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326372 Aldrich

Ammonium chloride

99.99% trace metals basis

Synonym: Salmiac

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Properties

Related Categories Ammonium Salts, Essential Chemicals, Materials Science, Metal and Ceramic Science, Research Essentials,
vapor density   1.9 (vs air)
vapor pressure   1 mmHg ( 160.4 °C)
assay   99.99% trace metals basis
form   crystalline
mp   340 °C (subl.)(lit.)

Description

Packaging

25, 100, 500 g in poly bottle

General description

NH4Cl is highly corrosive, colorless salt which dissolves readily in water. It crystallizes out of aqueous solution in octahedrons, in a feathery array, forming a fibrous mass of crystals. It sublimes at 340oC.1,2 Ammonium chloride acts as catalyst in one-pot, three component, Biginelli condensation reactions of aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and urea or thiourea.3 Inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, have been reported as efficient catalysts for the aldol condensation of carbonyl compounds.4

Price and Availability

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
Xn
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
22
RIDADR 
UN 3077 9 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
BP4550000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important n-type semiconducting material that shows interesting characteristics such as photoswitchable surface wettability, high photocatalytic activity, bistable elect...
Jinshu Wang, Junshu Wu, Hongyi Li
Material Matters, Volume 7, Number 2, 2–6
Keywords: Adsorption, Building blocks, Catalysis, Ceramics, Condensations, Cosmetics, Degradations, Diffraction, Eliminations, Evaporation, Materials Science, Oxidations, Polymerization reactions, Semiconductor, Separation, Sol-gel

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Ammonium chloride-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones under solvent-free conditions Shaabani A, et al Tetrahedron Lett. 44, 857-859, (2003)

3. Ammonium chloride-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones under solvent-free conditions. Shaabani A, et al. Tetrahedron Lett. 44(4), 857-59, (2003)

4. Inorganic ammonium salts and carbonate salts are efficient catalysts for aldol condensation in atmospheric aerosols. Nozière B, Dziedzic P, and Córdova A Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(15), 3864-72, (2010)

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SLC4A11 is an EIPA-sensitive Na(+) permeable pHi regulator. Ogando DG, Jalimarada SS, Zhang W, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 305(7), C716-27, (2013)

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Regulation of two renal chloride transporters, AE1 and pendrin, by electrolytes and aldosterone. Mohebbi N, Perna A, van der Wijst J, et al. PLoS ONE 8(1), e55286, (2013)

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[Ammonium chloride and the calcium chloride loading test for the diagnosis of renal tubular acidosis]. Takahashi S, Kuno T, and Hatano M Nihon Rinsho. 43(9), 1836-42, (1985)

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Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 recycles to the cell surface in protein phosphatase 2A-dependent manner in non-neuronal and neuronal cell lines. Pandey S, Mahato PK, and Bhattacharyya S J. Neurochem. 131(5), 602-14, (2014)

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Re: Renal ammonium excretion after an acute acid load: blunted response in uric acid stone formers but not in patients with type 2 diabetes. Assimos D J. Urol. 191(4), 994-5, (2014)

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Phylogeny of 16S rRNA and nifH genes and regulation of nitrogenase activity by oxygen and ammonium in the genus Paenibacillus. Xie JB, Bai LQ, Wang LY, et al. Mikrobiologiia 81(6), 760-7, (2012)

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Colony forming cell assays for human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Wognum B, Yuan N, Lai B, et al. Methods Mol. Biol. 946, 267-83, (2013)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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Measuring titratable alkalinity by single versus double endpoint titration: An evaluation in two cyprinodont species and implications for characterizing net H+ flux in aquatic organisms. Brix KV, Wood CM, and Grosell M Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 164(1), 221-8, (2013)

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Helicobacter pylori dysregulation of gastric epithelial tight junctions by urease-mediated myosin II activation. Wroblewski LE Gastroenterology 136(1), 236-46, (2009)

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Respective contribution of mitochondrial superoxide and pH to mitochondria-targeted circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein (mt-cpYFP) flash activity. Wei-LaPierre L, Gong G, Gerstner BJ, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(15), 10567-77, (2013)

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Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry. Nanita SC and Padivitage NL Anal. Chim. Acta 768, 1-11, (2013)

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Contact-killing of adhering streptococci by a quaternary ammonium compound incorporated in an acrylic resin. Mei L, Ren Y, Loontjens TJ, et al. Int. J. Artif. Organs 35(10), 854-63, (2012)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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Modular isoquinoline synthesis using catalytic enolate arylation and in situ functionalization. Pilgrim BS, Gatland AE, McTernan CT, et al. Org. Lett. 15(24), 6190-3, (2013)

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Complexation of fluorescent tetraphenylthiophene-derived ammonium chloride to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with sulfonate terminal: aggregation-induced emission, critical micelle concentration, and lower critical solution temperature. Yang CM, Lai YW, Kuo SW, et al. Langmuir 28(44), 15725-35, (2012)

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Response of the mitochondrial proteome of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to chronic metabolic acidosis. Freund DM, Prenni JE, and Curthoys NP Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 304(2), F145-55, (2013)

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The Aβ-clearance protein transthyretin, like neprilysin, is epigenetically regulated by the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Kerridge C, Belyaev ND, Nalivaeva NN, et al. J. Neurochem. 130(3), 419-31, (2014)

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Oxidative removal of selected endocrine-disruptors and pharmaceuticals in drinking water treatment systems, and identification of degradation products of triclosan. Wu Q, Shi H, Adams CD, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 439, 18-25, (2012)

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A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010)

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A transthylakoid proton gradient and inhibitors induce a non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in unicellular algae Nannochloropsis sp. Cao S, Zhang X, Xu D, et al. FEBS Lett. 587(9), 1310-5, (2013)

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Monochloramine cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under drinking water conditions. Maestre JP, Wahman DG, and Speitel GE Water Res. 47(13), 4701-9, (2013)

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Molecular evidence for a role for K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters in the kidney. Melo Z, Cruz-Rangel S, Bautista R, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 305(10), F1402-11, (2013)

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Effects of NH4Cl and MgCl(2) on pretreatment and xylan hydrolysis of miscanthus straw. Kang KE, Park DH, and Jeong GT Carbohydr. Polym. 92(2), 1321-6, (2013)

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Degradation of piperazine by Paracoccus sp. TOH isolated from activated sludge. Cai S, Li X, Cai T, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 130, 536-42, (2013)

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Sesquiterpenes from Celastrus vulcanicola as photosynthetic inhibitors. David Torres-Romero et al J. Nat. Prod. 71, 1331-5, (2008)

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Lysosome dysfunction enhances oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through ubiquitinated protein accumulation in Hela cells. Yu C, Huang X, Xu Y, et al. Anat. Rec. (Hoboken.) 296(1), 31-9, (2013)

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Prophylactic effects of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. extracts on experimental induction of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. Zhong YS, Yu CH, Ying HZ, et al. J. Ethnopharmacol. 144(3), 761-7, (2012)

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Regulation of Tsg101 expression by the steadiness box: a role of Tsg101-associated ligase. McDonald B Mol. Biol. Cell 19(2), 754-63, (2008)

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Extramedullary erythropoiesis in the adult liver requires BMP-4/Smad5-dependent signaling. Lenox LE, Shi L, Hegde S, et al. Exp. Hematol. 37(5), 549-58, (2009)

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Efficacy of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in chemically induced urolithiasis in rats. Ahmed A, Wadud A, Jahan N, et al. J. Ethnopharmacol. 146(1), 411-6, (2013)

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Hepatitis E virus capsid protein assembles in 4M urea in the presence of salts. Yang C, Pan H, Wei M, et al. Protein Sci. 22(3), 314-26, (2013)

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Effect of dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles, canola meal, and chloride on electrolyte balance, growth performance, and litter moisture of growing turkeys. Farahat MH, Hassanein EI, Abdel-Razik WM, et al. Poult. Sci. 92(5), 1254-65, (2013)

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Receptor model source attributions for Utah's Salt Lake City airshed and the impacts of wintertime secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride aerosol. Kelly KE, Kotchenruther R, Kuprov R, et al. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 63(5), 575-90, (2013)

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Redox artifacts in electrophysiological recordings. Berman JM and Awayda MS Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 304(7), C604-13, (2013)

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The SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex regulates leucine uptake through the Agp3 permease in fission yeast. Takahashi H, Sun X, Hamamoto M, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 287(45), 38158-67, (2012)

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Ammonia drives dendritic cells into dysfunction. Luo C, Shen G, Liu N, et al. J. Immunol. 193(3), 1080-9, (2014)

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Secretion of ATP from Schwann cells through lysosomal exocytosis during Wallerian degeneration. Shin YH, Lee SJ, and Jung J Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 429(3-4), 163-7, (2012)

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Renal ammonium excretion after an acute acid load: blunted response in uric acid stone formers but not in patients with type 2 diabetes. Bobulescu IA, Maalouf NM, Capolongo G, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 305(10), F1498-503, (2013)

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Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Wang Q, Wang Y, Yu Z, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 555-556, 16-22, (2014)

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Sonolytic and silent polymerization of methacrlyic acid butyl ester catalyzed by a new onium salt with bis-active sites in a biphasic system--a comparative investigation. Vivekanand PA, Wang ML, and Hsieh YM Molecules 18(2), 2419-37, (2013)

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Enhanced carboxymethylcellulase production by a newly isolated marine bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14, using rice bran. Gao W, Lee EJ, Lee SU, et al. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22(10), 1412-22, (2012)

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Glutamine-induced production and secretion of Helicobacter pylori gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase at low pH and its putative role in glutathione transport. Ki MR, Yun NR, and Hwang SY J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23(4), 467-72, (2013)

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Preparation of soluble isotopically labeled NKp30, a human natural cytotoxicity receptor, for structural studies using NMR. Grave L, Tůmová L, Mrázek H, et al. Protein Expr. Purif. 86(2), 142-50, (2012)

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Evaluation of five antifungal agents used in remediation practices against six common indoor fungal species. Chakravarty P and Kovar B J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10(1), D11-6, (2013)

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The biochemical and histopathological investigation of amlodipine in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis rat model. Albayrak A, Bayir Y, Halici Z, et al. Ren. Fail. 35(1), 126-31, (2013)

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2. Wiberg E, Wiberg N, Wiberg E, Wiberg N Inorg. Chem., (2001), 614

Merck 14,509

Corp MSDS 1 (1), 233:D / IR-Spectra (3), 1521:D / RegBook 1 (3), 3325:H / Sax 6, 260 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (2), 1012:C

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