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PHR1020 Fluka

Glycerin

pharmaceutical secondary standard; traceable to USP and PhEur

Synonym: 1,2,3-Propanetriol, Glycerin, Glycerol

  • CAS Number 56-81-5

  • Linear Formula HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH

  • Molecular Weight 92.09

  •  Beilstein Registry Number 635685

  •  EC Number 200-289-5

  •  MDL number MFCD00004722

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Properties

Related Categories Additional Standards, Alcohol, All Alphabetically Sorted, Analytical Standards, Analytical/Chromatography,
grade   certified reference material
  pharmaceutical secondary standard
vapor density   3.1 (vs air)
vapor pressure   <1 mmHg ( 20 °C)
form   neat
autoignition temp.   698 °F
refractive index   n20/D 1.474(lit.)
bp   182 °C/20 mmHg(lit.)
mp   20 °C(lit.)
density   1.25 g/mL(lit.)
format   neat
pharmacopeia traceability   traceable to PhEur G0400000
  traceable to USP 1295607

Description

Analysis Note

These secondary standards offer multi-traceability to the USP, EP (PhEur) and BP primary standards, where they are available.

Application

Glycerol is used both in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycerol (5-10%) increases the density of a sample so that the sample will layer at the bottom of a gel’s sample well. Glycerol is also used to aid in casting gradient gels and as a protein stabilizer and storage buffer component.

General description

Certified Fluka® pharmaceutical secondary standards for application in quality control provide pharma laboratories and manufacturers with a convenient and cost-effective alternative to pharmacopeia primary standards

Other Notes

This product was designed, produced and verified for accuracy and stability in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (AClass Cert AT-1467), ISO GUIDES 34:2009 (AClass Cert AR-1470).

Legal Information

FLUKA is a registered trademark of FLUKA GmbH

Price and Availability


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Diethylene glycol

pharmaceutical secondary standard; traceable to USP and PhEur

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Glycerin

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
MA8050000
Flash Point(F) 
320 °F
Flash Point(C) 
160 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Related Content

Flavor and Fragrance Analysis

It’s all about your workflow. Sample preparation, separation, detection and analysis. Speed and resolution is key in determining purity or verifying composition.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Gas chromatography, Mass spectrometry, Sample preparations, Separation

Reliable Identification of F&F Components by GC/MS and Linear Retention Indices and Multidimensional Chromatography [VIDEO]

In this on-demand webinar by Prof. Luigi Mondello of the University of Messina, Italy, highlights the shortcomings of GC/MS analysis in the identification of F&F compounds when using a straightforwar...
Keywords: Chromatography, Gas chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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2-D Proteome Analysis Protocols. Link, A.J. ed. Methods Mol. Biol. Totowa, NJ , (1999) 112

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Guidelines for glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration associated with exercise. van Rosendal SP, Osborne MA, Fassett RG, et al. Sports Med. 40(2), 113-29, (2010)

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Implication of the anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid prostaglandin D2-glycerol ester in the control of macrophage activation and inflammation by ABHD6. Alhouayek M, Masquelier J, Cani PD, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(43), 17558-63, (2013)

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Increased systemic and adipose tissue inflammation differentiates obese women with T2DM from obese women with normal glucose tolerance. van Beek L, Lips MA, Visser A, et al. Metabolism 63(4), 492-501, (2014)

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The metabolic costs of improving ethanol yield by reducing glycerol formation capacity under anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pagliardini J, Hubmann G, Alfenore S, et al. Microb. Cell Fact. 12, 29, (2013)

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Measurements of interstitial muscle glycerol in normal and insulin-resistant subjects. Sjöstrand M, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Holmäng A, et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(5), 2206-11, (2002)

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Physiological and performance effects of glycerol hyperhydration and rehydration. van Rosendal SP, Osborne MA, Fassett RG, et al. Nutr. Rev. 67(12), 690-705, (2009)

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Microbial utilization of crude glycerol for the production of value-added products. Dobson R, Gray V, and Rumbold K J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39(2), 217-26, (2012)

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Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, et al. Nature 457(7231), 910-4, (2009)

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Blood glycerol meaning in obese patients. Pecora P, Suraci C, Antonelli M, et al. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 57(23), 2389-93, (1981)

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EBPR using crude glycerol: assessing process resiliency and exploring metabolic anomalies. Coats ER, Dobroth ZT, and Brinkman CK Water Environ. Res. 87(1), 68-79, (2015)

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An analysis of 72% chromated glycerin used for sclerotherapy: sterility, potency, and cost after extended shelf life. Ghaznavi AM, Nakamura M, and Tepper D Dermatol. Surg. 41(1), 121-5, (2015)

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Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women. Dennis CL, Jackson K, and Watson J Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12, CD007366, (2014)

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Bioprosthetic valve durability: the proof is in the pudding. Schmoker J J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 149(1), 346-7, (2015)

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A randomized assessment of an advanced tissue preservation technology in the juvenile sheep model. Flameng W, Hermans H, Verbeken E, et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 149(1), 340-5, (2015)

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Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Daniels JB, Scoffield J, Woolnough JL, et al. Can. J. Microbiol. 60(12), 857-63, (2014)

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Evaluation of glycerol-preserved bone allografts in cervical spine fusion: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Graham RS, Samsell BJ, Proffer A, et al. J. Neurosurg. Spine 22(1), 1-10, (2015)

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N-terminal α7 deletion of the proteasome 20S core particle substitutes for yeast PI31 function. Yashiroda H, Toda Y, Otsu S, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 35(1), 141-52, (2015)

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Identification of the major prostaglandin glycerol ester hydrolase in human cancer cells. Manna JD, Wepy JA, Hsu KL, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(49), 33741-53, (2014)

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Hydrogen peroxide production from glycerol metabolism is dispensable for virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the tracheas of chickens. Szczepanek SM, Boccaccio M, Pflaum K, et al. Infect. Immun. 82(12), 4915-20, (2014)

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Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide augments glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Christensen M, Calanna S, Sparre-Ulrich AH, et al. Diabetes 64(1), 72-8, (2015)

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Deleted in breast cancer 1 limits adipose tissue fat accumulation and plays a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome phenotype. Escande C, Nin V, Pirtskhalava T, et al. Diabetes 64(1), 12-22, (2015)

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Adipose tissue lipolysis and circulating lipids in acute and subacute critical illness: effects of shock and treatment. Ilias I, Vassiliadi DA, Theodorakopoulou M, et al. J. Crit. Care 29(6), 1130.e5-9, (2014)

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Successful arthroscopic decompression and synthetic grafting of a posterior talar cyst: a case report. Dawe EJ, Jukes CP, Gougoulias N, et al. Foot Ankle Surg. 20(2), e35-6, (2014)

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Studies on extraction of mannanase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 from fermented palm kernel cake. Rashid JI, Samat N, and Yusoff WM Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(18), 933-8, (2013)

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[Characterization of a bacteriophage of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing 1,3-propanediol]. Nan N, Cao F, Shen J, et al. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(9), 943-9, (2013)

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Moisturizing effect of topical cosmetic products applied to dry skin. Polaskova J, Pavlackova J, Vltavska P, et al. J. Cosmet. Sci. 64(5), 329-40, (2013)

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Improved tolerance of recombinant Escherichia coli to the toxicity of crude glycerol by overexpressing trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsBA) for the production of β-carotene. Nguyen Ado Q, Kim YG, Kim SB, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 143, 531-7, (2013)

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Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a platform for renewable fuels and chemicals. Clomburg JM and Gonzalez R Trends Biotechnol. 31(1), 20-8, (2013)

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Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice. Fluhr JW, Mao-Qiang M, Brown BE, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(5), 728-37, (2003)

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Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, et al. Clin. Chem. 30(3), 426-32, (1984)

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Valorization of biodiesel derived glycerol as a carbon source to obtain added-value metabolites: Focus on polyunsaturated fatty acids. Abad S and Turon X Biotechnol. Adv. 30(3), 733-41, (2012)

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Blood intermediary metabolite and insulin concentrations after an overnight fast: reference ranges for adults, and interrelations. Foster KJ, Alberti KG, Hinks L, et al. Clin. Chem. 24(9), 1568-72, (1978)

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Microbial conversion of glycerol: present status and future prospects. Khanna S, Goyal A, and Moholkar VS Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 32(3), 235-62, (2012)

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Expression and functional studies of genes involved in transport and metabolism of glycerol in Pachysolen tannophilus. Liu X, Mortensen UH, and Workman M Microb. Cell Fact. 12, 27, (2013)

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Comparison of triglyceride concentration with lipemic index in disorders of triglyceride and glycerol metabolism. De Haene H, Taes Y, Christophe A, et al. Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 44(2), 220-2, (2006)

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Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, et al. Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 41(12), 1642-58, (2003)

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1,5-anhydroglucitol and postprandial hyperglycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring system in moderately controlled patients with diabetes. Dungan KM, Buse JB, Largay J, et al. Diabetes Care 29(6), 1214-9, (2006)

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Towards the sustainable production of acrolein by glycerol dehydration. Katryniok B, Paul S, Capron M, et al. ChemSusChem 2(8), 719-30, (2009)

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Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes. Chatzifragkou A and Papanikolaou S Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 95(1), 13-27, (2012)

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Analysis of volatile organic compounds in human urine by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a multipurpose sampler. Wahl HG, Hoffmann A, Luft D, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 847(1-2), 117-25, (1999)

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Intra-peritoneal microdialysis and intra-abdominal pressure after endovascular repair of ruptured aortic aneurysms. Hörer TM, Skoog P, Norgren L, et al. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 45(6), 596-606, (2013)

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Bioconversion of crude glycerol by fungi. Nicol RW, Marchand K, and Lubitz WD Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 93(5), 1865-75, (2012)

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Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways. Scott SA, Mathews TP, Ivanova PT, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(8), 1060-84, (2014)

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Review of the effects of glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption in humans and in rats. Goulet ED Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 19(5), 547-60, (2009)

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Can serum beta-hydroxybutyrate be used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis? Sheikh-Ali M, Karon BS, Basu A, et al. Diabetes Care 31(4), 643-7, (2008)

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Elucidation of the mechanisms of optical clearing in collagen tissue with multiphoton imaging. Hovhannisyan V, Hu PS, Chen SJ, et al. J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046004, (2013)

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Duodenal nutrient exclusion improves metabolic syndrome and stimulates villus hyperplasia. Habegger KM, Al-Massadi O, Heppner KM, et al. Gut 63(8), 1238-46, (2014)

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Serum 8-hydroxy-guanine levels are increased in diabetic patients. Shin CS, Moon BS, Park KS, et al. Diabetes Care 24(4), 733-7, (2001)

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Electrochemical valorisation of glycerol. Simões M, Baranton S, and Coutanceau C ChemSusChem 5(11), 2106-24, (2012)

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Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Sjarif DR, Hellerud C, van Amstel JK, et al. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 12(6), 424-32, (2004)

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D-chiro-inositol metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Ostlund RE, McGill JB, Herskowitz I, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90(21), 9988-92, (1993)

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Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas. Tran NH and Kannangara GS Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(24), 9454-79, (2013)

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A crucial role of L-selectin in C protein-induced experimental polymyositis in mice. Oishi K, Hamaguchi Y, Matsushita T, et al. Arthritis Rheumatology 66(7), 1864-71, (2014)

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Impairments of hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in PPARα-deficient neonatal mice. Cotter DG, Ercal B, d'Avignon DA, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(2), E176-85, (2014)

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Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Costa A, Igualá I, Bedini J, et al. Metabolism 51(3), 372-5, (2002)

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Urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine during human diabetic and fasting ketosis. Hoppel CL and Genuth SM Am. J. Physiol. 243(2), E168-72, (1982)

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A density functional theory analysis of trends in glycerol decomposition on close-packed transition metal surfaces. Liu B and Greeley J Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(17), 6475-85, (2013)

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600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, et al. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 11(8), 651-64, (1993)

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Comparing five simple vascular storage protocols. van Doormaal TP, Sluijs JH, Vink A, et al. J. Surg. Res. 192(1), 200-5, (2014)

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Comparison of energy metabolism in liver grafts from donors after circulatory death and donors after brain death during cold storage and reperfusion. Perera MT, Richards DA, Silva MA, et al. Br. J. Surg. 101(7), 775-83, (2014)

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Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Berger C, Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, et al. Stroke 36(2), e4-6, (2005)

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Hypothiocyanous acid oxidation of tubulin cysteines inhibits microtubule polymerization. Clark HM, Hagedorn TD, and Landino LM Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 541, 67-73, (2014)

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Fluorimetric assay of D-lactate. McLellan AC, Phillips SA, and Thornalley PJ Anal. Biochem. 206(1), 12-6, (1992)

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A combination of glycerol and manganese promotes biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis via histidine kinase KinD signaling. Shemesh M and Chai Y J. Bacteriol. 195(12), 2747-54, (2013)

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Novel bioactive glycerol-based lysophospholipids: new data -- new insight into their function. Grzelczyk A and Gendaszewska-Darmach E Biochimie 95(4), 667-79, (2013)

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The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and cell wall integrity (CWI) signalling pathways interplay: a yeast dialogue between MAPK routes. Rodríguez-Peña JM, García R, Nombela C, et al. Yeast 27(8), 495-502, (2010)

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Determination of 3-methylhistidine and 1-methylhistidine in untreated urine samples by capillary electrophoresis. Tůma P, Samcová E, and Balínová P J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 821(1), 53-9, (2005)

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Quantification of endogenous aliphatic alcohols in serum and urine. Liebich HM, Buelow HJ, and Kallmayer R J. Chromatogr. A 239, 343-9, (1982)

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Pancreatic beta-cells: Role of glycerol and aquaglyceroporin 7. Virreira M, Perret J, and Delporte C Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 43(1), 10-3, (2011)

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Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering. Klieber C, Hecksher T, Pezeril T, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 138(12), 12A544, (2013)

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Dimethylamine in human urine. Zhang AQ, Mitchell SC, and Smith RL Clin. Chim. Acta 233(1-2), 81-8, (1995)

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Glycerin (glycerol): Current insights into the functional properties of a classic cosmetic raw material. Thau P J. Cosmet. Sci. 53(4), 229-36, (2002)

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Physiological consequences of multiple-target regulation by the small RNA SgrS in Escherichia coli. Sun Y and Vanderpool CK J. Bacteriol. 195(21), 4804-15, (2013)

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Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis. Wall EC, Ajdukiewicz KM, Heyderman RS, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 3, CD008806, (2013)

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Is selective antegrade cerebral perfusion superior to retrograde cerebral perfusion for brain protection during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest? Metabolic evidence from microdialysis. Liang MY, Tang ZX, Chen GX, et al. Crit. Care Med. 42(5), e319-28, (2014)

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Regulatory role of glycerol in Candida albicans biofilm formation. Desai JV, Bruno VM, Ganguly S, et al. MBio 4(2), e00637-12, (2013)

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Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (Glycomark) levels in children with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nguyen TM, Rodriguez LM, Mason KJ, et al. Pediatr. Diabetes 8(4), 214-9, (2007)

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A multicompartmental model of in vivo adipose tissue glycerol kinetics and capillary permeability in lean and obese humans. Coppack SW, Chinkes DL, Miles JM, et al. Diabetes 54(7), 1934-41, (2005)

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Molecular dynamics simulations of the interactions of DMSO, mono- and polyhydroxylated cryosolvents with a hydrated phospholipid bilayer. Malajczuk CJ, Hughes ZE, and Mancera RL Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(9), 2041-55, (2013)

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[Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with glycerol injection at the gasserian ganglion]. Sindou M and Tatli M Neurochirurgie. 55(2), 211-2, (2009)

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Escherichia coli multiple [Ni-Fe]-hydrogenases are sensitive to osmotic stress during glycerol fermentation but at different pHs. Trchounian K and Trchounian A FEBS Lett. 587(21), 3562-6, (2013)

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Artificial elevation of brain tissue glycerol by administration of a glycerol-containing agent. Case report. König K, Rickels E, Heissler HE, et al. J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 621-3, (2001)

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Synthesis and characterisation of galactosyl glycerol by β-galactosidase catalysed reverse hydrolysis of galactose and glycerol. Wei W, Qi D, Zhao HZ, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 3085-92, (2013)

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Chromatin insulator bodies are nuclear structures that form in response to osmotic stress and cell death. Schoborg T, Rickels R, Barrios J, et al. J. Cell Biol. 202(2), 261-76, (2013)

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Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise. Bülow J, Gjeraa K, Enevoldsen LH, et al. Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging 26(4), 205-11, (2006)

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Contribution of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate to the measurement of 3-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma: comparison of enzymatic and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays in normal and in diabetic subjects. Avogaro A and Bier DM J. Lipid Res. 30(11), 1811-7, (1989)

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Slow freezing coupled static magnetic field exposure enhances cryopreservative efficiency--a study on human erythrocytes. Lin CY, Wei PL, Chang WJ, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e58988, (2013)

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Effect of impregnating agent and relative humidity on surface characteristics of sorbents determined by inverse gas chromatography. Kasperkowiak M, Kołodziejek J, Strzemiecka B, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1288, 101-4, (2013)

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Duplication and functional specialization of the telomere-capping protein Cdc13 in Candida species. Lue NF and Chan J J. Biol. Chem. 288(40), 29115-23, (2013)

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The mechanism by which a propeptide-encoded pH sensor regulates spatiotemporal activation of furin. Williamson DM, Elferich J, Ramakrishnan P, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 19154-65, (2013)

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Mycobacterium smegmatis Lhr Is a DNA-dependent ATPase and a 3'-to-5' DNA translocase and helicase that prefers to unwind 3'-tailed RNA:DNA hybrids. Ordonez H and Shuman S J. Biol. Chem. 288(20), 14125-34, (2013)

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Capillary gas chromatographic determination of methylglyoxal from serum of diabetic patients by precolumn derivatization with 1,2-diamonopropane. Khuhawar MY, Zardari LA, and Laghari AJ J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 873(1), 15-9, (2008)

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Longitudinal hair chromium profiles of elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Stupar J, Vrtovec M, and Dolinsek F Metabolism 56(1), 94-104, (2007)

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[Biokinetic characterization of human glycerin utilization]. Olbermann M, Grünert A, and Bässler KH Infusionsther. Klin. Ernahr. 4(2), 68-70, (1977)

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Estriol serum levels, neonatal vitality and stromal villous edema in diabetic pregnancies. Giussi GA, Ballejo G, and Benedetti WL Acta Diabetol. Lat. 16(2), 105-10, (1979)

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Eco-friendly sonoluminescent determination of free glycerol in biodiesel samples. Diniz PH, Pistonesi MF, de Araújo MC, et al. Talanta 114, 38-42, (2013)

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Organic-inorganic hybrids of imidazole complexes of zinc (II) for catalysts in the glycerolysis of urea. Kim DW and Park DW J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 4632-8, (2014)

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In vitro effects of coital lubricants and synthetic and natural oils on sperm motility. Sandhu RS, Wong TH, Kling CA, et al. Fertil. Steril. 101(4), 941-4, (2014)

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Excitotoxicity and metabolic changes in association with infarct progression. Woitzik J, Pinczolits A, Hecht N, et al. Stroke 45(4), 1183-5, (2014)

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Biomimetic poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) membranes for cardiac patch application. Rai R, Tallawi M, Barbani N, et al. Mater. Sci. Eng. C. Mater. Biol. Appl. 33(7), 3677-87, (2013)

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Bacterial maximum non-inhibitory and minimum inhibitory concentrations of different water activity depressing solutes. Cebrián G, Arroyo C, Mañas P, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 188, 67-74, (2014)

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The metabolic effect of dodecanedioic acid infusion in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Greco AV, Mingrone G, Capristo E, et al. Nutrition 14(4), 351-7, (1998)

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Aqueous phase reforming of glycerol over nanosize Cu-Ni catalysts. Kim JY, Kim SH, Moon DJ, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 593-7, (2013)

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The toxicity of 3-chloropropane-1,2-dipalmitate in Wistar rats and a metabonomics analysis of rat urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Li J, Wang S, Wang M, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 206(2), 337-45, (2013)

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Evidence for fatty acids mediating CL 316,243-induced reductions in blood glucose in mice. MacPherson RE, Castellani L, Beaudoin MS, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(7), E563-70, (2014)

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Hepatic glucose uptake and disposition during short-term high-fat vs. high-fructose feeding. Coate KC, Kraft G, Moore MC, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(2), E151-60, (2014)

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A review of the metabolism of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether-crosslinked hyaluronic acid dermal fillers. De Boulle K, Glogau R, Kono T, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 39(12), 1758-66, (2013)

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Inhibitory effects of LPA1 on cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in fibroblast 3T3 cells. Hirane M, Araki M, Dong Y, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 441(1), 47-52, (2013)

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Fermentation of glycerol and production of valuable chemical and biofuel molecules. Mattam AJ, Clomburg JM, Gonzalez R, et al. Biotechnol. Lett. 35(6), 831-42, (2013)

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Effects of acute glucocorticoid blockade on metabolic dysfunction in patients with Type 2 diabetes with and without fatty liver. Macfarlane DP, Raubenheimer PJ, Preston T, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 307(7), G760-8, (2014)

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Optical clearing at cellular level. Kinnunen M, Bykov AV, Tuorila J, et al. J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 71409, (2014)

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Resistance to fludioxonil in Botrytis cinerea isolates from blackberry and strawberry. Li X, Fernández-Ortuño D, Grabke A, et al. Phytopathology 104(7), 724-32, (2014)

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Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols. Jin ES, Sherry AD, and Malloy CR J. Biol. Chem. 288(20), 14488-96, (2013)

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Serum hyaluronan concentration as a marker of angiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Mine S, Okada Y, Kawahara C, et al. Endocr. J. 53(6), 761-6, (2006)

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Crystal structures and functional characterization of wild-type CYP101D1 and its active site mutants. Batabyal D and Poulos TL Biochemistry 52(49), 8898-906, (2013)

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Nicotinamide, a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase non-competitive mixed inhibitor, modifies redox balance and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Torres-Ramírez N, Baiza-Gutman LA, García-Macedo R, et al. Life Sci. 93(25-26), 975-85, (2013)

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Glycan specificity of the Vibrio vulnificus hemolysin lectin outlines evolutionary history of membrane targeting by a toxin family. Kaus K, Lary JW, Cole JL, et al. J. Mol. Biol. 426(15), 2800-12, (2014)

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Pretreatment with hydrogen-rich saline reduces the damage caused by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in rats. Gu H, Yang M, Zhao X, et al. J. Surg. Res. 188(1), 243-9, (2014)

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Steam reforming of glycerol for hydrogen production over supported nickel catalysts on alumina. Choi GY, Kim YC, Moon DJ, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 653-6, (2013)

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Physical and chemical characterization of the surface layers formed on dentin following treatment with an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice. Earl JS and Langford RM Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 19A-24A, (2013)

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In vitro studies investigating the dentin tubule-occlusion properties of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice. Burnett GR, Willson RJ, and Lucas RA Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 10A-14A, (2013)

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Metabolic effects of an enteral nutrition formula for diabetes: comparison with standard formulas in patients with type 1 diabetes. del Carmen Crespillo M, Olveira G, de Adana MS, et al. Clin. Nutr. 22(5), 483-7, (2003)

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Co-digestion of glycerine and sewage sludge to optimise green electricity production. Maes L, Weemaes M, Hellinck N, et al. Water Sci. Technol. 67(12), 2863-7, (2013)

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DNA-N-glycosylases process novel O-glycosidic sites in DNA. Admiraal SJ and O'Brien PJ Biochemistry 52(23), 4066-74, (2013)

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Comparative study on bruise reduction treatments after bruise induction using the pulsed dye laser. Mayo TT, Khan F, Hunt C, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 39(10), 1459-64, (2013)

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[Modification of stratum corneum quality by glycerin-containing external ointments]. Gloor M, Bettinger J, and Gehring W Hautarzt 49(1), 6-9, (1998)

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Comparison of oral insulin spray and subcutaneous regular insulin at mealtime in type 1 diabetes. Guevara-Aguirre J, Guevara-Aguirre M, Saavedra J, et al. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 9(4), 372-6, (2007)

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Identification and characterization of starvation induced msdgc-1 promoter involved in the c-di-GMP turnover. Bharati BK, Swetha RK, and Chatterji D Gene 528(2), 99-108, (2013)

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Catalytic performance of functionalized IRMOF-3 for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea. Lee SD, Park GA, Kim DW, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 4551-6, (2014)

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Dehydration of glycerol over niobia-supported silicotungstic acid catalysts. Lee YY, Ok HJ, Moon DJ, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 339-43, (2013)

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The effects of salinity on the growth and biochemical properties of Chlamydomonas mexicana GU732420 cultivated in municipal wastewater. Salama el-S, Abou-Shanaba RA, Kim JR, et al. Environ. Technol. 35(9-12), 1491-8, (2014)

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Compounded preparations with nystatin for oral and oromucosal administration. Sklenár Z, Scigel V, Horácková K, et al. Acta Pol. Pharm. 70(4), 759-62, (2013)

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Flow injection chemiluminescent assays for glycerol and triglycerides using a co-immobilized enzyme reactor. Yaqoob M and Nabi A Luminescence 18(2), 67-71, (2003)

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The relation between cryoprotective and physicochemical properties of oxyethylated methyl cellosolve-based media. Nikolenko AV, Chekanova VV, Schetinsky MI, et al. Cryo. Letters 34(5), 527-34, (2013)

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Effect of temperature and glycerol on the hydrogen-bond dynamics of water. Ghattyvenkatakrishna PK and Uberbacher EC Cryo. Letters 34(2), 166-73, (2013)

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Stability of extemporaneous pediatric oral liquids compounded from tablets and drug substance: case of propranolol and theophylline. Muśko M and Sznitowska M Acta Pol. Pharm. 70(1), 137-45, (2013)

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Urea cycle disorder drug approved. Guha M Nat. Biotechnol. 31(4), 274, (2013)

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Iodine-glycerol as an alternative to lactophenol cotton blue for identification of fungal elements in clinical laboratory. Vignesh R, Swathirajan CR, Solomon S, et al. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 31(1), 93-4, (2013)

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Glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration: scientific update. van Rosendal SP and Coombes JS Med. Sport Sci. 59, 104-12, (2012)

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Merck 14,4484

Beil. 1,IV,2751

Aldrich MSDS 1, 993:A / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1782:D / FT-IR 2 (1), 265:B / FT-IR 1 (1), 183:A / FT-NMR 1 (1), 283:C / IR-Spectra (2), 103:G / IR-Spectra (3), 112:A / NMR-Reference 2 (1), 171:B / RegBook 1 (1), 185:A / Sax 6, 1479 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (1), 1340:B / Structure Index 1, 24:C:7 / Vapor Phase 3, 262:A

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