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C8527 Aldrich

Chlorhexidine dihydrochloride

≥98%

Synonym: 1,6-Bis(N5-[p-chlorophenyl]-N1-biguanido)hexane; 1,1′-Hexamethylenebis(5-[p-chlorophenyl]biguanide), Lisium

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Properties

Related Categories Building Blocks, Chemical Synthesis, Guanidines, Nitrogen Compounds, Organic Building Blocks More...
assay   ≥98%
storage temp.   2-8°C

Description

Packaging

5, 25 g in poly bottle

Price and Availability

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European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Chlorhexidine diacetate salt hydrate

bis(biguanide) antimicrobial

Chlorhexidine dihydrochloride

European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
Xi
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
26-36
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
XA5285000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Recently introduced qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis do not increase chlorhexidine MIC/MBC. Skovgaard S, Larsen MH, Nielsen LN, et al. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 68(10), 2226-33, (2013)

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Incorporation of chlorhexidine gluconate or diacetate into a glass-ionomer cement: porosity, surface roughness, and anti-biofilm activity. Marti LM, Becci AC, Spolidorio DM, et al. Am. J. Dent. 27(6), 318-22, (2014)

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Daily chlorhexidine bathing for critically ill patients: a note of caution. Pittet D and Angus DC JAMA 313(4), 365-6, (2015)

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Chlorhexidine bathing and health care-associated infections: a randomized clinical trial. Noto MJ, Domenico HJ, Byrne DW, et al. JAMA 313(4), 369-78, (2015)

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Cement-associated signs of inflammation: retrospective analysis of the effect of excess cement on peri-implant tissue. Korsch M, Robra BP, and Walther W Int. J. Prosthodont. 28(1), 11-8, (2015)

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Does the use of biopatch devices at drain sites reduce perioperative infectious complications in patients undergoing immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction? Weichman KE, Clavin NW, Miller HC, et al. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 135(1), 9e-17e, (2015)

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Discussion: does the use of biopatch devices at drain sites reduce perioperative infectious complications in patients undergoing immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction? Shenaq DS and Song DH Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 135(1), 18e-9e, (2015)

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Antiseptic use in Mohs and reconstructive surgery: an American College of Mohs Surgery member survey. Collins LK, Knackstedt TJ, and Samie FH Dermatol. Surg. 41(1), 164-6, (2015)

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Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour to prevent early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection. Ohlsson A, Shah VS, and Stade BC Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12, CD003520, (2014)

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Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals. Inoue Y, Hagi A, Nii T, et al. J. Med. Microbiol. 64(Pt 1), 32-6, (2015)

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Antibacterial dental composites with chlorhexidine and mesoporous silica. Zhang JF, Wu R, Fan Y, et al. J. Dent. Res. 93(12), 1283-9, (2014)

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Determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of Tetraclean against Candida albicans. Qyasian A, Mohammadi Z, Giardino L, et al. Niger. J. Med. 23(3), 201-6, (2014)

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[Subcutaneous implantation type central venous port management in patients with malignant tumors effect of different antiseptic agents on central venous port-related infection]. Sato J, Kumagai M, Kato K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(8), 981-5, (2014)

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Chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated central-line dressings and necrosis in complicated skin disorder patients. Wall JB, Divito SJ, and Talbot SG J. Crit. Care 29(6), 1130.e1-4, (2014)

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Antibacterial efficacy and effect of chlorhexidine mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid for dental impressions: a randomized controlled trial. Cubas G, Valentini F, Camacho GB, et al. Int. J. Prosthodont. 27(4), 363-5, (2014)

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Effect of irrigation with Tetraclean on bacterial leakage of obturated root canals. Mohammadi Z, Shalavi S, Giardino L, et al. N. Y. State Dent. J. 80(3), 39-43, (2014)

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Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing: an efficient weapon against catheter-related bloodstream infection?*. Mahjoub Y and Dupont H Crit. Care Med. 42(7), 1742-3, (2014)

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Data bits: take a swipe at surgical site infections. Bertoli J, Kuban K, and Reeder S Ky. Nurse 62(2), 3, (2014)

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Influence of mounthrinse solutions on the color stability and microhardness of a composite resin. Lepri CP, Ribeiro MV, Dibb A, et al. Int. J. Esthet. Dent. 9(2), 238-46, (2014)

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Superficial roughness on composite surface, composite enamel and composite dentin junctions after different finishing and polishing procedures. Part I: roughness after treatments with tungsten carbide vs diamond burs. Ferraris F and Conti A Int. J. Esthet. Dent. 9(1), 70-89, (2014)

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Effectiveness of standard lavage with supplemental chlorhexidine in patients undergoing chemical matricectomy for ingrown toenails: a clinical trial. Cordoba-Diaz D, Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo R, Losa Iglesias ME, et al. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(6), 1092-5, (2014)

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[Prevention of catheter-related septicemia]. Lemmen S and Scheithauer S Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 139(14), 693-5, (2014)

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Chlorhexidine-based oral care and ventilator-associated pneumonia: the devil in disguise? Bonten MJ JAMA Intern. Med. 174(5), 761-2, (2014)

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Decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine and prevalence of disinfectant resistance genes among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Prag G, Falk-Brynhildsen K, Jacobsson S, et al. APMIS 122(10), 961-7, (2014)

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Effects of food colouring added to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% alcohol for surgical site antisepsis. Chow J, Ng J, and Pun A J. Perioper. Pract. 23(11), 255-7, (2013)

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Jaw lesion and discomfort. Levin L and Luder L JAMA 310(20), 2195-6, (2013)

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Antimicrobial resistance in intensive care units. Zahar JR, Lucet JC, and Timsit JF Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(1), 3-5, (2014)

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Managing an extreme peri-implantitis. Materni A Minerva Stomatol. 62(9), 295-305, (2013)

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A preoperative approach to postoperative infections? Arpey CJ Dermatol. Surg. 39(10), 1494-5, (2013)

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Development of a practical complete-kill assay to evaluate anti-Acanthamoeba drugs. Kowalski RP, Abdel Aziz S, Romanowski EG, et al. JAMA Ophthalmol. 131(11), 1459-62, (2013)

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Yes, what about prions? Kirkwood A, Stacey S, and Broomhead C Anaesthesia 68(10), 1073-4, (2013)

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Commentary: Alcohol plus chlorhexidine is more efficient than alcohol alone for phenol-based chemical matricectomy: in vitro study. Tavares GT Dermatol. Surg. 39(9), 1368-9, (2013)

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Anaphylactic reaction to intraurethral chlorhexidine: sensitisation following previous repeated uneventful administration. Dyer JE, Nafie S, Mellon JK, et al. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 95(6), e105-6, (2013)

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Committee Opinion No. 571: Solutions for surgical preparation of the vagina. Obstet. Gynecol. 122(3), 718-20, (2013)

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Preoperative chlorhexidine anaphylaxis in a patient scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft: a case report. Toomey M AANA J. 81(3), 209-14, (2013)

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Effect of oral care solutions in reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia: review of current evidence. Balamurugan E and Dileep ET Nurs. J. India 103(6), 282-4, (2012)

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CORR Insights®: no infection reduction using chlorhexidine wipes in total joint arthroplasty. Della Valle CJ Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 471(10), 3126-7, (2013)

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Effect of chlorhexidine varnish application on streptoococcus mutans colonisation in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. Attin R, Yetkiner E, Aykut-Yetkiner A, et al. Aust. Orthod. J. 29(1), 52-7, (2013)

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Does an oral care protocol reduce VAP in patients with a tracheostomy? Conley P, McKinsey D, Graff J, et al. Nursing 43(7), 18-23, (2013)

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Catheter lubrication and fixation: interventions. Wilson M Br. J. Nurs. 22(10), 566, 568-9, (2013)

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Screening for MRSA and isolating carriers doesn't reduce ICU infections. BMJ 346, f3581, (2013)

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Survey on oral hygiene measures for intubated patients in Swiss intensive care units. Gmür C, Irani S, Attin T, et al. Schweiz. Monatsschr. Zahnmed. 123(5), 394-409, (2013)

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[Preoperative chlorhexidine shower--unscientific advice from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions]. Drott C Lakartidningen. 110(16), 836, (2013)

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Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Case report and review of the literature. Sanchez-Siles M, Camacho-Alonso F, Lopez-Jornet P, et al. N. Y. State Dent. J. 79(2), 44-7, (2013)

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Alcohol plus chlorhexidine is more efficient than alcohol alone for phenol-based chemical matricectomy: an in vitro study. Cordoba Diaz D, Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo R, Losa Iglesias ME, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 39(9), 1363-7, (2013)

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Targeted versus universal decolonization to prevent ICU infection. Huang SS, Septimus E, Kleinman K, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 368(24), 2255-65, (2013)

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Evaluation of the in vitro activity of commercially available moxifloxacin and voriconazole eye-drops against clinical strains of Acanthamoeba. Martín-Navarro CM, López-Arencibia A, Arnalich-Montiel F, et al. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 251(9), 2111-7, (2013)

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TGF-β1 promotes lymphangiogenesis during peritoneal fibrosis. Kinashi H, Ito Y, Mizuno M, et al. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 24(10), 1627-42, (2013)

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Implant abutment screw reverse torque values before and after plasma cleaning. Micarelli C, Canullo L, Baldissara P, et al. Int. J. Prosthodont. 26(4), 331-3, (2013)

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Assessment of implementation of a CAMBRA-based program in a dental school environment. Teich ST, Demko C, Al-Rawi W, et al. J. Dent. Educ. 77(4), 438-47, (2013)

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Investigating the biological properties of carbohydrate derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) as a potential novel therapy for the management of oral biofilm infections. Sherry L, Millhouse E, Lappin DF, et al. BMC Oral Health 13, 47, (2013)

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Care bundles in intensive care units - authors' reply. Bonten MJ, Brun-Buisson C, Cooper BS, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(5), 372, (2014)

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Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Klompas M, Speck K, Howell MD, et al. JAMA Intern. Med. 174(5), 751-61, (2014)

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Interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomised trial. Derde LP, Cooper BS, Goossens H, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(1), 31-9, (2014)

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Chlorhexidine gluconate–impregnated central access catheter dressings as a cause of erosive contact dermatitis: a report of 7 cases. Weitz NA, Lauren CT, Weiser JA, et al. JAMA Dermatol. 149(2), 195-9, (2013)

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Daily chlorhexidine bathing and hospital-acquired infection. Parienti JJ and Cattoir V N. Engl. J. Med. 368(24), 2331, (2013)

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Daily chlorhexidine bathing and hospital-acquired infection. Esposito AL N. Engl. J. Med. 368(24), 2330, (2013)

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Third-degree chemical burns from chlorhexidine local antisepsis. Palmanovich E, Brin YS, Laver L, et al. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 15(6), 323-4, (2013)

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The effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on hemoglobin A1c levels in persons with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial. Engebretson SP, Hyman LG, Michalowicz BS, et al. JAMA 310(23), 2523-32, (2013)

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Chlorhexidine droplet splash from a skin preparation gallipot: effect of height of pouring. Evans L, Cunningham M, and Tilakaratna P Anaesthesia 68(12), 1243-6, (2013)

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Rheological properties of gamma-irradiated antimicrobial wafers and in vitro efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Labovitiadi O, O'Driscoll NH, Lamb AJ, et al. Int. J. Pharm. 453(2), 462-72, (2013)

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Oral antibiotics versus topical decolonization to prevent surgical site infection after Mohs micrographic surgery--a randomized, controlled trial. Cherian P, Gunson T, Borchard K, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 39(10), 1486-93, (2013)

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Influence of peripheral enamel bonding and chlorhexidine pretreatment on resin bonding to dentin. Lin J, Kern M, Ge J, et al. J. Adhes. Dent. 15(4), 351-9, (2013)

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Effects of intra-alveolar placement of 0.2% chlorhexidine bioadhesive gel on dry socket incidence and postsurgical pain: a double-blind split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial. Haraji A, Rakhshan V, Khamverdi N, et al. J. Orofac. Pain 27(3), 256-62, (2013)

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Daily chlorhexidine bathing and hospital-acquired infection. Climo MW and Wong ES N. Engl. J. Med. 368(24), 2332, (2013)

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Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses identify a family of chlorhexidine efflux proteins. Hassan KA, Jackson SM, Penesyan A, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(50), 20254-9, (2013)

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Effect of chlorhexidine on the 18-month clinical performance of two adhesives. Dutra-Correa M, Saraceni CH, Ciaramicoli MT, et al. J. Adhes. Dent. 15(3), 287-92, (2013)

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Chlorhexidine for the prevention of bloodstream infection associated with totally implantable venous ports in patients with solid cancers. Kao HF, Chen IC, Hsu C, et al. Support Care Cancer 22(5), 1189-97, (2014)

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Evaluation of preventive programs in high caries active preschool children. Sundell AL, Ullbro C, and Koch G Swed. Dent. J. 37(1), 23-9, (2013)

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Inhibition of biofilm formation and antibacterial properties of a silver nano-coating on human dentine. Besinis A, De Peralta T, and Handy RD Nanotoxicology 8(7), 745-54, (2014)

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Ex vivo microbial leakage after using different final irrigation regimens with chlorhexidine. Navarro-Escobar E, Baca P, González-Rodríguez MP, et al. J. Appl. Oral Sci. 21(1), 74-9, (2013)

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Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection: a meta-analysis*. Safdar N, O'Horo JC, Ghufran A, et al. Crit. Care Med. 42(7), 1703-13, (2014)

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Propolis and commonly used intracanal irrigants: comparative evaluation of antimicrobial potential. Jolly M, Singh N, Rathore M, et al. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 37(3), 243-9, (2013)

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Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes. Ros-Llor I and Lopez-Jornet P Environ. Res. 132, 140-5, (2014)

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Care bundles in intensive care units. Golzari SE and Mahmoodpoor A Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(5), 371-2, (2014)

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Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia associated with peripherally inserted central catheters: the role of chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated sponge dressings. Loftus MJ, Florescu CJ, and Stuart RL Med. J. Aust. 200(6), 317-8, (2014)

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The impact of topical corticosteroid use before diagnosis on the outcome of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Robaei D, Carnt N, Minassian DC, et al. Ophthalmology 121(7), 1383-8, (2014)

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Single-dose intra-alveolar chlorhexidine gel application, easier surgeries, and younger ages are associated with reduced dry socket risk. Haraji A and Rakhshan V J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(2), 259-65, (2014)

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Short-term decline in all-cause acquired infections with the routine use of a decontamination regimen combining topical polymyxin, tobramycin, and amphotericin B with mupirocin and chlorhexidine in the ICU: a single-center experience. Camus C, Salomon S, Bouchigny C, et al. Crit. Care Med. 42(5), 1121-30, (2014)

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A suitable device for cystic lesions close to the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws. Costa FW, Carvalho FS, Chaves FN, et al. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(1), 96-8, (2014)

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A prospective clinical evaluation of the longevity of resorbable sutures in oral surgical procedures. Fomete B, Saheeb BD, and Obiadazie AC Niger. J. Clin. Pract. 16(3), 334-8, (2013)

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Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of chlorhexidine on macrophages in vitro. Li YC, Kuan YH, Lee SS, et al. Environ. Toxicol. 29(4), 452-8, (2014)

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Merck 14,2091

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