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258148 Sigma-Aldrich

Hydrochloric acid

ACS reagent, 37%

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Properties

Related Categories ACS Grade Acids & Bases, Acids, Acids & Bases, Analytical Reagents, Analytical Reagents for General Use,
grade   ACS reagent
vapor density   1.3 (vs air)
vapor pressure   3.23 psi ( 21.1 °C)
  7.93 psi ( 37.7 °C)
assay   36.5-38.0% (ACS specification)
  37%
impurities   ≤1 ppm free chlorine
  ≤5 ppm extractable organic substances
ign. residue   ≤5 ppm
color   APHA: ≤10, free from suspended matter or sediment
bp   >100 °C(lit.)
density   1.2 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
anion traces   bromide (Br-): ≤0.005%
  sulfate (SO42-): ≤1 ppm
  sulfite (SO32-): ≤1 ppm
cation traces   As: ≤0.01 ppm
  Fe: ≤0.2 ppm
  NH4+: ≤3 ppm
  heavy metals (as Pb): ≤1 ppm

Description

Other Notes

ACS specifications same as product 320331

Packaging

2.5 L in poly bottle

2.5 L-GL in glass bottle

25, 100, 4×100, 12×100 mL in glass bottle

500 mL in poly bottle

500 mL-GL in glass bottle

6×2.5 L-GL in glass bottle

6×2.5, 4, 4×4 L in poly bottle

6×500 mL in poly bottle

6×500 mL-GL in glass bottle

Single 2.5L-GL units require a can opener to open the metal shipping container.

Application

Chlorine source for safer, greener chlorination of aromatic compounds and a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

Highly Selective Oxidative Monochlorination To Synthesize Organic Intermediates: 2-Chlorotoluene, 2-Chloroaniline, 2-Chlorophenol, and 2-Chloro-4-methylphenol

A Convenient Halogenation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with OXONE® and Hydrohalic Acid (HBr, HCl)

Legal Information

OXONE is a registered trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

Price and Availability

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Hydrochloric acid

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Hydrochloric acid

reagent grade, 37%

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
C
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
26-45
RIDADR 
UN 1789 8 / PGII
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
MW4025000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Hydrochloric acid 32% Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrochloric acid, anhydrous Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Hydrochloric-acid (in 1-Butanol 3 mol/l) Using Karl Fischer Titration

Strong acids shift the pH of the KF reagent and must be neutralized. This can be carried out directly in the titration cell providing a sufficient amount of buffer is added, e.g. HYDRANAL-Buffer Acid...
Keywords: Esterifications, Titrations

Protocols

Enzymatic Assay of Neuraminidase

2.1. This procedure applies to products that have a specification for neuraminidase content by enzymatic determination.

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Molarity Calculator and Normality Calculator for Acids and Bases

The molarity calculator tool provides lab-ready directions describing how to prepare an acid or base solution of specified Molarity (M) or Normality (N) from a concentrated acid or base solution.  To...

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Pulmonary blood flow increases in damaged regions directly after acid aspiration in rats. Richter T, Bergmann R, Knels L, et al. Anesthesiology 119(4), 890-900, (2013)

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State-to-state quantum dynamics of the F + HCl (vi = 0, ji = 0) → HF(vf, jf) + Cl reaction on the ground state potential energy surface. Li A, Guo H, Sun Z, et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(37), 15347-55, (2013)

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Dissociative x-ray lasing. Miao Q, Liu JC, Ågren H, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(23), 233905, (2012)

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Characterization and quantification of racemic and meso-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetic) acid/iron (III) by ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Biasone A, Cianci G, Di Tommaso D, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1282, 142-52, (2013)

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Enamel color modifications by controlled hydrochloric acid pumice abrasion: a review with case summaries. Adams TC J. Indiana Dent. Assoc. 66(5), 23-6, (1987)

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The effects of exogenous surfactant treatment in a murine model of two-hit lung injury. Zambelli V, Bellani G, Amigoni M, et al. Anesth. Analg. 120(2), 381-8, (2015)

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Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology. Boopathy R and Sekaran G Environ. Technol. 35(13-16), 1858-65, (2014)

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Microabrasion using 18% hydrochloric acid and 37% phosphoric acid in various degrees of fluorosis - an in vivo comparision. Sinha S, Vorse KK, Noorani H, et al. Eur. J. Esthet. Dent. 8(3), 454-65, (2013)

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[Evaluation on preparation process of brevisapin colon-specific tables and its in vitro release]. Li YL, Wang JY, Yang DB, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(6), 817-20, (2013)

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Anti-inflammatory effects of ellagic acid on acute lung injury induced by acid in mice. Cornélio Favarin D, Martins Teixeira M, Lemos de Andrade E, et al. Mediators Inflamm. 2013, 164202, (2013)

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Implications of pH manipulation methods for metal toxicity: not all acidic environments are created equal. Esbaugh AJ, Mager EM, Brix KV, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 130-131, 27-30, (2013)

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Enamel color modifications by controlled hydrochloric acid pumice abrasion: a review with case summaries. Adams TC J. Mass. Dent. Soc. 39(4), 181-3, (1990)

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A platform pathway for production of 3-hydroxyacids provides a biosynthetic route to 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone. Martin CH, Dhamankar H, Tseng HC, et al. Nat. Commun. 4, 1414, (2013)

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Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands. Dinsdale EA PLoS ONE 3(2), e1584, (2008)

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The protection afforded by the outer layer to procercoids of Schistocephalus solidus during passage through the stomach lumen of their vertebrate host (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Marwaha J, Jensen KH, and Jakobsen PJ Exp. Parasitol. 134(1), 12-7, (2013)

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Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface. Hideno A, Kawashima A, Endo T, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 132, 64-70, (2013)

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Unprecedented one-pot, domino tertiary alcohol protection-Michael type addition of halides to Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct of isatin with RCOX/K2CO3: diastereoselective synthesis of oxindole appended β-halo esters. Solaiselvi R, Shanmugam P, and Mandal AB Org. Lett. 15(6), 1186-9, (2013)

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Stability of polydopamine and poly(DOPA) melanin-like films on the surface of polymer membranes under strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. Wei H, Ren J, Han B, et al. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 110, 22-8, (2013)

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Shape control of cellulose nanocrystals via compositional acid hydrolysis. Baek C, Hanif Z, Cho SW, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(7), 1293-8, (2013)

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Communication: A new ab initio potential energy surface for HCl-H2O, diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of D0 and a delocalized zero-point wavefunction. Mancini JS and Bowman JM J. Chem. Phys. 138(12), 121102, (2013)

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Prostaglandin E(2) mediates acid-induced heartburn in healthy volunteers. Kondo T, Oshima T, Tomita T, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 304(6), G568-73, (2013)

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Structural diversity of pectins isolated from the Styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) fruit. Košťálová Z, Hromádková Z, and Ebringerová A Carbohydr. Polym. 93(1), 163-71, (2013)

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Effect of amiloride on experimental acid-induced heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease. Bulsiewicz WJ, Shaheen NJ, Hansen MB, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(7), 1955-9, (2013)

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Durability of esthetic improvement following Icon resin infiltration of multibracket-induced white spot lesions compared with no therapy over 6 months: a single-center, split-mouth, randomized clinical trial. Knösel M, Eckstein A, and Helms HJ Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 144(1), 86-96, (2013)

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Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Anthony Bertucci et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 710-4, (2011)

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AP-1 pathway-targeted inhibition of inflammatory responses in LPS-treated macrophages and EtOH/HCl-treated stomach by Archidendron clypearia methanol extract. Yang WS, Jeong D, Nam G, et al. J. Ethnopharmacol. 146(2), 637-44, (2013)

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Management of atmospheric pollutants from waste incineration processes: the case of Bozen. Ragazzi M, Tirler W, Angelucci G, et al. Waste Manag Res 31(3), 235-40, (2013)

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Aegle marmelos fruit pectin for food and pharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional performance. Jindal M, Kumar V, Rana V, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 93(2), 386-94, (2013)

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TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury. Balakrishna S, Song W, Achanta S, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 307(2), L158-72, (2014)

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Experimentally induced hyperchloremic and DL-lactic acidosis in calves: an attempt to study the effects of oral rehydration on acid-base status. Schwedhelm L, Kirchner D, Klaus B, et al. J. Dairy Sci. 96(4), 2464-75, (2013)

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Acetosolv pulping for the fractionation of empty fruit bunches from palm oil industry. Ferrer A, Vega A, Rodríguez A, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 132, 115-20, (2013)

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Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide. Dash S and Swain SK Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 758-63, (2013)

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Structural studies of the pectic polysaccharide from Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.). Makarova EN, Patova OA, Shakhmatov EG, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 92(2), 1817-26, (2013)

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Fast transport of HCl across a hydrophobic layer over macroscopic distances by using a Pt(II) compound as the transporter. Giannetto A, Lanza S, Puntoriero F, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(69), 7611-3, (2013)

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Biofilm regeneration on carriers in MBBR used for vitamin C wastewater treatment. Hu XB, Wang Zh, Xu K, et al. Water Sci. Technol. 67(6), 1310-6, (2013)

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Reconditioning of an injured lung graft with intrabronchial surfactant instillation in an ex vivo lung perfusion system followed by transplantation. Inci I, Hillinger S, Arni S, et al. J. Surg. Res. 184(2), 1143-9, (2013)

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Effect of surface pretreatments on the bonding strength and durability of self-adhesive resin cements to machined titanium. Elsaka SE J. Prosthet. Dent. 109(2), 113-20, (2013)

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Effect of surface treatment on bond strength of Ti-10Ta-10Nb to low-fusing porcelain. Lee BA, Kim OS, Vang MS, et al. J. Prosthet. Dent. 109(2), 95-105, (2013)

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Influence of intraluminal acidification on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans. Chen CL, Yi CH, and Liu TT Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(7), 1948-54, (2013)

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Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch. Li H, Zhu Y, Jiao A, et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 55, 276-81, (2013)

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Speciation of organic phosphorus in a sediment profile of Lake Taihu. I: Chemical forms and their transformation. Xu D, Ding S, Li B, et al. J. Environ. Sci. (China) 25(4), 637-44, (2013)

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Degradation kinetics of atorvastatin under stress conditions and chemical analysis by HPLC. Oliveira MA, Yoshida MI, Belinelo VJ, et al. Molecules 18(2), 1447-56, (2013)

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Avoiding digester upset. Thompson PL, Jiencke FW, Reinhart SW, et al. Water Environ. Res. 85(4), 327-30, (2013)

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Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells to repair lung injury. Sun Z, Gong X, Zhu H, et al. J. Cell Physiol. 229(2), 213-24, (2014)

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Suicide by hydrogen sulfide inhalation. Bott E and Dodd M Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 34(1), 23-5, (2013)

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[Fluid and electrolyte movements through the gastrointestinal membranes: hydrochloric acid formation and intestinal water transport]. Mertz DP Klin. Wochenschr. 45(2), 57-68, (1967)

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Some aspects of the problem of gastric hydrochloric acid secretion. Rehm WS Arch. Intern. Med. 129(2), 270-8, (1972)

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Influence of particle size distribution, organic carbon, pH and chlorides on washing of mercury contaminated soil. Xu J, Kleja DB, Biester H, et al. Chemosphere 109, 99-105, (2014)

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Staphylococcal biofilm formation as affected by type acidulant. Nostro A, Cellini L, Ginestra G, et al. APMIS 122(7), 648-53, (2014)

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Merck 14,4794 / Merck 14,4780

Fieser 4,450 / Fieser 5,333 / Fieser 6,283

Aldrich MSDS 1, 1048:B / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1892:D / RegBook 1 (3), 3253:A / RegBook 1 (3), 3251:J / Sax 6, 1545

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