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319961 Sigma-Aldrich

Carbon tetrachloride

reagent grade, 99.9%

Synonym: Tetrachloromethane

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Properties

Related Categories ACS Grade Solvents, ACS and Reagent Grade Solvents, C-X Bond Formation (Halogen), Chemical Synthesis, Chlorination,
grade   reagent grade
vapor density   5.32 (vs air)
vapor pressure   143 mmHg ( 30 °C)
  91 mmHg ( 20 °C)
assay   99.9%
refractive index   n20/D 1.460(lit.)
bp   76-77 °C(lit.)
mp   −23 °C(lit.)
density   1.594 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

Description

Frequently Asked Questions

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Packaging

1 L in Sure/Seal™

500 mL in Sure/Seal™

Application

Please view www.aldrich.com/epaods regarding the EPA′s request for application information of Ozone Depleting Substances

Price and Availability

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T,N
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
23-36/37-45-59-61
RIDADR 
UN 1846 6.1 / PGII
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
FG4900000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Carbon tetrachloride, free Cl Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in halogenated hydrocarbons is simple and in most cases straightforward. Solubility in methanol is good and the use of 1-propanol or chloroform is only necessary in the cas...
Keywords: Solvents, Titrations

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation: eicosanoid formation and their regulation by antioxidant nutrients. Basu S Toxicology 189(1-2), 113-27, (2003)

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Conditional genetic elimination of hepatocyte growth factor in mice compromises liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Nejak-Bowen K, Orr A, Bowen WC, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e59836, (2013)

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Evaluating genotoxicity data to identify a mode of action and its application in estimating cancer risk at low doses: A case study involving carbon tetrachloride. Eastmond DA Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 49(2), 132-41, (2008)

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Pathological mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Brattin WJ, Glende EA, and Recknagel RO J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1(1), 27-38, (1985)

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Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats. Jaswal A and Shukla S Indian J. Exp. Biol. 53(1), 44-50, (2015)

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Alternative complement pathway component Factor D contributes to efficient clearance of tissue debris following acute CCl₄-induced injury. Cresci GA, Allende D, McMullen MR, et al. Mol. Immunol. 64(1), 9-17, (2015)

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Isoliquiritigenin attenuates oxidative hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride with or without buthionine sulfoximine. Zhao Z, Park SM, Guan L, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 225, 13-20, (2015)

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Bacterial translocation and endotoxemia after pringle maneuver in cirrhotic rats. Su Y, Pan H, Guo Z, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 60(2), 414-9, (2015)

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Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats. Chen HW, Huang CS, Li CC, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 280(1), 1-9, (2014)

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Effect of aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in rats. Ismail NA, Shamsahal-Din NS, Mamat SS, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 27(4), 831-5, (2014)

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Effect of leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, in vivo study. Gulfraz M, Ahamd D, Ahmad MS, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 27(4), 825-9, (2014)

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Apamin inhibits hepatic fibrosis through suppression of transforming growth factor β1-induced hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Lee WR, Kim KH, An HJ, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 450(1), 195-201, (2014)

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Immunosuppression in acutely decompensated cirrhosis is mediated by prostaglandin E2. O'Brien AJ, Fullerton JN, Massey KA, et al. Nat. Med. 20(5), 518-23, (2014)

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Angiotensin-II type 1 receptor-mediated Janus kinase 2 activation induces liver fibrosis. Granzow M, Schierwagen R, Klein S, et al. Hepatology 60(1), 334-48, (2014)

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CCL2-dependent infiltrating macrophages promote angiogenesis in progressive liver fibrosis. Ehling J, Bartneck M, Wei X, et al. Gut 63(12), 1960-71, (2014)

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[Studying of hepatoprotective properties of dry extract from apricot leaves on the model of liver lesion by tetrachloromethane]. Shtroblia AL, Fira LS, Likhatskiĭ PG, et al. Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk (3), 68-72, (2013)

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[Intervention effect of aqueous fractions from Boschniakia rossica on hepatic oxidative stress in mice with liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride]. Zhao WX, Jin MH, Li T, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(6), 875-8, (2013)

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[Protective effects of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice]. Huang J, Li SL, Zhao HW, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(4), 528-32, (2013)

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Terutroban, a TP-receptor antagonist, reduces portal pressure in cirrhotic rats. Rosado E, Rodríguez-Vilarrupla A, Gracia-Sancho J, et al. Hepatology 58(4), 1424-35, (2013)

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Modulation of inflammatory response in a cirrhotic rat model with induced bacterial peritonitis. Sánchez E, Francés R, Soriano G, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e59692, (2013)

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Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells restore biochemical markers of acute liver injury in experimental model. Gruttadauria S, Grosso G, Pagano D, et al. Transplant. Proc. 45(2), 480-6, (2013)

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Regeneration of cirrhotic liver in rabbits after intrahepatic injection of cryoprecipitate. Chernousov AF, Khorobrykh TV, Karpova RV, et al. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 154(3), 396-8, (2013)

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Humoral mechanisms regulating the functions of progenitor cells in chronic hepatitis. Dygai AM, Zyuz'kov GN, Gurto RV, et al. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 154(3), 303-5, (2013)

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Are the intramolecular O-H···F and O-H···Cl hydrogen bonds maintained in solution? A theoretical study. Nagy PI J. Phys. Chem. A 117(13), 2812-26, (2013)

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[Improvement of carbon tetrachloride drug-induced liver injury model in vitro]. Wu HJ, Gong X, Yang YT, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 37(23), 3633-6, (2012)

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Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent. El-Gengaihi SE, Hassan EE, Hamed MA, et al. J. Diet. Suppl. 10(1), 39-53, (2013)

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Protective effects of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in acute liver injury suggest a novel function in liver homeostasis. Borkham-Kamphorst E, van de Leur E, Zimmermann HW, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1832(5), 660-73, (2013)

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Deficiency in four and one half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) aggravates liver fibrosis in mice. Huss S, Stellmacher C, Goltz D, et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 13, 8, (2013)

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Carbon tetrachloride. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71 Pt 2, 401-32, (1999)

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The Japanese toxicogenomics project: application of toxicogenomics. Takeki Uehara et al Mol. Nutr. Food. Res. 54, 218-27, (2010)

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Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha ameliorates ethanol mediated liver fibrosis in mice. Nan YM, Kong LB, Ren WG, et al. Lipids Health Dis. 12, 11, (2013)

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An exploratory study of ambient air toxics exposure in pregnancy and the risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. Heck JE, Park AS, Qiu J, et al. Environ. Res. 127, 1-6, (2013)

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Compositional characterisation of soluble apple polysaccharides, and their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects on acute CCl4-caused liver damage in mice. Yang X, Yang S, Guo Y, et al. Food Chem. 138(2-3), 1256-64, (2013)

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Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model. Weber LW, Boll M, and Stampfl A Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 33(2), 105-36, (2003)

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Mesothelial cells give rise to hepatic stellate cells and myofibroblasts via mesothelial-mesenchymal transition in liver injury. Li Y, Wang J, and Asahina K Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(6), 2324-9, (2013)

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Protection of a ceramide synthase 2 null mouse from drug-induced liver injury: role of gap junction dysfunction and connexin 32 mislocalization. Park WJ, Park JW, Erez-Roman R, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(43), 30904-16, (2013)

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G2 subpopulation in rat liver induced into mitosis by low-level exposure to carbon tetrachloride: an adaptive response. Calabrese EJ, Baldwin LA, and Mehendale HM Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 121(1), 1-7, (1993)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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A new direction in the study of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Recknagel RO Life Sci. 33(5), 401-8, (1983)

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Glutathione-mediated drug release from Tiopronin-conjugated gold nanoparticles for acute liver injury therapy. Bao QY, Geng DD, Xue JW, et al. Int. J. Pharm. 446(1-2), 112-8, (2013)

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Protective effect of a marine polyphenol, dieckol against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in mouse. Kang MC, Kang SM, Ahn G, et al. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 35(3), 517-23, (2013)

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Evaluation of a published in silico model and construction of a novel Bayesian model for predicting phospholipidosis inducing potential. Dennis J Pelletier et al J. Chem. Inf. Model. 47, 1196-205, (2007)

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In vitro and QSAR studies of cucurbitacins on HepG2 and HSC-T6 liver cell lines. Judit Bartalis et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 2757-66, (2011)

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QSPR modeling of octanol/water partition coefficient for vitamins by optimal descriptors calculated with SMILES. A A Toropov et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 714-40, (2008)

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Convenient QSAR model for predicting the complexation of structurally diverse compounds with beta-cyclodextrins. Alfonso Pérez-Garrido et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 896-904, (2009)

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PF2401-SF, standardized fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza, induces apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro and in vivo. Parajuli DR, Park EJ, Che XH, et al. Molecules 18(2), 2122-34, (2013)

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Matricellular protein CCN1 promotes regression of liver fibrosis through induction of cellular senescence in hepatic myofibroblasts. Kim KH, Chen CC, Monzon RI, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 33(10), 2078-90, (2013)

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Mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Clawson GA Pathol. Immunopathol. Res. 8(2), 104-12, (1989)

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The autoregulatory feedback loop of microRNA-21/programmed cell death protein 4/activation protein-1 (MiR-21/PDCD4/AP-1) as a driving force for hepatic fibrosis development. Zhang Z, Zha Y, Hu W, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(52), 37082-93, (2013)

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Class II HDAC inhibition hampers hepatic stellate cell activation by induction of microRNA-29. Mannaerts I, Eysackers N, Onyema OO, et al. PLoS ONE 8(1), e55786, (2013)

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Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition attenuates liver fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fuchs BC, Hoshida Y, Fujii T, et al. Hepatology 59(4), 1577-90, (2014)

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Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes fibrosis resolution and repair in mice. Yang L, Kwon J, Popov Y, et al. Gastroenterology 146(5), 1339-50.e1, (2014)

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Divergent angiocrine signals from vascular niche balance liver regeneration and fibrosis. Ding BS, Cao Z, Lis R, et al. Nature 505(7481), 97-102, (2014)

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Differential effects of sorafenib on liver versus tumor fibrosis mediated by stromal-derived factor 1 alpha/C-X-C receptor type 4 axis and myeloid differentiation antigen-positive myeloid cell infiltration in mice. Chen Y, Huang Y, Reiberger T, et al. Hepatology 59(4), 1435-47, (2014)

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In vitro expansion of single Lgr5+ liver stem cells induced by Wnt-driven regeneration. Huch, M., et al. Nature 494, 247-50, (2013)

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Potentiation of halomethane hepatotoxicity: chlordecone and carbon tetrachloride. Mehendale HM Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 4(3 Pt 1), 295-308, (1984)

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Toll-like receptor 7-mediated type I interferon signaling prevents cholestasis- and hepatotoxin-induced liver fibrosis. Roh YS, Park S, Kim JW, et al. Hepatology 60(1), 237-49, (2014)

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Genetic and epigenetic changes in fibrosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Chappell G, Kutanzi K, Uehara T, et al. Int. J. Cancer 134(12), 2778-88, (2014)

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Relaxin modulates human and rat hepatic myofibroblast function and ameliorates portal hypertension in vivo. Fallowfield JA, Hayden AL, Snowdon VK, et al. Hepatology 59(4), 1492-504, (2014)

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Hepatoprotective effects of eburicoic acid and dehydroeburicoic acid from Antrodia camphorata in a mouse model of acute hepatic injury. Huang GJ, Deng JS, Huang SS, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 3020-7, (2013)

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Protective effect of Spirulina platensis enriched in phenolic compounds against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4. Kepekçi RA, Polat S, Çelik A, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 1972-9, (2013)

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Mesodermal mesenchymal cells give rise to myofibroblasts, but not epithelial cells, in mouse liver injury. Lua I, James D, Wang J, et al. Hepatology 60(1), 311-22, (2014)

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Non-invasive detection of drug toxicity in rats by solid-phase extraction and MALDI-TOF analysis of urine samples. Iloro I, Gonzalez E, Gutierrez-de Juan V, et al. Anal. Bioanal. Chem 405(7), 2311-20, (2013)

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Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage? D'Argenio G, Cariello R, Tuccillo C, et al. Liver Int. 33(5), 687-97, (2013)

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Hepatic stellate cells orchestrate clearance of necrotic cells in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent manner by modulating macrophage phenotype in mice. Mochizuki A, Pace A, Rockwell CE, et al. J. Immunol. 192(8), 3847-57, (2014)

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GCN2 kinase is a key regulator of fibrogenesis and acute and chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Arriazu E, Ruiz de Galarreta M, López-Zabalza MJ, et al. Lab. Invest. 93(3), 303-10, (2013)

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Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis in a rat model of ex vivo liver resection and liver autotransplantation. Xu T, Wang X, Chen G, et al. J. Surg. Res. 184(2), 1102-8, (2013)

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Protective effects of naringenin on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute nephrotoxicity in mouse kidney. Hermenean A, Ardelean A, Stan M, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 205(2), 138-47, (2013)

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Urine metabolic profile changes of CCl4-liver fibrosis in rats and intervention effects of Yi Guan Jian Decoction using metabonomic approach. Gou X, Tao Q, Feng Q, et al. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 13, 123, (2013)

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Carbon tetrachloride: genetic effects and other modes of action. McGregor D and Lang M Mutat. Res. 366(3), 181-95, (1996)

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Γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor improves carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Fan W, Shi B, Wei H, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(7), 1909-15, (2013)

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Evaluation of antioxidant activities of water-soluble polysaccharides from brown alga Hizikia fusiformis. Wu M, Wu Y, Qu M, et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 56, 28-33, (2013)

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The potential effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Abdel Moneim AE and El-Khadragy MF J. Physiol. Biochem. 69(3), 359-70, (2013)

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Antifibrotic activity of galangin, a novel function evaluated in animal liver fibrosis model. Wang X, Gong G, Yang W, et al. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 36(2), 288-95, (2013)

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Glycyrrhizinate reduces portal hypertension in isolated perfused rat livers with chronic hepatitis. Zhao X, Deng B, Xu XY, et al. World J. Gastroenterol. 19(36), 6069-76, (2013)

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Hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation induced by ethanol and carbon tetrachloride: interactions with essential fatty acids and prostaglandins. Cunnane SC Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 11(1), 25-31, (1987)

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[Learning toxicology from carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity]. Masuda Y Yakugaku Zasshi 126(10), 885-99, (2006)

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Enhanced intestinal absorption activity and hepatoprotective effect of herpetrione via preparation of nanosuspensions using pH-dependent dissolving-precipitating/homogenization process. Shen B, Jin S, Lv Q, et al. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 65(9), 1382-92, (2013)

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Carbon tetrachloride replacement compounds for organic vapor air-purifying respirator cartridge and activated carbon testing--a review. Moyer ES, Smith SJ, and Wood GO AIHAJ 62(4), 494-507, (2001)

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Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum against carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Ganie SA, Zargar BA, Masood A, et al. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 26(3), 209-21, (2013)

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Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root extracts. Acharya SR, Acharya NS, Bhangale JO, et al. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 50(11), 795-801, (2012)

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Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of acute hepatic failure and that of liver regeneration in rat. Xu C, Zhao W, Hao Y, et al. Gene 528(2), 59-66, (2013)

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The anti-apoptotic effect of fucoxanthin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Kaneko M, Nagamine T, Nakazato K, et al. J. Toxicol. Sci. 38(1), 115-26, (2013)

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Carbon tetrachloride marine risk assessment with special reference to the OSPARCOM region: North Sea. Thompson RS, De Rooij C, Garny V, et al. Environ. Monit. Assess. 97(1-3), 23-38, (2004)

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Review of experimental models for inducing hepatic cirrhosis by bile duct ligation and carbon tetrachloride injection. Marques TG, Chaib E, da Fonseca JH, et al. Acta Cir. Bras. 27(8), 589-94, (2012)

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Study of the hepatoprotective effect of Juniperus phoenicea constituents. Alqasoumi SI, Farraj AI, and Abdel-Kader MS Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 26(5), 999-1008, (2013)

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Efficacy of herbal coded Hepcon on drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals through histopathological and biochemical analysis. Jamil MS, Mahmood Z, Saeed A, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 26(5), 991-7, (2013)

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Curcumin reorganizes miRNA expression in a mouse model of liver fibrosis. Hassan ZK and Al-Olayan EM Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 13(11), 5405-8, (2012)

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Reversal of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury by aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium in Sprague-Dawley rats. Saxena M and Shukla S J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 31(4), 325-34, (2012)

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Jaggery protects hepatorenal injury induced by acute exposure to carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats. Sharma CK, Saxena M, and Sharma V J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 32(1), 1-7, (2013)

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The dangers from limited exposure to carbon tetrachloride. Louria DB and Bogden JD Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 7(2), 177-88, (1980)

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Carbon tetrachloride. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 106, 21-35, (1988)

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Involvement of the nuclear high mobility group B1 peptides released from injured hepatocytes in murine hepatic fibrogenesis. Kao YH, Lin YC, Tsai MS, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1842(9), 1720-32, (2014)

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The hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis in a rat model: an experimental study. Ma C, Liu A, Wang Y, et al. Life Sci. 108(2), 104-8, (2014)

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Decursin attenuates hepatic fibrogenesis through interrupting TGF-beta-mediated NAD(P)H oxidase activation and Smad signaling in vivo and in vitro. Choi YJ, Kim da H, Kim SJ, et al. Life Sci. 108(2), 94-103, (2014)

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Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats. Taj D, Khan H, Sultana V, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 27(3), 491-4, (2014)

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Acanthoic acid, a diterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, ameliorates the development of liver fibrosis via LXRs signals. Bai T, Yao YL, Jin XJ, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 218, 63-70, (2014)

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High-mobility group box 1 exacerbates CCl₄-induced acute liver injury in mice. Chen M, Huang W, Wang C, et al. Clin. Immunol. 153(1), 56-63, (2014)

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Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Jia R, Cao LP, Du JL, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 152, 11-9, (2014)

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Protective effects of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro. Hu L, Li L, Xu D, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 213, 51-9, (2014)

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Liver cancer-related gene CYP2E1 expression in HBV transgenic mice with acute liver injury. Zhang C, Wei Q, Jiang T, et al. Tumour Biol. 35(4), 3671-7, (2014)

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Modulation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis by olmesartan and omega-3. Shaaban AA, Shaker ME, Zalata KR, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 207, 81-91, (2014)

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Curcumin up-regulates phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 through microRNA-mediated control of DNA methylation--a novel mechanism suppressing liver fibrosis. Zheng J, Wu C, Lin Z, et al. FEBS J. 281(1), 88-103, (2014)

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Menin promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis and epigenetically up-regulates Yap1 transcription. Xu B, Li SH, Zheng R, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(43), 17480-5, (2013)

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Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a key mediator of liver inflammation and fibrosis. Mukhopadhyay P, Rajesh M, Cao Z, et al. Hepatology 59(5), 1998-2009, (2014)

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Protective effects of Ziyang tea polysaccharides on CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice. Wang D, Zhao Y, Sun Y, et al. Food Chem. 143, 371-8, (2014)

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Berberine and S allyl cysteine mediated amelioration of DEN+CCl4 induced hepatocarcinoma. Sengupta D, Chowdhury KD, Sarkar A, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1840(1), 219-44, (2014)

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Dysbiosis contributes to fibrogenesis in the course of chronic liver injury in mice. De Minicis S, Rychlicki C, Agostinelli L, et al. Hepatology 59(5), 1738-49, (2014)

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Zolmitriptan: a novel portal hypotensive agent which synergizes with propranolol in lowering portal pressure. Reboredo M, Chang HC, Barbero R, et al. PLoS ONE 8(1), e52683, (2013)

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Merck 14,1816

Beil. 1,IV,56

Fieser 3,43 / Fieser 4,69 / Fieser 14,72

Aldrich MSDS 1, 350:D / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 686:B / FT-IR 1 (1), 84:C / FT-NMR 1 (1), 125:B / IR-Spectra (3), 52:D / RegBook 1 (1), 85:F / Sax 6, 644 / Structure Index 1, 10:D:4 / Vapor Phase 3, 121:B

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