. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(1), 54-8, (2015)

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Increased osteoprotegerin predicts poor virological outcome during anticytomegalovirus therapy in solid organ transplant recipients. Ueland T, Rollag H, Hartmann A, et al. Transplantation 99(1), 100-5, (2015)

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[Questionable effect of antiviral therapy in malignant brain tumors]. Kinhult S, Werlenius K, Hallbeck AL, et al. Lakartidningen. 111(18-19), 809, (2014)

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Howell-Jolly body-like inclusions in immunocompromised patients with antiviral treatment. Morales-Indiano C, Arenillas Rocha L, Mas Bosch V, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 2091-2, (2014)

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Symptomatic primary Cytomegalovirus infection in a HIV-positive pregnant woman. Bergin S, Ferguson W, Corcoran S, et al. Int. J. STD AIDS 25(14), 1041-3, (2014)

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[New paradigm of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ganciclovir (GCV)]. Nawa A, Ishida D, and ChenHong L Nihon Rinsho. 64 Suppl 3, 345-9, (2006)

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Suicide gene therapy mediated by the Herpes Simplex virus thymidine kinase gene/Ganciclovir system: fifteen years of application. Fillat C, Carrió M, Cascante A, et al. Curr. Gene Ther. 3(1), 13-26, (2003)

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Use of cytomegalovirus immune globulin and ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in lung transplantation. Zamora MR Transpl. Infect. Dis. 3 Suppl 2, 49-56, (2001)

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Preemptive therapy versus universal prophylaxis with ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients. Singh N Clin. Infect. Dis. 32(5), 742-51, (2001)

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Cytomegalovirus UL97 mutations in the era of ganciclovir and maribavir. Chou S Rev. Med. Virol. 18(4), 233-46, (2008)

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Ganciclovir: an update of its use in the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients. McGavin JK and Goa KL Drugs 61(8), 1153-83, (2001)

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Gliomas Induce And Exploit Microglial MT1-MMP Expression For Tumor Expansion. Markovic, D.S., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 12530-5, (2009)

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Adenovirus mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir gene therapy for resectable malignant glioma. Määttä AM, Samaranayake H, Pikkarainen J, et al. Curr. Gene Ther. 9(5), 356-67, (2009)

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Human herpesvirus 6 meningoencephalitis successfully treated with ganciclovir in a patient who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling. Yoshida H, Matsunaga K, Ueda T, et al. Int. J. Hematol. 75(4), 421-5, (2002)

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Genetically engineered T-cells expressing a ganciclovir-sensitive HSV-tk suicide gene for the prevention of GvHD. Mailly L, Leboeuf C, Tiberghien P, et al. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 11(5), 559-70, (2010)

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Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15%: safety and efficacy of a new treatment for herpes simplex keratitis. Kaufman HE and Haw WH Curr. Eye Res. 37(7), 654-60, (2012)

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Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15%: in acute herpetic keratitis (dendritic ulcers). Croxtall JD Drugs 71(5), 603-10, (2011)

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Ganciclovir implant in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Chang M and Dunn JP Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2(4), 421-7, (2005)

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Selecting neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus infection for ganciclovir therapy. Smets K, De Coen K, Dhooge I, et al. Eur. J. Pediatr. 165(12), 885-90, (2006)

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Use of Cox regression with treatment status as a time-dependent covariate to re-analyze survival benefit excludes immortal time bias effect in patients with glioblastoma who received prolonged adjuvant treatment with valganciclovir. Söderberg-Naucler C, Peredo I, Rahbar A, et al. Int. J. Cancer 135(1), 248-9, (2014)

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Good maths is needed to understand CMV data in glioblastoma. Wick W, Wick A, and Platten M Int. J. Cancer 134(12), 2991-2, (2014)

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Successful treatment of acute haemorrhagic cytomegalovirus colitis with ganciclovir in an individual without overt immunocompromise. Patel SM, Cohen P, Pickering MC, et al. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15(9), 1055-60, (2003)

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Phenotypic evaluation of previously uncharacterized cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase sequence variants detected in a valganciclovir treatment trial. Chou S, Boivin G, Ives J, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 209(8), 1219-26, (2014)

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[Valganciclovir maintenance therapy in AIDS: treatment failure due to the development of cytomegalovirus resistance to ganciclovir]. Couzigou C, Mazeron MC, Escaut L, et al. Med. Mal. Infect. 35(2), 98-100, (2005)

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Adenovirus vector-mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir system exhibits anti-tumor effects in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model. Zhu R, Chen D, Lin D, et al. Pharmazie 69(7), 547-52, (2014)

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CMV sinusitis in a HIV-negative renal transplant recipient. Gujadhur A, Thomson N, Aung AK, et al. Transplantation 97(9), e55-7, (2014)

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Cytomegalovirus oral lesions: harbinger of retinitis in the absence of viraemia. Cheung CY, Wong IY, Yan KW, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(9), 1613-5, (2014)

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Immortal time bias in retrospective analysis: is there a survival benefit in patients with glioblastoma who received prolonged treatment of adjuvant valganciclovir? Liu CJ and Hu YW Int. J. Cancer 135(1), 250-1, (2014)

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Resistance of human cytomegalovirus to ganciclovir/valganciclovir: a comprehensive review of putative resistance pathways. Komatsu TE, Pikis A, Naeger LK, et al. Antiviral Res. 101, 12-25, (2014)

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