Synonym: XOD, Xanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase
|Related Categories||1.1.x.x Acting on hydroxyl groups, 1.x.x.x Oxidoreductases, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology, Enzyme Class Index,|
|mol wt||mol wt ~160 kDa|
|Gene Information||Escherichia coli K12 ... xdhA(947116), xdhB(947205), xdhC(945148)|
This enzyme is useful for enzymatic determination of inorganic phosphorus, 5′-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase when coupled with Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP-301) and uricase (UAO-201, UAO-211).
Also contains proteolytic activity.
One unit will convert 1.0 μmole of xanthine to uric acid per min at pH 7.5 at 25 °C. Approx. 50% of the activity is obtained with hypoxanthine as substrate.
Lyophilized powder containing BSA and sodium glutamate as stabilizers
Allopurinol is a synthetic drug show to inhibit xanthine oxidase. 1
Inhibitors: Reducing agents, Hg++, Ag+,MIA
Optimum pH: 7.5 - 8.0
Optimum temperature: 65oC
pH Stability: pH 6.5 - 9.0 (25oC, 15hr)
Thermal stability: below 55oC (pH 8.0, 30min)
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≥99.5% (HPLC), purified by recrystallization
Grade I, ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥0.4 units/mg protein
Grade III, ammonium sulfate suspension, 1.0-2.0 units/mg protein
Grade IV, ammonium sulfate suspension, 0.1-0.4 units/mg protein
Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
One unit causes the formation of one micromole of uric acid per minute under the conditions described below.
Keywords: Extinction coefficient
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Keywords: Cell culture, Cell disruption, Cell signaling, Diagnostic, Digestions, Drug discovery, Functional genomics, Gene expression, Genomics, Metabolic Pathways, Molecular biology, Neuroscience, Proteomics
Isocytosine-based inhibitors of xanthine oxidase: design, synthesis, SAR, PK and in vivo efficacy in rat model of hyperuricemia. Khanna S, Burudkar S, Bajaj K, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22(24), 7543-6, (2012)
Using thermally regenerable cerium oxide nanoparticles in biocomputing to perform label-free, resettable, and colorimetric logic operations. Lin Y, Xu C, Ren J, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(50), 12579-83, (2012)
Modulation of the axon-reflex response to local heat by reactive oxygen species in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Medow MS, Aggarwal A, Baugham I, et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 114(1), 45-51, (2013)
Effect of genetic polymorphisms on effectiveness of low-dose azathioprine in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Nagamine A, Takenaka M, Aomori T, et al. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 69(23), 2072-8, (2012)
Trisubstituted thiophene analogues of 1-thiazolyl-2-pyrazoline, super oxidase inhibitors and free radical scavengers. Mandawad GG, Dawane BS, Beedkar SD, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 21(1), 365-72, (2013)
Secondary biliary cirrhosis in the rat is prevented by decreasing NF-κB nuclear translocation and TGF-β expression using allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Aldaba-Muruato LR, Moreno MG, Hernández-Mercado E, et al. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 90(11), 1469-78, (2012)
Hydrogen sulfide stimulates ischemic vascular remodeling through nitric oxide synthase and nitrite reduction activity regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis. Bir SC, Kolluru GK, McCarthy P, et al. J. Am. Heart Assoc. 1(5), e004093, (2012)
Homocysteine inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated dilation of porcine retinal arterioles via enhanced superoxide production. Omae T, Nagaoka T, Tanano I, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2288-95, (2013)
Xanthine oxidase inhibition attenuates skeletal muscle signaling following acute exercise but does not impair mitochondrial adaptations to endurance training. Wadley GD, Nicolas MA, Hiam DS, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 304(8), E853-62, (2013)
Melatonin protects rat thymus against oxidative stress caused by exposure to microwaves and modulates proliferation/apoptosis of thymocytes. Sokolovic D, Djordjevic B, Kocic G, et al. Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 32(1), 79-90, (2013)
Identification of Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain CuZn superoxide dismutase as critical for resistance to extracellularly generated reactive oxygen species. Melillo AA J. Bacteriol. 191(20), 6447-56, (2009)
Interconversion between NAD-dependent and O2-dependent types of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and difference in kinetic and redox properties between them. Saito T, Nishino T, and Tsushima K Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 253B, 179-83, (1989)
The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and purification of the enzyme. Corte ED and Stirpe F Biochem. J. 126(3), 739-45, (1972)
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase isolated from bovine milk. Eger BT, Okamoto K, Enroth C, et al. Acta Crystallogr. D, Biol. Crystallogr. 56(Pt 12), 1656-8, (2000)
Altered activity of lysophospholipase D, which produces bioactive lysophosphatidic acid and choline, in serum from women with pathological pregnancy. Tokumura A, Kume T, Taira S, et al. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 15(5), 301-10, (2009)
Release of GPI-anchored Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase as an amphiphilic form from bovine brain membranes by bee venom phospholipase A2. Lee JY, Kim MR, and Sok DE Neurochem. Res. 24(8), 1043-50, (1999)
Enzymatic release of Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase from brain membranes by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases and its regulation. Lee JY, Kim MR, and Sok DE Neurochem. Res. 23(6), 899-905, (1998)
Brain myelin-bound Zn(2+)-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme of two different molecular forms. Sok DE and Kim MR Neurochem. Res. 19(1), 97-103, (1994)
Characterization of a Zn(2+)-requiring glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase possessing p-nitrophenylphosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity. Sok DE and Kim MR Biochem. J. 286 ( Pt 2), 435-40, (1992)
Caffeine causes glycerophosphorylcholine accumulation through ryanodine-inhibitable increase of cellular calcium and activation of phospholipase A2 in cultured MDCK cells. Kim DK and Jung KY Exp. Mol. Med. 30(3), 151-8, (1998)
Accumulation of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by renal cells: osmotic regulation of GPC:choline phosphodiesterase. Zablocki K, Miller SP, Garcia-Perez A, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 88(17), 7820-4, (1991)
Glycerophosphorylcholine phosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity in cultured oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and central nervous tissue of dysmyelinating rodent mutants. Yuan J, McCartney DG, Monge M, et al. J. Neurosci. Res. 31(1), 68-74, (1992)
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