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34805 Fluka

HYDRANAL®-Composite 5

Reagent for volumetric one-component Karl Fischer titration (methanol free)

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Description

Frequently Asked Questions

Live Chat and Frequently Asked Questions are available for this Product.

Application

To be used with: see related products

General description

Visit our HYDRANAL center to learn more.

Packaging

1, 2.5 L in glass bottle

500 mL in glass bottle

Quantity

Water equivalent (titer) 4.5-5.5 mg/mL

Legal Information

HYDRANAL is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Laborchemikalien GmbH

Protocols & Applications

Water Determination in Chocolate and Cocoa

Analysis of Bioethanol - Detection of Chloride and Sulfate with Dication and Trication Solutions

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reagent for accelerated volumetric one-component KF titration (working medium)

Reagent for volumetric two-component Karl Fischer titration

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS08  GHS08
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
WGK Germany 
1
Flash Point(F) 
194 °F
Flash Point(C) 
90 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in 1,2,4-Triazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1,2-Diaminoethane (Ethylene diamine) Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in 1,2-diaminoethane presents two different sorts of difficulties: 1. The compound reacts strongly alkaline and it shifts the pH of the medium in the titration vessel to an...
Keywords: Methylations, Pharmaceutical, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1,2-Phenylenediamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1,3,5-Triazine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1,3-Bis-(2,4-diaminophenoxy)propane tetrahydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Nitrogen Compounds, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1,3-Phenylenediamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1,5-Pentanediol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Dodecanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Methyl Imidazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Naphthol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Napthylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Octanethiol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidised by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Octanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 1-Pentanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2,3,5-Trimethylphenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2,3-Dichlorophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2,3-Dimethyl-3-pentanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2,3-Dimethylphenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2,4-Dichlorophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Aminobenzoic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Aminobenzothiazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Aminoethanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Aminophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Aminopyridine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Bromo-6-fluoro aniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in halogenated hydrocarbons is simple and in most cases straightforward. Some amines lead to side reactions, the nature of which is yet unknown. In some cases, these side r...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Butanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Chlorophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Dimethylaminomethyl cyclohexanone (DMC base) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Investigations have shown that the keto group of this substance is not reactive, which means that a special medium for ketones does not need to be used. An acidulated medium does have to be placed in...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-EthylToluene Using Karl Fischer Titration

Water determination in hydrocarbons is relatively straightforward. Lower hydrocarbons dissolve in methanol, however, even if the dissolution is incomplete, the water is rapidly extracted and complete...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Ethylhexanoic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Ethylhexanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Fluorophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Heptanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Iodoanisole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Methyl-5-mercapto-1,3,5-thiadiazol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidised by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Nitrophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Reductions, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Phenoxybenzoic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Phenoxyethanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Phenylpropanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Picoline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 2-Pyrrolidone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carboxylic Acids, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Bromophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Butine-1-ol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Chlorophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Fluorpyridin Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Methoxypropyl amine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Methyl-3-pentanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 3-Octanone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Aminobenzoic Acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Anisidine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Fluoroanisole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Fluorotoluene Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in halogenated hydrocarbons is simple and in most cases straightforward. Solubility in methanol is good and the use of 1-propanol or chloroform is only necessary in the cas...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Methyl-1,3-Phenylenediamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Methylmorpholinoxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Methylmorpholinoxide monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The theoretical water content of a monohydrate is 13,33%. In the investigate sample we found 14,45% water. With the one-component reagent HYDRANAL-Composite the titration takes approx. 8 minutes. The...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Nitroaniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Nitrobenzylpropylammonium chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample dissolves very slowly in the alcoholic media of the KF titration. An addition of formamide improves the solubility
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 4-Nitrophenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Reductions, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in 8-Hydroxyquinoline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Acetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Acetophenone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Acrylamide Copolymer Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Adenosine-5-triphosphoric acid disodium salt Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Adhesive component Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated product was based on 25-27% diethylentriamine (DETA) and a reaction product of DETA with bisphenol-A-diglycidylether. DETA is a strong base; the sample therefore shifts the pH value ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Alkylbenzyl ammonium chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Almonds Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Almonds Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aluminium chloride-6-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aluminum nitrate-9-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aluminum oxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

KF solutions react slightly acidic and can dissolve oxides, hydroxides and carbonates. This leads to formation of water which also gets titrated. Individual oxides or carbonates react, however, in di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aluminum sulfate-18-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent moisture in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Amino acids Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aminophylline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aminophylline does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF titration very well. Additionally depending on the pH value in the titration vessel a side reaction occurs. The side reaction could be...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aminophylline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aminophylline does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF titration very well. Additionally depending on the pH value in the titration vessel a side reaction occurs. The side reaction could be...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ammonium Thiocyanate Using Karl Fischer Titration

We investigated two samples which showed a different behavior. Sample 1: With the direct titration with HYDRANAL-Composite 5 in methanol we found 98 ppm H2O. In a KF oven we heated the sample from 50...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ammonium glycyrrhizate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance does not dissolve well in the alcoholic media used in Karl Fischer titration and tends to forms clots. Formamide is a suitable solubiliser. A sample that we analyzed was found to contai...
Keywords: Karl Fischer titrations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ammonium hydrogen fluoride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ammoniumfluoride in acetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated sample did not cause any problems. In order to buffer the pH, it is recommended to use HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid or HYDRANAL-Solvent. In this sample we found 10.0 % water.
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Amoxicillin-3-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Amylase Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Miscellaneous Products, Vegetable + Plant Products
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Anhydrotetracycline hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample analyzed consisted of a fine, yellow powder, which was easily titrated in the media used in KF titration. We found 1.48% H2O. ATTENTION The substance is hygroscopic. We exposed it to air f...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Animal Vaccine CHPPI Using Karl Fischer Titration

The animal vaccine CHPPI does not fully dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration and occasionally the electrodes are covered leading the indication disturbances. Formamide aids solubility...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Animal feed dried Using Karl Fischer Titration

The Fitness flakes and Rice Crispies (with no corn content) that we analyzed had to be pre-ground because the water content of the large flakes could not be fully extracted. A small laboratory mill c...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Antimony triacetate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Antimony trichloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Antimony trioxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

KF solutions react slightly acidic and can dissolve oxides, hydroxides and carbonates. This leads to formation of water which also gets titrated. Individual oxides or carbonates react, however, in di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Arginine aspartate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carboxylic Acid Salts, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Aspartame Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Atropine sulfate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Atropine sulfate x H2O Using Karl Fischer Titration

Atropine sulphate is easily titrated in the alcoholic media used in KF titration. A sample that we analyzed was found to contain 3.67% H2O. The theoretical water content is 2.59%.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Azulene Mask Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Baby food Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Barium chloride-2-hydrate tot. Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzimidazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzoic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzophenone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzothiazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzyl alcohol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzyl pyridine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzylmethyl ketone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Benzylpenicillin-procaine x H2O Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Berberine chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Berberine chloride does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF titration. Nevertheless the whole water can be extracted completely. Addition of formamide helps to dissolve the sample, but a pr...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Biphenyl-sulfonic acid, Sodium salt Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Biscuit Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Biscuits (Crackers) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Bismuth trioxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

KF solutions react slightly acidic and can dissolve oxides, hydroxides and carbonates. This leads to formation of water which also gets titrated. Individual oxides or carbonates react, however, in di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Blueberry extract Using Karl Fischer Titration

The water determination in blueberry extract can be carried out without problem, if Methanol is used in the titration vessel. The length of titration time can be reduced from approx. 6 minutes to 3 m...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Bromoacetic Acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Butter Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Butyric acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cacodylic acid sodium salt x-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance is highly hygroscopic; the handling of the sample must be accordingly careful and quick. We left a test sample open for five minutes, and the water content increased by 3.5%. Titrations...
Keywords: Pesticides, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium acetate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium carbonate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Inorganic Salts, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium chloride-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium folinate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of Formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium gluconate-1-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium glycerophosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Phosphor Compounds, Cosmetic Products + Compounds
Keywords: Crystallization, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium lignin sulphonate (Borresperse CA) Using Karl Fischer Titration

This substance dissolves only in certain media. In methanol it is insoluble, but in a mixture of methanol � formamide or HYDRANAL-CompoSolver E and formamide it is easily soluble. The formamide can b...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Theoretical water content of the sample is 30.52 %. We investigated a product consisting of coarse crystals and that also showed a weak tendency to hygroscopicity. The water content increased by 0.2 ...
Keywords: Indicators, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium phosphate dihydrate dibasic Using Karl Fischer Titration

It is extremely difficult to dissolve the substance in the alcoholic media of KF titration in order to titrate the water content. In a test series we discovered that it was necessary to add formamide...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium phosphate tribasic Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium sorbate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calcium-bis-(2-aminoethyl)hydrogenphosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Classic dissolution methods using formamide and/or salicylic acid or titrating at 50 �C did not successfully dissolve the sample. This was not resolved by grinding it finely in a laboratory grinder. ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Calciumhydrogenphosphate-2-H2O Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Candies

Water content determination by Karl Fischer titration is a fast, accurate, and reliable method. Especially for food samples, the Karl Fischer (KF) titration shows significant advantages over traditio...
Helga Hoffmann, Andrea Felgner
AnalytiX Volume 10 Article 4
Keywords: Food & Beverage, Indicators, Industries, Karl Fischer titrations, Maillard reaction, Petrochemical, Pharmaceutical, Titrations, Vitamins

Determination of Water Content in Candy Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Caramel mass Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Indicators, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Carbazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cat food dry Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cefalexin Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cefalexin is a fine powder that dissolves easily in the KF titration media. The substance can be titrated according to standard procedures. We found 6.17% H2O.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cefalexin monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Nitrogen Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cefalonium Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cefalonium is a fine white powder. We analyzed a dihydrate and an anhydrous substance. Cefalonium dehydrate does not dissolve in methanol or in HYDRANAL-CompoSolver E, however, the water is still ext...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cellulose fibrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cellulose microcrystalline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cetyl pyridinium chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cheese Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chewing gum Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chilli extract Using Karl Fischer Titration

In chili extract the water can only be extracted. If only methanol is used in the titration vessel, even only a part of the water is extracted after 8 minutes. An addition of formamide improves the e...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chlorambucil Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chloroacetamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chlorobutanol-hemihydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in Methanol and addition of solubility mediators are only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chlorothalonile Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in halogenated hydrocarbons is simple and in most cases straightforward. Solubility in methanol is good and the use of 1-propanol or chloroform is only necessary in the cas...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chocolate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Chocolate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cigarette Tobacco Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cipoflaxacine hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Nitrogen Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Citric acid anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carboxylic Acids, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Citric acid monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carboxylic Acids, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Coal dust Using Karl Fischer Titration

With structurally complex substances, mixtures or utensils, the KF titration will predominantly be oriented according to the physical characteristics of the substance. If the substance is soluble, th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cobalt Oxalate-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cocoa beans Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cocoa powder Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Coffee cream Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Coffee, raw (green coffee beans) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. A comprehensive application (L 606) on this product is available on request. It shows different procedures: 1. D...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Coffee, raw Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Coffee, roasted Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Coffeine (Caffeine) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Caffeine tends to form lumps in the medium of the KF titration which dissolve extremely slowly during titration. The titration at 50�C is preferred. Under these conditions and the addition of formami...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Collodium wool Using Karl Fischer Titration

With structurally complex substances, mixtures or utensils, the KF titration will predominantly be oriented according to the physical characteristics of the substance. If the substance is soluble, th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Copper(II) chloride-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Copper(II) nitrate-3-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Copper(II) sulfate-5-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Corn silage (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Corn starch Using Karl Fischer Titration

Although corn starch does not dissolve in the media of the KF titration, the water can be easily extracted. The time required for the extraction and therefore for titration at room temperature is app...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Crospovidon Using Karl Fischer Titration

The mentioned product does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF titration. Also solvents like chloroform, xylene, NMP or Formamide do not improve the solubility. Nevertheless we experienced ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Crude oil Using Karl Fischer Titration

Mineral oils and products with a similar structure, often contain long chain or aromatic compounds which are only soluble in Methanol to a limited extent. Solubility is improved by the addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Crude oils, various Using Karl Fischer Titration

Mineral oils and products with a similar structure, often contain long chain or aromatic compounds which are only soluble in Methanol to a limited extent. Solubility is improved by the addition of Ch...
Keywords: Homogenization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Curd cheese Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cyclodextrin (gamma) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cycloheptane Using Karl Fischer Titration

Water determination in hydrocarbons is relatively straightforward. Lower hydrocarbons dissolve in methanol, however, even if the dissolution is incomplete, the water is rapidly extracted and complete...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cyclohexylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cyclophosphamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

The above mentioned product does not show any problems with the KF titration. We tested many different HYDRANAL reagents and found same reliable results with all types. In the investigated sample we ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Cysteine hydrochloride-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D(+)-Glucose monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D(+)-Lactose Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D(+)-Maltose Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D(-)-Fructose Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D(-)a-Phenylglycine dane salt Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of Formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D(-)p-Hydroxyphenylglycine dane salt Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of Formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in D-(+)Glucose anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Anhydrous glucose hardly dissolves in the methanolic media used in KF titration. To improve the solubility and thus shorten the titration time, either the titration should be carried out at 50�C, or ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dazomet Using Karl Fischer Titration

In the standard media of KF titration, for example methanol, the substance causes a marked side reaction, such that the titration allows no end point. We found out that the side reaction is dependent...
Keywords: Pesticides, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Decking protector Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated sample was consisting of naphtha, carbon hydrogen resin, white alcohol and trace amounts of carbamic acid butyl-3-iodo-2-propynylester. In the methanolic medium of the KF titration t...
Keywords: Indicators, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Deodorant Roll-on Using Karl Fischer Titration

The above mentioned product does not cause any problems in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. In Methanol occurs a precipitation, which does not influence the determination.
Keywords: Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dexpanthenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

This substance is highly viscous and hygroscopic. Both of these properties require special handling of the sample in order to obtain reproducible results. In experiments, we discovered that very good...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dextromethorphan hydrobromide Using Karl Fischer Titration

The water content in this substance can be determined without difficulty by KF titration. In a sample we analyzed, we found 4.88% H2O.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dextromethorphan hydrobromide x H2O Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Halogenated Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Karl Fischer titrations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dextrose (anhydrous) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diatrizoic acid dihydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Nitrogen Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dichloroacetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diethanolamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diethylene glycol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diethylene glycol diethylether Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diethylene glycol methyl ether Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diethylenetriamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diheptylether Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dihydroxyazobenzene (Sudanorange) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dimethyl glyoxime Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dipentylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diphenylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dipyron hydrate (metamizol, methampyrone) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Dipyron hydrate dissolves very well in the classic media methanol, HYDRANAL-CompoSolver E or HYDRANAL-Solvent, which allows the KF titration procedure to be carried out with ease. A monohydrate gives...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Diquat dibromide monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Disodium hydrogen phosphate-12-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of KF titration and requires a solubilizer. Formamide proves to be very beneficial. For the sample we examined, a mixture of Methanol and Formam...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dobutamine hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralised. This can be carried out directly in thetitration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid,...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Doxorubicin hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance exhibited varying dissolution behavior. It only dissolved satisfactorily in methanol with formamide added as a solubilizer. Approx. 0.3 g dissolved in HYDRANAL-Solvent, larger sample qu...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in EDTA disodium salt dihydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Nitrogen Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Cosmetic Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Egg white, dried Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Egg yolk, liquid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Electrolyte polishing solution Using Karl Fischer Titration

Electrolyte polishing solution is consisting of hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid in a ratio 1:1:6. The water content of the acid mixture is easy to determine when a medium for neu...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ephedrine hemihydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in Methanol and addition of solubility mediators are only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Epichlorohydrin (1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) Using Karl Fischer Titration

We determined the water content of the sample by volumetric and coulometric method. The volumetric determination can be carried out trouble-free. While coulometric investigation we experienced an exo...
Keywords: Exothermic, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Erythromycin Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethanol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethoprophos Using Karl Fischer Titration

The structure of the sample raises the question whether the iodine contained in the reagent causes a side reaction. This question can be answered by means of a simple test: a portion of the sample is...
Keywords: Pesticides, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethosuximide (3-Ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-pyrrolidinedione Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample is a waxy, solid mass, which is not easily homogenized. The results of the determination of water content can therefore vary somewhat. The substance can be titrated in methanol, but HYDRAN...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethyl iso-butyl ketone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethylene glycol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethyleneimine Homopolymer (Polyamine) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ethylthioglycolate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Europium acetate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Face lotion Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fatty alcohol sulfate sodium salt Using Karl Fischer Titration

The long-chained �fatty alcohol� that we investigated contained sodium chloride and sodium sulfate and is solid at room temperature. At room temperature the sample will only dissolve in a chloroform-...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fennel powder Using Karl Fischer Titration

At room temperature the extraction of water is slow, causing a long determination time of 11 minutes. Formamide accelerates the titration, but after 6 minutes it is still not complete. The water is f...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fish extract Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample does not dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration, but the water can be extracted sufficiently. If only methanol at room temperature is used in the titration vessel, the determ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fish food Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fish oil silage Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fish oil silage does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF-titration. If methanol is used in the titration vessel the water of the sample can be extracted. If an ethanol-based reagent is pref...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fluorescein di-sodium salt (Uranine) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carboxylic Acid Salts, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Dehydration reaction, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fluticasone propionate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance is not sufficiently soluble in the alcoholic media of the KF titration, but chloroform has proved itself as a dissolution agent. Chloroform can be replaced in many cases with long-chain...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fluvastatin sodium Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample analyzed dissolved easily in the alcoholic media used in KF titration. To check whether the substance is hygroscopic, we exposed it to air for 10 minutes. Surprisingly, water evaporated, w...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Folic Acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fondant (Saccharose + Glucose syrup) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Foot Bath Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Foot Fit Gel Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formaldehyde Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formaldehyde, free water Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formaldehyde, total water Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fosfomycin sodium Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance is highly hygroscopic; the handling of the sample must be accordingly careful and quick. For the test, we exposed the sample to air for one hour; we then found 7.45% H2O. In methanol-co...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fruit gum Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Fumaric acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Gel emulsions Using Karl Fischer Titration

The three samples we analyzed contained Xanthan gum (long-chained polysaccharide) and acrylate cross polymer (polyacrylic acids), sample 1 contained titanium dioxide. When the samples were added to t...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Gelatine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Food Products, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Gentamicin sulfate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The above substance does not dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. According to the recommendation given in the Ph. Eur. we could not find the complete water content. An addition of f...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ginger, ground Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glucose polymer Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample tends to cover the indicator electrode if methanol, HYDRANAL-CompoSolver E or HYDRANAL-Solvent is used in the titration vessel. Also at higher temperatures like 40-50�C. This problem can b...
Keywords: Indicators, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glucose syrup Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glutardialdehyde solution 50% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol dibehenate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Carboxylic Acid Salts
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol monooleate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The long-chain oleate does not dissolve in the alcoholic media used in KF titration and therefore requires a solubiliser. Dichloromethane has proven to be advantageous for the substance. A sample tha...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol monostearate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol monothioglycolate 75% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Glyoxal solution 40% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Grain seed grounded (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Guaiacol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hand Balm (hand cream) Using Karl Fischer Titration

The properties of the sample did not permit any determination of water content under standard working conditions. It was not adequately distributed, with the result that it was never possible to comp...
Keywords: Indicators, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hay or Grass (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hazelnuts, ground Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water prior to th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Herb extract (liquid) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hexafluoroaceton sesquihydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ketones have a tendency to form ketals. At the same time water is formed. Cyclohexanone and acetone react rapidly, long chain ketones react more slowly. Aromatically substituted ketones only react ve...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hexahydrotrimethoxypropyltriazine TMPT Using Karl Fischer Titration

We experienced that the found amount of water decreases with increasing sample sizes. We could not find a working medium which avoids this problem absolutely. The use of very small sample sizes and t...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hexamethylenediamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hexamethylenediamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hexamethylenetetramine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Histamine phosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Homoveratrylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Honey Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrazine hydrate solution Using Karl Fischer Titration

Under standard conditions Hydrazine Hydrate solution causes a side reaction with the iodine present in a KF-titration. The side-reaction can be suppressed if the working medium in the titration vesse...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrazine monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

This sample shows a significant side-reaction in the standard conditions of the KF titration and is therefore not possible. If the working conditions are acidified however, the side-reaction is suppr...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydro Activ Fluid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrochloric acid 32% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrochloric acid, anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrochloric-acid (in 1-Butanol 3 mol/l) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Solvation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrofluoric-acid (1-10 % in Ethylenglycol) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrofluoric-acid (37,5 % in water/ethanol) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrofluoric-acid (in Triethylamine 3:1) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrogen peroxide 35% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Metal peroxides react with the KF reagents and form water. They cannot be titrated directly. Hydroperoxides form iodine and an equivalent amount of water. An interference will therefore not occur. Di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydroquinone Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydroquinone monomethyl ether Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carbohydrates, Cosmetic Products + Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydroxyzine pamoate Using Karl Fischer Titration

This substance is a fine powder, which is however insoluble in methanol. The water was extracted within 6-10 minutes, we found 2.38%. Solubility was also not improved by the addition of formamide. Th...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in I-Leucovorin Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ice-cream Using Karl Fischer Titration

The melted ice-cream sample was carefully homogenized before the analysis. The subsequent titration in methanol was problem-free; we found 39.4 % H2O. To improve the dissolution of the fat content, t...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Imidazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Indole-3-carboxylic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Instant coffee Using Karl Fischer Titration

We investigated three types of coffee and found that in each case to some degree a side-reaction took place. The side-reaction is pH dependant, which is typical of one That involves the oxidation of ...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iodomethane Using Karl Fischer Titration

The water determination in iodomethane is straight forward and can be carried out according standard procedures. The procedure given is also described in the HYDRANAL-Manual, volumetric titration usi...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ipratropium bromide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds, Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iron(II) lactate hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The product dissolves in the alcoholic media of the KF titration very badly. Addition of formamide did not show an advantage. The titration at 40 �C reduced the titration time. We experienced at diff...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iron(II) sulfate-7-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent moisture in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iron(III) oxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

KF solutions react slightly acidic and can dissolve oxides, hydroxides and carbonates. This leads to formation of water which also gets titrated. Individual oxides or carbonates react, however, in di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iron(III) pyrophosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iron(III) sulfate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Iso-Amyl acetate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid esters give hardly any problems during the KF titration. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol and the use of propanol or chloroform as solubilizer is only necessary in the c...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Isomalt (Glucosylsorbitol/Glucosylmannitol) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Jam Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Jelly sweets Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in K-Ti-Oxide-Oxalate-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance mentioned above does not dissolve in methanol. Nevertheless the water of crystallization can be titrated in suspension. A methanol/formamide mixture dissolves the salt completely. But i...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Kerion F Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in L-Hydroxytryptophan Using Karl Fischer Titration

As the substance becomes more complex during KF titration and its behavior is unorthodox, we have carried out a number of trials. For more detailed information, please contact the HYDRANAL Lab and as...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in L-Lysine monohydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF titration. Formamide produces a clear improvement when used as a dissolution agent. The sample dissolves well, however, in HYDRANAL-Bu...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lacquer (Nitrocellulose + solvents) Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated sample consisted of Nitrocellulose, Cellulose acetate, Ethanol, Butanol and Acetone. The sample requires a working medium which dissolves the sample and avoids a side reaction with t...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lacquer PL, aluminised Using Karl Fischer Titration

The lacquer is agglutinated in methanol, the standard medium of KF titration, and also in the ethanol-containing medium HYDRANAL-CompoSolver E. Suitable media for dissolving the sample are the methan...
Keywords: Condensations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lactic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lanolin Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Fats + Fat Products, Cosmetic Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lanolin, liquid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Leather Using Karl Fischer Titration

With structurally complex substances, mixtures or utensils, the KF titration will predominantly be oriented according to the physical characteristics of the substance. If the substance is soluble, th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lecithin Using Karl Fischer Titration

With structurally complex substances, mixtures or utensils, the KF titration will predominantly be oriented according to the physical characteristics of the substance. If the substance is soluble, th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Liquorice, hard Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Liquorice, soft Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Lucerne silage or hay(animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in MCPA sodium monohydrate (Sodium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetate) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Theoretical water content of a monohydrate is 7.48%. MCPA sodium monohydrate dissolves well in the standard media used in KF titration, which means that water content can be determined with ease. We ...
Keywords: Pesticides, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Machine oil with additives Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated sample caused a strong side reaction with the KF reagent. We experienced that the side reaction was not caused by a mercaptan, special treatment did not suppress the problem. Also th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Magnesium aspartate-4-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Magnesium aspartate-4-hydrate dissolves extremely poorly in the methanolic media used in KF titration. To be able to titrate the water content, not only must formamide be added as a solubilizer, but ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Magnesium di-aspartate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Magnesium lactate-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Maize / Corn Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Maleic acid / Acrylic acid copolymer Using Karl Fischer Titration

The above mentioned product does not dissolve in the alcoholic media of the KF titration. We investigated three different samples with different behavior. In the first ample a covering of the electro...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Malonic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Addition reactions, Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Maltitol, aqueous solution Using Karl Fischer Titration

If the sample is added to the alcoholic media of KF titration, it causes precipitation, which dissolves again very slowly but not completely. The detrimental effect is that the precipitation causes a...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Maltodextrin Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Maltodextrine with orange or lemon flavour Using Karl Fischer Titration

As with all sugars, both maltodextrine samples have not sufficiently dissolved in the alcoholic KF titration media. Formamide has proven itself as a dissolution agent, however, we have observed resid...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Mandelic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Mangan(II) nitrate-4-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Margarine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Marzipan Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Mayonnaise Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Mercaptopurine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Methanesulfonyl chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Methotrexate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The above substance does not cause any problems in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. We used sample sizes according to the recommendation given in the Ph. Eur. In the investigated sample we f...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Methyl hydroxybenzoate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Methyl salicylate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Methylcyclohexane Using Karl Fischer Titration

Water determination in hydrocarbons is relatively straightforward. Lower hydrocarbons dissolve in methanol, however, even if the dissolution is incomplete, the water is rapidly extracted and complete...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Milk Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Milk powder (skimmed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Milk powder (whole milk) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Milk replacement (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Mineral coal dust Using Karl Fischer Titration

Usually natural products does not release the whole water at room temperature. With this product we have the same problem as well. The titration last approx. 8 min. and the results a pending from 3.6...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Molasses Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Morantel-tartrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample dissolves in the alcoholic media of the KF titration totally in the first step. After a while a precipitation takes place . With the titration in Methanol we found a water content of 4,47%.
Keywords: Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Morpholine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Diethylacetamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Diethylaniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Dimethylacetamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Dimethylamino-propylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Dimethylaniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Dimethylcyclohexylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N,N-Dimethylethanolamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N-Acetyl-L-cysteine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Sulfur Compounds, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N-Methyl piperidine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N-Methylaniline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in N-vinyl-2-pirrolidone (stabilised) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Naphthol yellow S Using Karl Fischer Titration

In the analysis of three samples, we determined that naphthol yellow S does not dissolve in the alcohol-containing media; the water content is only partially extracted. A proportion of 50% formamide ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Niclosamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Niclosamide hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pesticides, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Nicotine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Nicotinic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Night cream sensitive Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Noodles Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Norepinephedrine-hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Oats (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Ointment base Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Oral Ointment Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated sample was based on glycerol, guar gum and calcium lactate. We experienced, that the sample causes fading endpoints and the product was not homogeneous. We homogenized the sample bef...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Oxalic Acid, anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Oxalic Acid-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Oxamyl Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample dissolves in the alcoholic media of the KF titration fast and totally. Using one- and two component reagents we found comparable results. The water content of the investigated sample was 0...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Oxytetracyclin hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample dissolves readily in the alcoholic media of the KF reagents. The ethanol-based HYDRANAL-E type reagents can also be used for the analysis. The substance is highly hygroscopic. The water co...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in PYCA (4-Pyridiniummethyl-7-aminocephalosporin-acid) Using Karl Fischer Titration

PYCA does not dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration, however the water is extensively extracted during the titration. We found 4.45% water in a titration with HYDRANAL-Composite 5 in m...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Panthenole Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Paraformaldehyde Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Paraquat dichloride hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample we analyzed did not dissolve fully in methanol, an ethanolic medium is even less suitable. In methanol, the sample also caused a reddish-brown discoloration. If formamide is added as a sol...
Keywords: Pesticides, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Penicillin-G-potassium Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Pepper powdered Using Karl Fischer Titration

Pepper does not dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. The total water content is released only very slowly in a volumetric titration and the addition of Formamide or the titration at ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Perchloric acid (0.1 mol/l in glacial acetic acid) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Perchloric acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phenol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde-Condensate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phenyl hydrazine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenyl hydrazine is oxidized by the iodine present in the KF reagent. As a result, an iodometric determination of assay is carried out in addition to the water content determination. A sample that we...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phenylglyoxal hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Similar to glyoxal this product does not show the typical side reaction for aldehydes. With the direct titration we experienced fading endpoints and results. Obviously a part of the water is bounded ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phosphino carboxylic acid homopolymer Using Karl Fischer Titration

The highly viscous sample does not dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. A covering of the indicator electrode causes indication problems. The addition of formamide helps to dissolve ...
Keywords: Indicators, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phosphoric acid 85% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Phthalylsulfathiazole Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance dissolves in the usual media of KF titration, with dissolution in HYDRANAL-Solvent being considerably quicker than in methanol or in HYDRANAL-CompoSolver E. Suitable for volumetric titr...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Piperazine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Piperazine citrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Piperidine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Poloxamers Using Karl Fischer Titration

Determining the water content of a poloxamer can be done easily, it dissolves well in the methanolic media of the KF titration. During a series of trials we noticed that the substance is hygroscopic....
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Poly lactate gluconic acid (PLAG) mixture with starch Using Karl Fischer Titration

In the direct titration the complete water is only extracted very slowly. The addition of formamide and the titration at 50�C improves the extraction behavior. Investigations showed that also the ind...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Poly-L-lactate (PLLA / Polylactic acid) Using Karl Fischer Titration

The consistency of the sample is a colorless granulate. First we tested whether direct titration of the water content was possible. The granulate cannot be dissolved for direct titration in the alcoh...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyacrylamide (Copolymer) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyamine, Ethylenimine-homopolymer Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyetherpolyol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyethylene glycol 200 Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyethylene imine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Various volumetric titrations were carried out with HYDRANAL�-Composite 5. 1.The substance dissolved in methanol after adding 5 g salicylic acid; we found 1.42% H2O. The solution quickly became cloud...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polymethylmethaacrylate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Polymers + Plastics, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polysorbate 80 Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Cosmetic Products + Compounds
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyurea in polyol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The investigated sample was declared as Polyol with 20% of polyurea, dispersion (PHD), containing particles of Polyhydrazodicarbonamide The sample was investigated according to different methods. By ...
Keywords: Indicators, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Polyvinylacetate dispersion Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Popcorn Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water prior to th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium citrate-1-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium fluoride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium fluoride, spray-dried Using Karl Fischer Titration

Inorganic salts very often do not dissolve in methanol. Solubilizer are necessary to determine the total water content. The adherent water can be determinated by titrating the salt in suspension in a...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium hexacyano ferrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium hexacyano ferrate(II)-3-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

This substance does not dissolve to a clear solution in the methanolic medium of the KF titration. A cloudy solution forms and the addition of formamide or HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid to aid solubility lead...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium hexafluorophosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium hydrogen aspartate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Potassium hydrogen aspartate does not dissolve in the alcoholic media used in KF titration and therefore requires a solubilizer. Formamide has proven to be a suitable solubilizer. A sample that we an...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium hydrogen fluoride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potassium tetraoxalate-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample does not dissolve sufficiently in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. It requires the addition of formamide as solubilizer, the increase of the pH in the titration vessel and a stirr...
Keywords: Sublimation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potato Chips Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potato fibre Using Karl Fischer Titration

In the standard method for the KF titration the water content of potato fiber can only be insufficiently extracted. As is typical for the titration of many natural products, Formamide has to be added...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Potato starch Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Povidon Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample analyzed consisted of a fine white powder, during handling we noticed a strong hygroscopic capacity. To test the extent, we exposed the sample to air for 5 minutes and obtained a multiple ...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Powdered whey Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample examined was a partially lactose-free quality. The titration procedure for various experiments, beginning with titration at room temperature, at 50�C and also in simmering methanol produce...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Prilocaine Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample dissolves readily in the alcoholic media of the KF reagents. The ethanol-based HYDRANAL-E type reagents can also be used for the analysis. We found fluctuating water contents, irrespective...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Proflavine hemisulphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Propanediol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Propargyl alcohol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Propionic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Pyridine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Pyridoxal-5-phosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Pyrocatechol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Pyrogallol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Pyrrolidine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Quinoline Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Resorcinol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Resorcinol dimethyl ether Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizers. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Riboflavin phosphate sodium Using Karl Fischer Titration

According to the Ph. Eur. this substance is a mixture of riboflavin-5�-sodium hydrogen phosphate as the main component and other riboflavin sodium monophosphates. The substance does not dissolve in t...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Rice starch Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Rusk (Zwieback) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in S-Adenosyl-L-methionine-sulfate-sylate Using Karl Fischer Titration

This substance does not dissolve in the methanolic media used in KF titration. No advantage is gained from additions to vary the pH value in the titration vessel. Formamide, however, has proven itsel...
Keywords: Addition reactions, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in S-Carboxymethyl-L-cysteine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Salbutamol hemisulphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample dissolves to various degrees in the alcoholic media of the KF reagents. In methanol, it dissolves slowly but completely. In HYDRANAL-Solvent, it dissolves very rapidly and in the non-toxic...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Salicylaldehyde Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Salicylic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Salinomycin sodium salt Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sarafloxacin hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

The sample analyzed was a fine, flocculent powder. The determined water content makes this a trihydrate. The solubility is very limited. The substance dissolves slowly but not completely in methanol....
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Scopolamine hydrobromide Using Karl Fischer Titration

The national pharmacopoeia versions prescribe exact methods for the analysis of pharmacopoeia products, which may also be carried out with HYDRANAL reagents. We have examined a number of pharmacopoei...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Semolina Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Serine phosphoric acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Shampoo (Camomile extract) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Shower gel Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium acetate (waterfree) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium acetate trihydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium azide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium citrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium dichromate-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Sodium Dichromate-2-Hydrate causes an indication disturbance in the medium of the KF titration and as a result large quantities of reagent are dosed into the titration vessel. Changing the pH in the ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium dodecyl sulfonate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The water content of the substance can be determined easily with various reagents of volumetric titration. In methanol, the medium remains very cloudy in the titration vessel, to the point that when ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium formate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Sodium formate only dissolves very slowly and incompletely in the alcoholic media of the KF titration. The water content determined is always rather too low. Due to the poor dissolution of the substa...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium hypophosphite-1-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium methylate Using Karl Fischer Titration

There are a number of compounds which will react with the Karl Fischer reagent and form water. This would allow to titrate those compounds using a KF titration even if they are only a minor side-comp...
Keywords: Karl Fischer titrations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium perchlorate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium selenite pentahydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Theoretical water content of this sample is 34.2%. During direct volumetric titration, sodium selenite creates a film on the indicator electrode. This has a considerable affect on the indication and ...
Keywords: Indicators, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium sulfate, anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium sulfate-10-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sodium-L-glutamate-1-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sorbitan monostearate Using Karl Fischer Titration

The Ph. Eur. Prescribes the water content determination in methanol as working medium. The substance hardly dissolves at all, the water can only be leached. Long-chain alcohols have a better dissolvi...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sorbitol solution 70% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Sorbitol solution can be used in KF titration without any problems and can therefore be titrated using standard methods. We used a small disposable syringe without a hypodermic needle to take samples...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Soup, dehydrated Using Karl Fischer Titration

Foodstuffs are heterogeneous products which often contain cellular residues. The KF titration requires special measures. In order to obtain a representative sample, a larger sample must be homogenize...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sour Dough Extract Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Soya beans (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Soybean meal Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Soybean oil (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Starch Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Starch syrup Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Strontium chloride-6-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Stucco Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent moisture in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Succinic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The water content of succinic acid is in principle easy to determine if a suitable medium is placed in the titration vessel. In HYDRANAL-Methanol Rapid, succinic acid dissolves with ease, in HYDRANAL...
Keywords: Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sulfacetamide sodium Using Karl Fischer Titration

According to Ph. Eur. The water content of sulfacetamide sodium is 6.0-8.0 %. The theoretical water content is 7.09 %. In the investigated sample we found 7.22 % without any problems. The titration t...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sulfonylurea Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidised by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sulfuric acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralised. This can be carried out directly in thetitration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid,...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sulfuric-hydrofluoric-acid mix Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralised. This can be carried out directly in thetitration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid,...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sultanas (Raisins) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sun tan cream Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sun tan lotion Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Super Effect Fluid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Suxamethonium chloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

Group(s): Pharmaceutical Products + Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Precipitation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Sweetmeat (Mamba) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tagat TQ Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Talcum Using Karl Fischer Titration

With structurally complex substances, mixtures or utensils, the KF titration will predominantly be oriented according to the physical characteristics of the substance. If the substance is soluble, th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tallow fat amine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tannic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tego betain Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tergitol using direct determination Using Karl Fischer Titration

For Tergitol, we tested only coulometric titration. However, conclusions can also be drawn on volumetric titration. A sample was injected directly into a coulometry cell. In order to verify the accur...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tetraethylenpentamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Texpon 100 Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Thiamine hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

No problems were encountered in determining the water content of this substance using the KF method. Titration in methanol lasted about 6 minutes, we found 3.42% water. In the ethanol-based medium HY...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Precipitation, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Thioglycolic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Thiokol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidised by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tin (II) chloride-2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tin (IV) chloride-5-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tobacco Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tobacco extract Using Karl Fischer Titration

Tobacco is a tough mass, which does not dissolve in the standard alcoholic conditions of the KF titration. An addition of Xylene does not sufficiently aid solubility. The sample dissolves within 2-3 ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tobacco rips Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tobramycine sulphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Tobramycine sulfate dissolves extremely poorly in the alcoholic medium of the KF-titration. The best conditions to dissolve it where found to be at 40�C in a mixture of 2:1 HYDRANAL-Solvent : formami...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Toffee Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Toffee cream Using Karl Fischer Titration

Confectionery varies in composition, this necessitates different kinds of treatment. Formamide improves sample dissolution in the case of high sugar contents. High fat contents require addition of Ch...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Toothpaste Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tribenuron-methyl Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance, a fine powder, dissolves to various degrees in the alcohol-containing media of the KF reagents. It does not dissolve completely in methanol; the water contained is extracted, however, ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Triethanolamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Triethylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Triethylenetetramine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Trifluoroacetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Trilon BD Using Karl Fischer Titration

Cosmetic products are very often preparations with a very high water content which must be exactly determined. This requires precise sampling, weighing and administration of the substance. The sample...
Keywords: Sample preparations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tris-Hydroxymethylaminomethane Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Tris-Hydroxymethylaminomethane Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Trisodium citrate 2-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carboxylic acid salts can be straightforwardly analyzed provided the sample dissolves rapidly in the working medium. Dissolution is accelerated by the addition of formamide, titration at elevated tem...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Triton X 105 using direct determination Using Karl Fischer Titration

For Triton X105, we tested only coulometric titration. However, the results suggest that volumetric titration is also suitable. A sample was injected directly into a coulometry cell. In order to veri...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Urea Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Urea feed stuff (animal feed) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Since the water content of natural materials is released very slowly, it is sometimes trapped in a cellular structure. We tested two methods for the water content determination. 1. Medium in titratio...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Urea formaldehyde resin Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Urea-formaldehyde-condensates Using Karl Fischer Titration

Polymers are hardly soluble and are mainly analyzed through use of a KF oven, although the temperature must be optimized for each product. Some plastic powders release water easily and can be titrate...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Solvents, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Vinyl acetate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Ethers behave similarly to hydrocarbons. They are mostly adequately soluble in methanol. Only long chain ethers require the addition of propanol or chloroform as solubilizors. Double bonds can someti...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Vinyl methyl acetamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Wax for cosmetical use Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Melting, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Wax for cosmetical use Using Karl Fischer Titration

Fats dissolve inadequately in Methanol, Chloroform must therefore be added as mediator. The titrations mainly run quickly and without interferences. The samples often contain very small amounts of wa...
Keywords: Melting, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Wheat Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable and plant products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water p...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Wheat flour Using Karl Fischer Titration

Carbohydrates comprise diverse compounds, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides dissolve in Methanol or solvent mixtures and can thus be titrated. If only adherent water is to be de...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Whey fat emulsion Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in White Pepper Using Karl Fischer Titration

Pepper does not dissolve in the alcoholic medium of the KF titration. The sample we investigated was ground pepper with rough pieces in it. The direct volumetric titration indicated the extraction of...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Yeast, fresh Using Karl Fischer Titration

Vegetable products contain cellular matter which releases water only slowly. The direct titration at room temperature is therefore not recommended. It is possible to pre-extract the water prior to th...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Yoghurt Using Karl Fischer Titration

Milk consists mainly of water, therefore its determination is straightforward. Particular care must be taken when adding the sample since an imprecise or erroneous administration can lead to very lar...
Keywords: Separation, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Yttrium trifluoroacetate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Investigations showed that the sample contained trace amounts of Yttrium oxide which pretends a too high water content. Therefore the indirect method in combination with an oven should be preferred. ...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Zinc oxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

KF solutions react slightly acidic and can dissolve oxides, hydroxides and carbonates. This leads to formation of water which also gets titrated. Individual oxides or carbonates react, however, in di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Zinc peroxide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Metal peroxides react with the KF reagents and form water. They cannot be titrated directly. Hydroperoxides form iodine and an equivalent amount of water. An interference will therefore not occur. Di...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Zinc sulfate-7-hydrate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent moisture in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in beta-Aminocrotonamide Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in m-Cresol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in m-Toluidine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in n-Butylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in n-Butyraldehyde Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in n-Dodecylthiol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidized by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in n-Hexylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in n-Propylamine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in o-Cresol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in o-Tolidine Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in p-Cresol Using Karl Fischer Titration

Phenols behave differently. Most of them can be titrated in the usual manner, some are oxidized by iodine. o-Cresol shows a slight tendency towards oxidation, divalent phenols are easily oxidized. Py...
Keywords: Oxidations, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in tri-Magnesium phosphate Using Karl Fischer Titration

Adherent water in salts can be easily determined. It is best to choose a working medium which will prevent the salt from dissolving, e.g. a Methanol-Chloroform mixture with an excess of Chloroform. T...
Keywords: Crystallization, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Determining Water Content in Pesticides by Karl Fischer

The water content of any substance or product may affect its quality, shelf life, chemical stability, and reactivity. This is especially true of reference materials, as water content is a crucial fac...
Helga Hoffmann, Technical Service HYDRANAL Manager
Andrea Felgner, Product Manager Analytical Reagents

AnalytiX Volume 9 Article 1
Keywords: Fungicides, Insecticides, Karl Fischer titrations, Oxidations, Pesticides, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

HYDRANAL® K Reagent Line for Determination of Water Content in Samples Containing Aldehydes and Ketones

The HYDRANAL® K reagent line is designed to meet the needs of the analytical chemist, providing accurate water content determination by Karl Fischer (KF) titration in samples containing aldehydes and...
Helga Hoffmann,Andrea Felgner
AnalytiX Volume 9 Article 5
Keywords: Addition reactions, Karl Fischer titrations, Nucleophilic additions, Titrations

Water Determination in Chocolate and Cocoa

Cocoa and chocolate have a fascinating history. Pre-Columbian cultures in Latin America cultivated cacao trees over 3,000 years ago. The main use was a chocolate beverage called xocolatl. In Mayan an...
Helga Hoffmann, Andrea Felgner
AnalytiX Volume 10 Article 2
Keywords: Fermentation, Karl Fischer titrations, Titrations

Related Content

Agriculture | Crop Protection Workflow

Pesticides are an essential component in modern agriculture and enable growers to fully realize the yield potential of their seeds. From compound discovery to active ingredient development, our chemi...
Keywords: Agriculture, Pesticides, Sequencing

Calculation of Sample Size within a Volumetric System [VIDEO]

This Karl Fischer technical tip video discusses the formula commonly used in monographs to determine the recommended amount of sample size within a volumetric system. The burette size, strength (tite...
Keywords: Karl Fischer titrations, Titrations

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

Fast pyrolysis processing of surfactant washed Miscanthus Banks, S.W., et al. Fuel Process. Technol. 128, 94-103, (2014)

Hydrodeoxygenation of fast-pyrolysis bio-oils from various feedstocks using carbon-supported catalysts Elkasabi, Y., et al. Fuel Process. Technol. 123, 11-18, (2014)

Solvent systems with n-hexane and/or cyclohexane in countercurrent chromatography--Physico-chemical parameters and their impact on the separation of alkyl hydroxybenzoates. Englert M and Vetter W J. Chromatogr. A 1342, 54-62, (2014)

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Supramolecular elucidation of the quality attributes of microcrystalline cellulose and isomalt composite pellet cores. Antal I, Kállai N, Luhn O, et al. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 84, 124-8, (2013)

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34817 HYDRANAL®-Working Medium K, reagent for volumetric one-component KF titration in aldehydes and ketones (working medium)
34698 HYDRANAL®-Medium K, reagent for volumetric one-component KF titration in aldehydes and ketones (working medium)
34697 HYDRANAL®-Solver (Crude) oil, reagent for volumetric one- and two-component KF titration in oils (working medium)

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