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PHR1020 Fluka

Glycerin

pharmaceutical secondary standard; traceable to USP and PhEur

Synonym: 1,2,3-Propanetriol, Glycerin, Glycerol

  • CAS Number 56-81-5

  • Linear Formula HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH

  • Molecular Weight 92.09

  •  Beilstein Registry Number 635685

  •  EC Number 200-289-5

  •  MDL number MFCD00004722

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Properties

Related Categories Additional Standards, Alcohol, All Alphabetically Sorted, Analytical Standards, Analytical/Chromatography,
grade   certified reference material
  pharmaceutical secondary standard
vapor density   3.1 (vs air)
vapor pressure   <1 mmHg ( 20 °C)
form   neat
autoignition temp.   698 °F
refractive index   n20/D 1.474(lit.)
bp   182 °C/20 mmHg(lit.)
mp   20 °C(lit.)
density   1.25 g/mL(lit.)
pharmacopeia traceability   traceable to PhEur G0400000
  traceable to USP 1295607

Description

Analysis Note

These secondary standards offer multi-traceability to the USP, EP (PhEur) and BP primary standards, where they are available.

Application

Glycerol is used both in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycerol (5-10%) increases the density of a sample so that the sample will layer at the bottom of a gel’s sample well. Glycerol is also used to aid in casting gradient gels and as a protein stabilizer and storage buffer component.

General description

Certified Fluka® pharmaceutical secondary standards for application in quality control provide pharma laboratories and manufacturers with a convenient and cost-effective alternative to pharmacopeia primary standards

Other Notes

This product was designed, produced and verified for accuracy and stability in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (AClass Cert AT-1467), ISO GUIDES 34:2009 (AClass Cert AR-1470).

Legal Information

FLUKA is a registered trademark of FLUKA GmbH

Price and Availability

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Diethylene glycol

pharmaceutical secondary standard; traceable to USP and PhEur

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Glycerin

meets USP testing specifications

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
MA8050000
Flash Point(F) 
320 °F
Flash Point(C) 
160 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Glycerol Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in alcohols is straightforward. The substances dissolve very easily in methanol and addition of solubility mediators is only necessary in the case of long chain alcohols. I...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Related Content

Flavor and Fragrance Analysis

It’s all about your workflow. Sample preparation, separation, detection and analysis. Speed and resolution is key in determining purity or verifying composition.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Gas chromatography, Mass spectrometry, Sample preparations, Separation

Reliable Identification of F&F Components by GC/MS and Linear Retention Indices and Multidimensional Chromatography [VIDEO]

In this on-demand webinar by Prof. Luigi Mondello of the University of Messina, Italy, highlights the shortcomings of GC/MS analysis in the identification of F&F compounds when using a straightforwar...
Keywords: Chromatography, Gas chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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2-D Proteome Analysis Protocols. Link, A.J. ed. Methods Mol. Biol. Totowa, NJ , (1999) 112

Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, et al. Nature 457(7231), 910-4, (2009)

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Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a platform for renewable fuels and chemicals. Clomburg JM and Gonzalez R Trends Biotechnol. 31(1), 20-8, (2013)

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Microarray analyses during adipogenesis: understanding the effects of Wnt signaling on adipogenesis and the roles of liver X receptor alpha in adipocyte metabolism. Ross SE, Erickson RL, Gerin I, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22(16), 5989-99, (2002)

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1,5-anhydroglucitol and postprandial hyperglycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring system in moderately controlled patients with diabetes. Dungan KM, Buse JB, Largay J, et al. Diabetes Care 29(6), 1214-9, (2006)

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Increased fructose concentrations in blood and urine in patients with diabetes. Kawasaki T, Akanuma H, and Yamanouchi T Diabetes Care 25(2), 353-7, (2002)

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HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 37(Database issue), D603-10, (2009)

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Renewable chemicals: dehydroxylation of glycerol and polyols. ten Dam J and Hanefeld U ChemSusChem 4(8), 1017-34, (2011)

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Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice. Fluhr JW, Mao-Qiang M, Brown BE, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(5), 728-37, (2003)

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Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering. Klieber C, Hecksher T, Pezeril T, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 138(12), 12A544, (2013)

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Serum 8-hydroxy-guanine levels are increased in diabetic patients. Shin CS, Moon BS, Park KS, et al. Diabetes Care 24(4), 733-7, (2001)

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Guidelines for glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration associated with exercise. van Rosendal SP, Osborne MA, Fassett RG, et al. Sports Med. 40(2), 113-29, (2010)

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Measurement of glucose and metabolites in subcutaneous adipose tissue during hyperglycemia with microdialysis at various perfusion flow rates. Ekberg NR, Wisniewski N, Brismar K, et al. Clin. Chim. Acta 359(1-2), 53-64, (2005)

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Analysis of volatile organic compounds in human urine by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a multipurpose sampler. Wahl HG, Hoffmann A, Luft D, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 847(1-2), 117-25, (1999)

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Implications of aquaglyceroporins 7 and 9 in glycerol metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Maeda N Mol. Aspects Med. 33(5-6), 665-75, (2012)

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Expression and functional studies of genes involved in transport and metabolism of glycerol in Pachysolen tannophilus. Liu X, Mortensen UH, and Workman M Microb. Cell Fact. 12, 27, (2013)

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The human cerebrospinal fluid metabolome. Wishart DS, Lewis MJ, Morrissey JA, et al. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 871(2), 164-73, (2008)

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Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Berger C, Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, et al. Stroke 36(2), e4-6, (2005)

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Physical and chemical characterization of the surface layers formed on dentin following treatment with an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice. Earl JS and Langford RM Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 19A-24A, (2013)

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A multicompartmental model of in vivo adipose tissue glycerol kinetics and capillary permeability in lean and obese humans. Coppack SW, Chinkes DL, Miles JM, et al. Diabetes 54(7), 1934-41, (2005)

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[Modification of stratum corneum quality by glycerin-containing external ointments]. Gloor M, Bettinger J, and Gehring W Hautarzt 49(1), 6-9, (1998)

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Blood glycerol meaning in obese patients. Pecora P, Suraci C, Antonelli M, et al. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 57(23), 2389-93, (1981)

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EBPR using crude glycerol: assessing process resiliency and exploring metabolic anomalies. Coats ER, Dobroth ZT, and Brinkman CK Water Environ. Res. 87(1), 68-79, (2015)

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An analysis of 72% chromated glycerin used for sclerotherapy: sterility, potency, and cost after extended shelf life. Ghaznavi AM, Nakamura M, and Tepper D Dermatol. Surg. 41(1), 121-5, (2015)

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Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women. Dennis CL, Jackson K, and Watson J Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12, CD007366, (2014)

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Bioprosthetic valve durability: the proof is in the pudding. Schmoker J J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 149(1), 346-7, (2015)

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A randomized assessment of an advanced tissue preservation technology in the juvenile sheep model. Flameng W, Hermans H, Verbeken E, et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 149(1), 340-5, (2015)

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Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Daniels JB, Scoffield J, Woolnough JL, et al. Can. J. Microbiol. 60(12), 857-63, (2014)

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Evaluation of glycerol-preserved bone allografts in cervical spine fusion: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Graham RS, Samsell BJ, Proffer A, et al. J. Neurosurg. Spine 22(1), 1-10, (2015)

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N-terminal α7 deletion of the proteasome 20S core particle substitutes for yeast PI31 function. Yashiroda H, Toda Y, Otsu S, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 35(1), 141-52, (2015)

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Identification of the major prostaglandin glycerol ester hydrolase in human cancer cells. Manna JD, Wepy JA, Hsu KL, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(49), 33741-53, (2014)

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Hydrogen peroxide production from glycerol metabolism is dispensable for virulence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the tracheas of chickens. Szczepanek SM, Boccaccio M, Pflaum K, et al. Infect. Immun. 82(12), 4915-20, (2014)

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Effects of acute glucocorticoid blockade on metabolic dysfunction in patients with Type 2 diabetes with and without fatty liver. Macfarlane DP, Raubenheimer PJ, Preston T, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 307(7), G760-8, (2014)

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Evidence for fatty acids mediating CL 316,243-induced reductions in blood glucose in mice. MacPherson RE, Castellani L, Beaudoin MS, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(7), E563-70, (2014)

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Bacterial maximum non-inhibitory and minimum inhibitory concentrations of different water activity depressing solutes. Cebrián G, Arroyo C, Mañas P, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 188, 67-74, (2014)

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Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide augments glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Christensen M, Calanna S, Sparre-Ulrich AH, et al. Diabetes 64(1), 72-8, (2015)

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Deleted in breast cancer 1 limits adipose tissue fat accumulation and plays a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome phenotype. Escande C, Nin V, Pirtskhalava T, et al. Diabetes 64(1), 12-22, (2015)

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Adipose tissue lipolysis and circulating lipids in acute and subacute critical illness: effects of shock and treatment. Ilias I, Vassiliadi DA, Theodorakopoulou M, et al. J. Crit. Care 29(6), 1130.e5-9, (2014)

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Comparing five simple vascular storage protocols. van Doormaal TP, Sluijs JH, Vink A, et al. J. Surg. Res. 192(1), 200-5, (2014)

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Successful arthroscopic decompression and synthetic grafting of a posterior talar cyst: a case report. Dawe EJ, Jukes CP, Gougoulias N, et al. Foot Ankle Surg. 20(2), e35-6, (2014)

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The effects of salinity on the growth and biochemical properties of Chlamydomonas mexicana GU732420 cultivated in municipal wastewater. Salama el-S, Abou-Shanaba RA, Kim JR, et al. Environ. Technol. 35(9-12), 1491-8, (2014)

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Studies on extraction of mannanase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 from fermented palm kernel cake. Rashid JI, Samat N, and Yusoff WM Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(18), 933-8, (2013)

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[Effect of growth factors and some microelements on biosurfactant synthesis of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241]. Pirog TP, Shevchuk TA, Mashchenko OIu, et al. Mikrobiol. Z. 75(5), 18-26, (2013)

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[Metabolic engineering of yeast Hansenula polymorpha for construction of efficient ethanol producers]. Dmitruk KV and Sibirnyĭ AA Tsitol. Genet. 47(6), 3-21, (2013)

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[Cloning and characterization of an HOG1 MAPK homologous gene CgHOG1 from Candida glycerinogenes]. Wang C, Zhuge B, Fang H, et al. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(10), 1103-10, (2013)

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[Characterization of a bacteriophage of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing 1,3-propanediol]. Nan N, Cao F, Shen J, et al. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(9), 943-9, (2013)

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Nicotinamide, a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase non-competitive mixed inhibitor, modifies redox balance and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Torres-Ramírez N, Baiza-Gutman LA, García-Macedo R, et al. Life Sci. 93(25-26), 975-85, (2013)

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Moisturizing effect of topical cosmetic products applied to dry skin. Polaskova J, Pavlackova J, Vltavska P, et al. J. Cosmet. Sci. 64(5), 329-40, (2013)

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Eco-friendly sonoluminescent determination of free glycerol in biodiesel samples. Diniz PH, Pistonesi MF, de Araújo MC, et al. Talanta 114, 38-42, (2013)

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Improved tolerance of recombinant Escherichia coli to the toxicity of crude glycerol by overexpressing trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsBA) for the production of β-carotene. Nguyen Ado Q, Kim YG, Kim SB, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 143, 531-7, (2013)

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[The role of aldehydes in development of oxidative stress under rhabdomyolysis in rats]. Tokarchuk KO, Kapustianenko LH, and Shandrenko SH Fiziol. Zh. 59(1), 25-31, (2013)

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Urea cycle disorder drug approved. Guha M Nat. Biotechnol. 31(4), 274, (2013)

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[Influence of cryopreservation and lyophilization on exopolysaccharide synthesis and viability of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris IMV B-7001]. Golovach TN and Groma LI Mikrobiol. Z. 75(1), 14-20, (2013)

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Glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration: scientific update. van Rosendal SP and Coombes JS Med. Sport Sci. 59, 104-12, (2012)

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The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and cell wall integrity (CWI) signalling pathways interplay: a yeast dialogue between MAPK routes. Rodríguez-Peña JM, García R, Nombela C, et al. Yeast 27(8), 495-502, (2010)

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Hyperventilation in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Tasker RC, Lutman D, and Peters MJ Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 6(4), 405-11, (2005)

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[Lactation and alcohol: clinical and nutritional effects]. de Araújo Burgos MG, Bion FM, and Campos F Arch. Latinoam. Nutr. 54(1), 25-35, (2004)

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[Double bonds of fatty acids, alcohols glycerol, cholesterol and nonpolar serum lipids. Diagnostic value of hypercholesterolemia]. Titov VN, Lisitsyn DM, Ameliushkina VA, et al. Klin. Lab. Diagn. (5), 3-8, (2002)

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Physiological and performance effects of glycerol hyperhydration and rehydration. van Rosendal SP, Osborne MA, Fassett RG, et al. Nutr. Rev. 67(12), 690-705, (2009)

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Major differences in noradrenaline action on lipolysis and blood flow rates in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in vivo. Quisth V, Enoksson S, Blaak E, et al. Diabetologia 48(5), 946-53, (2005)

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Valorization of biodiesel derived glycerol as a carbon source to obtain added-value metabolites: Focus on polyunsaturated fatty acids. Abad S and Turon X Biotechnol. Adv. 30(3), 733-41, (2012)

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The human serum metabolome. Psychogios N, Hau DD, Peng J, et al. PLoS ONE 6(2), e16957, (2011)

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Regulatory role of glycerol in Candida albicans biofilm formation. Desai JV, Bruno VM, Ganguly S, et al. MBio 4(2), e00637-12, (2013)

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Microbial utilization of crude glycerol for the production of value-added products. Dobson R, Gray V, and Rumbold K J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39(2), 217-26, (2012)

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Physiological consequences of multiple-target regulation by the small RNA SgrS in Escherichia coli. Sun Y and Vanderpool CK J. Bacteriol. 195(21), 4804-15, (2013)

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Microbial conversion of glycerol: present status and future prospects. Khanna S, Goyal A, and Moholkar VS Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 32(3), 235-62, (2012)

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Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes. Chatzifragkou A and Papanikolaou S Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 95(1), 13-27, (2012)

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Aqueous phase reforming of glycerol over nanosize Cu-Ni catalysts. Kim JY, Kim SH, Moon DJ, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 593-7, (2013)

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Isoform-selective oligomer formation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae p24 family proteins. Hirata R, Nihei C, and Nakano A J. Biol. Chem. 288(52), 37057-70, (2013)

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Duplication and functional specialization of the telomere-capping protein Cdc13 in Candida species. Lue NF and Chan J J. Biol. Chem. 288(40), 29115-23, (2013)

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Towards the sustainable production of acrolein by glycerol dehydration. Katryniok B, Paul S, Capron M, et al. ChemSusChem 2(8), 719-30, (2009)

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Bioconversion of crude glycerol by fungi. Nicol RW, Marchand K, and Lubitz WD Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 93(5), 1865-75, (2012)

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Determination of 3-methylhistidine and 1-methylhistidine in untreated urine samples by capillary electrophoresis. Tůma P, Samcová E, and Balínová P J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 821(1), 53-9, (2005)

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In vitro studies investigating the dentin tubule-occlusion properties of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice. Burnett GR, Willson RJ, and Lucas RA Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 10A-14A, (2013)

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The metabolic costs of improving ethanol yield by reducing glycerol formation capacity under anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pagliardini J, Hubmann G, Alfenore S, et al. Microb. Cell Fact. 12, 29, (2013)

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Can serum beta-hydroxybutyrate be used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis? Sheikh-Ali M, Karon BS, Basu A, et al. Diabetes Care 31(4), 643-7, (2008)

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DNA-N-glycosylases process novel O-glycosidic sites in DNA. Admiraal SJ and O'Brien PJ Biochemistry 52(23), 4066-74, (2013)

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The mechanism by which a propeptide-encoded pH sensor regulates spatiotemporal activation of furin. Williamson DM, Elferich J, Ramakrishnan P, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 19154-65, (2013)

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A combination of glycerol and manganese promotes biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis via histidine kinase KinD signaling. Shemesh M and Chai Y J. Bacteriol. 195(12), 2747-54, (2013)

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Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Costa A, Igualá I, Bedini J, et al. Metabolism 51(3), 372-5, (2002)

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A density functional theory analysis of trends in glycerol decomposition on close-packed transition metal surfaces. Liu B and Greeley J Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(17), 6475-85, (2013)

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Electrochemical valorisation of glycerol. Simões M, Baranton S, and Coutanceau C ChemSusChem 5(11), 2106-24, (2012)

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Pancreatic beta-cells: Role of glycerol and aquaglyceroporin 7. Virreira M, Perret J, and Delporte C Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 43(1), 10-3, (2011)

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Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (Glycomark) levels in children with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nguyen TM, Rodriguez LM, Mason KJ, et al. Pediatr. Diabetes 8(4), 214-9, (2007)

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Novel bioactive glycerol-based lysophospholipids: new data -- new insight into their function. Grzelczyk A and Gendaszewska-Darmach E Biochimie 95(4), 667-79, (2013)

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Crystal structures and functional characterization of wild-type CYP101D1 and its active site mutants. Batabyal D and Poulos TL Biochemistry 52(49), 8898-906, (2013)

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Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Sjarif DR, Hellerud C, van Amstel JK, et al. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 12(6), 424-32, (2004)

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Elucidation of the mechanisms of optical clearing in collagen tissue with multiphoton imaging. Hovhannisyan V, Hu PS, Chen SJ, et al. J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046004, (2013)

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Review of the effects of glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption in humans and in rats. Goulet ED Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 19(5), 547-60, (2009)

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Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, et al. Clin. Chem. 30(3), 426-32, (1984)

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Steam reforming of glycerol for hydrogen production over supported nickel catalysts on alumina. Choi GY, Kim YC, Moon DJ, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 653-6, (2013)

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Dehydration of glycerol over niobia-supported silicotungstic acid catalysts. Lee YY, Ok HJ, Moon DJ, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 339-43, (2013)

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D-chiro-inositol metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Ostlund RE, McGill JB, Herskowitz I, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90(21), 9988-92, (1993)

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Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis. Wall EC, Ajdukiewicz KM, Heyderman RS, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 3, CD008806, (2013)

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Contribution of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate to the measurement of 3-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma: comparison of enzymatic and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays in normal and in diabetic subjects. Avogaro A and Bier DM J. Lipid Res. 30(11), 1811-7, (1989)

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Fermentation of glycerol and production of valuable chemical and biofuel molecules. Mattam AJ, Clomburg JM, Gonzalez R, et al. Biotechnol. Lett. 35(6), 831-42, (2013)

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Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols. Jin ES, Sherry AD, and Malloy CR J. Biol. Chem. 288(20), 14488-96, (2013)

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Measurements of interstitial muscle glycerol in normal and insulin-resistant subjects. Sjöstrand M, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Holmäng A, et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(5), 2206-11, (2002)

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Artificial elevation of brain tissue glycerol by administration of a glycerol-containing agent. Case report. König K, Rickels E, Heissler HE, et al. J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 621-3, (2001)

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Quantification of endogenous aliphatic alcohols in serum and urine. Liebich HM, Buelow HJ, and Kallmayer R J. Chromatogr. A 239, 343-9, (1982)

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600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, et al. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 11(8), 651-64, (1993)

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Urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine during human diabetic and fasting ketosis. Hoppel CL and Genuth SM Am. J. Physiol. 243(2), E168-72, (1982)

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Iodine-glycerol as an alternative to lactophenol cotton blue for identification of fungal elements in clinical laboratory. Vignesh R, Swathirajan CR, Solomon S, et al. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 31(1), 93-4, (2013)

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Capillary gas chromatographic determination of methylglyoxal from serum of diabetic patients by precolumn derivatization with 1,2-diamonopropane. Khuhawar MY, Zardari LA, and Laghari AJ J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 873(1), 15-9, (2008)

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Effect of acute hyperketonemia on the cerebral uptake of ketone bodies in nondiabetic subjects and IDDM patients. Blomqvist G, Alvarsson M, Grill V, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 283(1), E20-8, (2002)

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A crucial role of L-selectin in C protein-induced experimental polymyositis in mice. Oishi K, Hamaguchi Y, Matsushita T, et al. Arthritis Rheumatology 66(7), 1864-71, (2014)

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Impact of addition of aromatic amino acids on non-volatile and volatile compounds in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm. Chen D, Chia JY, and Liu SQ Int. J. Food Microbiol. 170, 12-20, (2014)

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Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas. Tran NH and Kannangara GS Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(24), 9454-79, (2013)

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Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise. Bülow J, Gjeraa K, Enevoldsen LH, et al. Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging 26(4), 205-11, (2006)

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Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, et al. Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 41(12), 1642-58, (2003)

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Fluorimetric assay of D-lactate. McLellan AC, Phillips SA, and Thornalley PJ Anal. Biochem. 206(1), 12-6, (1992)

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Impairments of hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in PPARα-deficient neonatal mice. Cotter DG, Ercal B, d'Avignon DA, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(2), E176-85, (2014)

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Effect of impregnating agent and relative humidity on surface characteristics of sorbents determined by inverse gas chromatography. Kasperkowiak M, Kołodziejek J, Strzemiecka B, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1288, 101-4, (2013)

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Synthesis and characterisation of galactosyl glycerol by β-galactosidase catalysed reverse hydrolysis of galactose and glycerol. Wei W, Qi D, Zhao HZ, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 3085-92, (2013)

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Chromatin insulator bodies are nuclear structures that form in response to osmotic stress and cell death. Schoborg T, Rickels R, Barrios J, et al. J. Cell Biol. 202(2), 261-76, (2013)

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Longitudinal hair chromium profiles of elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Stupar J, Vrtovec M, and Dolinsek F Metabolism 56(1), 94-104, (2007)

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Intra-peritoneal microdialysis and intra-abdominal pressure after endovascular repair of ruptured aortic aneurysms. Hörer TM, Skoog P, Norgren L, et al. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 45(6), 596-606, (2013)

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Increased systemic and adipose tissue inflammation differentiates obese women with T2DM from obese women with normal glucose tolerance. van Beek L, Lips MA, Visser A, et al. Metabolism 63(4), 492-501, (2014)

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Comparison of oral insulin spray and subcutaneous regular insulin at mealtime in type 1 diabetes. Guevara-Aguirre J, Guevara-Aguirre M, Saavedra J, et al. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 9(4), 372-6, (2007)

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Slow freezing coupled static magnetic field exposure enhances cryopreservative efficiency--a study on human erythrocytes. Lin CY, Wei PL, Chang WJ, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e58988, (2013)

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Comparison of triglyceride concentration with lipemic index in disorders of triglyceride and glycerol metabolism. De Haene H, Taes Y, Christophe A, et al. Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 44(2), 220-2, (2006)

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Merck 14,4484

Beil. 1,IV,2751

Aldrich MSDS 1, 993:A / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1782:D / FT-IR 2 (1), 265:B / FT-IR 1 (1), 183:A / FT-NMR 1 (1), 283:C / IR-Spectra (2), 103:G / IR-Spectra (3), 112:A / NMR-Reference 2 (1), 171:B / RegBook 1 (1), 185:A / Sax 6, 1479 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (1), 1340:B / Structure Index 1, 24:C:7 / Vapor Phase 3, 262:A

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