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401765 Sigma-Aldrich

Benzene

anhydrous, 99.8%

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Properties

Related Categories Anhydrous, Anhydrous Solvents, Benzene and Benzene Solutions, Products, Returnable Containers,
grade   anhydrous
vapor density   2.77 (vs air)
vapor pressure   166 mmHg ( 37.7 °C)
  74.6 mmHg ( 20 °C)
assay   99.8%
autoignition temp.   1043 °F
expl. lim.   8 %
impurities   <0.001% water
  <0.005% water (100 mL pkg)
evapn. residue   <0.0005%
refractive index   n20/D 1.501(lit.)
bp   80 °C(lit.)
mp   5.5 °C(lit.)
density   0.874 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

Description

Packaging

1, 6×1, 2 L in Sure/Seal™

100, 12×100 mL in Sure/Seal™

View returnable container options.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
F,T
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
53-45
RIDADR 
UN 1114 3 / PGII
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
CY1400000
Flash Point(F) 
12.2 °F
Flash Point(C) 
-11 °C

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Benzene Using Karl Fischer Titration

Water determination in hydrocarbons is relatively straightforward. Lower hydrocarbons dissolve in methanol, however, even if the dissolution is incomplete, the water is rapidly extracted and complete...
Keywords: Titrations

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

Occupational benzene exposure and the risk of lymphoma subtypes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies incorporating three study quality dimensions. Vlaanderen J, Lan Q, Kromhout H, et al. Environ. Health Perspect. 119(2), 159-67, (2011)

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Risk of myeloproliferative disease and chronic myeloid leukaemia following exposure to low-level benzene in a nested case-control study of petroleum workers. Glass DC, Schnatter AR, Tang G, et al. Occup. Environ. Med. 71(4), 266-74, (2014)

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Metabolic polymorphisms and biomarkers of effect in the biomonitoring of occupational exposure to low-levels of benzene: state of the art. De Palma G and Manno M Toxicol. Lett. 231(2), 194-204, (2014)

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Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends. Li L, Ge Y, Wang M, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 502, 627-31, (2015)

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Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment. Bader M, Van Weyenbergh T, Verwerft E, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 231(3), 328-36, (2014)

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Risk assessment of population inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in urban China. Du Z, Mo J, and Zhang Y Environ. Int. 73, 33-45, (2014)

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Influence of genetic polymorphism on t,t-MA/S-PMA ratio in 301 benzene exposed subjects. Carbonari D, Proietto A, Fioretti M, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 231(2), 205-12, (2014)

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[Considerations on the limit values for benzene]. Scapellato ML, Aprea MC, Moretto A, et al. G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 35(4), 268-71, (2013)

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[Epigenic modifications associated with low benzene exposure]. Fustinoni S, Bollati V, and Bertazzi PA G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 35(4), 263-7, (2013)

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[Biomarkers of effect and susceptibility to low doses of benzene]. De Palma G, Mutti A, Spatari G, et al. G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 35(4), 259-62, (2013)

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[Methodological aspects in environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to low doses of benzene: problems and possible solutions]. Tranfo G, Paci E, Fustinoni S, et al. G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 35(4), 256-8, (2013)

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[Monitoring of the occupational and environmental exposure to low doses of benzene]. Lovreglio P, Carrieri M, Barbieri A, et al. G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 35(4), 251-5, (2013)

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[Update on benzene: from industrial toxicant to environmental carcinogen]. Manno M G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 35(4), 247-50, (2013)

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Good, the bad, and the ugly. Allen JR, Wright RL, and Johnson PJ Occup. Health Saf. 82(9), 26-8, (2013)

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[The influence of bacterial autoregulation molecules (homoserine lactones and alkyloxybenzoles) on oxidative metabolism of the natural immunity cellular effectors]. Deriabin DG, Sviridova TG, El'-Registan GI, et al. Mikrobiologiia 82(2), 147-56, (2013)

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Benzene-induced changes in hematological parameters and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid among gasoline station workers: authors' reply. Tunsaringkarn T Int. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 4(2), 110, (2013)

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Benzene-induced changes in hematological parameters and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid among gasoline station workers. Joob B and Wiwanitkit V Int. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 4(2), 109-10, (2013)

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1,3,5-Trisubstituted benzenes as fluorescent photoaffinity probes for human carbonic anhydrase II capture. Sarathi Addy P, Saha B, Pradeep Singh ND, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(19), 1930-2, (2013)

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A systematic review of benzene exposure during pregnancy and adverse outcomes on intrauterine development and birth: still far from scientific evidence. Protano C, Scalise T, Orsi GB, et al. Ann. Ig. 24(6), 451-63, (2012)

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Benzene absorption in animals and man: an overview. Hostynek JJ, Lamel SA, and Maibach HI Rev. Environ. Health 27(2-3), 85-101, (2012)

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Benzene metabolism in rodents at doses relevant to human exposure from urban air. Turteltaub KW and Mani C Res. Rep. Health Eff. Inst. (113), 1-26; discussion 27-35, (2003)

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NTP Technical Report on the metabolism, toxicity and predicted carcinogenicity of diazoaminobenzene (CAS No. 136-35-6). Ress NB Toxic. Rep. Ser. (73), 1-23, A1-C6, (2002)

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[Studies on relationship between exposure to low concentration of mixed benzene and lower quality of semen and very early fetal loss]. Wang S, Chen H, and Wang X Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 34(5), 271-3, (2000)

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Calculating virtual log P in the alkane/water system (log P(N)(alk)) and its derived parameters deltalog P(N)(oct-alk) and log D(pH)(alk). Giulia Caron et al J. Med. Chem. 48, 3269-79, (2005)

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Associations between personal exposure to air pollutants and lung function tests and cardiovascular indices among children with asthma living near an industrial complex and petroleum refineries. Smargiassi A, Goldberg MS, Wheeler AJ, et al. Environ. Res. 132, 38-45, (2014)

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Decoys for docking. Alan P Graves et al J. Med. Chem. 48, 3714-28, (2005)

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Current understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia in humans: implications for risk assessment. McHale CM, Zhang L, and Smith MT Carcinogenesis 33(2), 240-52, (2012)

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Mercury assisted fluorescent supramolecular assembly of hexaphenylbenzene derivative for femtogram detection of picric acid. Pramanik S, Bhalla V, and Kumar M Anal. Chim. Acta 793, 99-106, (2013)

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Benzene and human health: A historical review and appraisal of associations with various diseases. Galbraith D, Gross SA, and Paustenbach D Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 40 Suppl 2, 1-46, (2010)

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An integrated evaluation of molecular marker indices and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) to measure sewage input in a subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil). Martins CC, Cabral AC, Barbosa-Cintra SC, et al. Environ. Pollut. 188, 71-80, (2014)

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The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study. Arnold SM, Angerer J, Boogaard PJ, et al. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 43(2), 119-53, (2013)

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Structure-guided design of potent diazobenzene inhibitors for the BET bromodomains. Zhang G, Plotnikov AN, Rusinova E, et al. J. Med. Chem. 56(22), 9251-64, (2013)

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Designing ternary cocrystals with hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds. Tothadi S and Desiraju GR Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(71), 7791-3, (2013)

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Decreased levels of CXC-chemokines in serum of benzene-exposed workers identified by array-based proteomics. Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Zhang L, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102(47), 17041-6, (2005)

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Personal exposure to benzene of selected population groups and impact of commuting modes in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. Lan TT, Liem NQ, and Binh NT Environ. Pollut. 175, 56-63, (2013)

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Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: a global concern. Bahadar H, Mostafalou S, and Abdollahi M Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 276(2), 83-94, (2014)

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Stem cell and benzene-induced malignancy and hematotoxicity. Wang L, He X, Bi Y, et al. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25(7), 1303-15, (2012)

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A six-carbon 10π-electron aromatic system supported by group 3 metals. Huang W, Dulong F, Wu T, et al. Nat. Commun. 4, 1448, (2013)

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Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gasoline station attendants. Moro AM, Charão MF, Brucker N, et al. Mutat. Res. 754(1-2), 63-70, (2013)

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Methane from benzene in argon dielectric barrier discharge. Das TN and Dey GR J. Hazard. Mater. 248-249, 469-77, (2013)

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Dermal absorption of benzene in occupational settings: estimating flux and applications for risk assessment. Williams PR, Sahmel J, Knutsen J, et al. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 41(2), 111-42, (2011)

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Air to lung partition coefficients for volatile organic compounds and blood to lung partition coefficients for volatile organic compounds and drugs. Michael H Abraham et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 478-85, (2008)

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Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure. Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Romeo L, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 235(1-3), 247-52, (1999)

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Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential. Ma J, Nossa CW, Xiu Z, et al. Environ. Pollut. 178, 419-25, (2013)

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Acute myeloid leukemia following exposure to benzene more closely resembles de novo than therapy related-disease. Irons RD, Chen Y, Wang X, et al. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 52(10), 887-94, (2013)

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In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial and trypanocidal studies of new N-benzene- and N-naphthalenesulfonamide derivatives. Galiana-Roselló C, Bilbao-Ramos P, Dea-Ayuela MA, et al. J. Med. Chem. 56(22), 8984-98, (2013)

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QSPR modeling of octanol/water partition coefficient for vitamins by optimal descriptors calculated with SMILES. A A Toropov et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 714-40, (2008)

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BTEX pollution caused by motorcycles in the megacity of HoChiMinh. Lan TT and Minh PA J. Environ. Sci. (China) 25(2), 348-56, (2013)

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Partition, sorption and structure activity relation study of dialkoxybenzenes that modulate insect behavior. Ebrahimi P, Spooner J, Weinberg N, et al. Chemosphere 93(1), 54-60, (2013)

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Effects of extractives on some properties of bagasse/high density polypropylene composite. Sheshmani S Carbohydr. Polym. 94(1), 416-9, (2013)

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Stable three-dimensional metallic carbon with interlocking hexagons. Zhang S, Wang Q, Chen X, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(47), 18809-13, (2013)

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Leukemia and benzene. Snyder R Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9(8), 2875-93, (2012)

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Hematotoxicity among Chinese workers heavily exposed to benzene. Rothman N, Li GL, Dosemeci M, et al. Am. J. Ind. Med. 29(3), 236-46, (1996)

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In vitro conjugation of benzene metabolites by human liver: potential influence of interindividual variability on benzene toxicity. Seaton MJ, Schlosser P, and Medinsky MA Carcinogenesis 16(7), 1519-27, (1995)

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Modeling the temperature dependent interfacial tension between organic solvents and water using dissipative particle dynamics. Mayoral E and Goicochea AG J. Chem. Phys. 138(9), 094703, (2013)

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Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation of benzene and toluene during hydrophobic sorption in multistep batch experiments. Imfeld G, Kopinke FD, Fischer A, et al. Chemosphere 107, 454-61, (2014)

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Low-dose metabolism of benzene in humans: science and obfuscation. Rappaport SM, Kim S, Thomas R, et al. Carcinogenesis 34(1), 2-9, (2013)

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Adsorptive removal of bisphenol-A from water with a metal-organic framework, a porous chromium-benzenedicarboxylate. Park EY, Hasan Z, Khan NA, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(4), 2789-94, (2013)

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Biomonitoring Equivalents for benzene. Hays SM, Pyatt DW, Kirman CR, et al. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 62(1), 62-73, (2012)

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Catalytic oxidation of benzene with ozone over Mn/KIT-6. Park JH, Kim JM, Jurng J, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 423-6, (2013)

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Preparation of needle trap samplers to extract air compounds from indoor electric-vaporizing sources. Cheng WH, Jiang JR, Lin C, et al. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 64(4), 488-93, (2014)

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Risk of low red or white blood cell count related to estimated benzene exposure in a rubberworker cohort (1940-1975) Ward E, Hornung R, Morris J, et al. Am. J. Ind. Med. 29(3), 247-57, (1996)

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The use of nucleic acid based stable isotope probing to identify the microorganisms responsible for anaerobic benzene and toluene biodegradation. Cupples AM J. Microbiol. Methods 85(2), 83-91, (2011)

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Emission of volatile organic compounds from religious and ritual activities in India. Dewangan S, Chakrabarty R, Zielinska B, et al. Environ. Monit. Assess. 185(11), 9279-86, (2013)

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Rendering plant emissions of volatile organic compounds during sterilization and cooking processes. Bhatti ZA, Maqbool F, and Langenhove HV Environ. Technol. 35(9-12), 1321-7, (2014)

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Analysis of BTEX groundwater concentrations from surface spills associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. Gross SA, Avens HJ, Banducci AM, et al. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 63(4), 424-32, (2013)

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Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel. Hughes H and Hunting KL Noise Health 15(67), 379-87, (2013)

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Analysis of trace contaminants in hot gas streams using time-weighted average solid-phase microextraction: proof of concept. Woolcock PJ, Koziel JA, Cai L, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1281, 1-8, (2013)

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Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) polymorphisms are associated with aberrant promoter methylation of ERCC3 and hematotoxicity in benzene-exposed workers. Xing C, Chen Q, Li G, et al. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54(6), 397-405, (2013)

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Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the serum-mediated increase of benzoquinone genotoxicity. Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, and Morozzi G Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 46(3), 156-63, (2005)

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Chronic exposure to benzene results in a unique form of dysplasia. Irons RD, Lv L, Gross SA, et al. Leuk. Res. 29(12), 1371-80, (2005)

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Hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, and leukemia: a case report and review of the literature. Regev L, Wu M, Zlotolow R, et al. Toxicol. Ind. Health 28(1), 64-73, (2012)

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Convenient QSAR model for predicting the complexation of structurally diverse compounds with beta-cyclodextrins. Alfonso Pérez-Garrido et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 896-904, (2009)

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Cytogenetics in benzene-associated myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia: new insights into a disease continuum. Irons RD and Kerzic PJ Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1310, 84-8, (2014)

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Application of toxicogenomic profiling to evaluate effects of benzene and formaldehyde: from yeast to human. McHale CM, Smith MT, and Zhang L Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1310, 74-83, (2014)

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Modulation of mast cell and basophil functions by benzene metabolites. Triggiani M, Loffredo S, Granata F, et al. Curr. Pharm. Des. 17(34), 3830-5, (2011)

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Novel planar and star-shaped molecules: synthesis, electrochemical and photophysical properties. Niu Q, Lu Y, Sun H, et al. Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 107, 377-85, (2013)

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The polar mechanism for the nitration of benzene with nitronium ion: ab initio structures of intermediates and transition states. Parker VD, Kar T, and Bethell D J. Org. Chem. 78(18), 9522-5, (2013)

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Absorption, metabolism, and disposition of 1,3-diphenyl-1-triazene in rats and mice after oral, i.v., and dermal administration. Mathews JM and De Costa KS Drug Metab. Dispos. 27(12), 1499-504, (1999)

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Acute oral toxicity and liver oxidant/antioxidant stress of halogenated benzene, phenol, and diphenyl ether in mice: a comparative and mechanism exploration. Shi J, Feng M, Zhang X, et al. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 20(9), 6138-49, (2013)

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Proposal on limits for chemical exposure in saturation divers' working atmosphere: the case of benzene. Djurhuus R, Nossum V, Øvrebø S, et al. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 42(3), 211-29, (2012)

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Effect of benzene, toluene, xylene on the semen quality and the function of accessory gonad of exposed workers. Xiao G, Pan C, Cai Y, et al. Ind. Health 39(2), 206-10, (2001)

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Volatile organic compound identification and characterization by PCA and mapping at a high-technology science park. Lan CH, Huang YL, Ho SH, et al. Environ. Pollut. 193, 156-64, (2014)

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Some ligands enhance the efflux of other ligands by the Escherichia coli multidrug pump AcrB. Kinana AD, Vargiu AV, and Nikaido H Biochemistry 52(46), 8342-51, (2013)

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Correlation between iron mobilization and emergence of benzene in leachate at old landfills. Tansel B J. Environ. Manage. 120, 1-4, (2013)

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Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region. Rolle-Kampczyk UE, Rehwagen M, Franck U, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 162(2-3), 234-8, (2006)

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Effects of the aromatic substitution pattern in cation-π sandwich complexes. Wireduaah S, Parker TM, and Lewis M J. Phys. Chem. A 117(12), 2598-604, (2013)

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Phenol formation in gamma radiolysis of aqueous benzene solution with sodium hypochlorite. Takeda K and Nagano K J. Phys. Chem. A 117(9), 1941-5, (2013)

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Benzene, toluene and xylenes levels in new and used vehicles of the same model. Faber J, Brodzik K, Golda-Kopek A, et al. J. Environ. Sci. (China) 25(11), 2324-30, (2013)

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Catalytic oxidation of benzene using mesoporous alpha-Mn2O3. An HB, Kim JM, Jurng J, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(11), 7472-6, (2013)

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Benzene homologues in environmental matrixes from a pesticide chemical region in China: Occurrence, health risk and management. Wang T, Bo P, Bing T, et al. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 104, 357-64, (2014)

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3D-QSAR studies on the toxicity of substituted benzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis: CoMFA, CoMSIA and VolSurf approaches. Salahinejad M and Ghasemi JB Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 105, 128-34, (2014)

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Urine phenol and myeloperoxidase index: an observation in benzene exposed subjects. Wiwanitkit V, Soogarun S, and Suwansaksri J Leuk. Lymphoma 45(8), 1643-5, (2004)

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Evaluation of genotoxic effects of benzene and its derivatives in workers of gas stations. Trevisan P, da Silva JN, da Silva AP, et al. Environ. Monit. Assess. 186(4), 2195-204, (2014)

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Preparation and characterization of mesoporous Ag/VO(x)-TiO2 employed for catalytic hydroxylation of benzene. Xu D, Liu L, Zhao Z, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 4692-9, (2014)

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Catalytic activity and structure properties of doped VOHPO4 x 0.5H2O with nanosized Ru, Au, Fe and Mn in benzene hydroxylation. Makgwane PR and Ray SS J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(7), 5053-60, (2013)

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Measurement of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethybenzene, and xylene) levels at urban and semirural areas of Algiers City using passive air samplers. Kerchich Y and Kerbachi R J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 62(12), 1370-9, (2012)

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Plants as bio-indicators of subsurface conditions: impact of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in trees. Wilson J, Bartz R, Limmer M, et al. Int. J. Phytoremediation 15(3), 257-67, (2013)

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Estimation of relative reaction rate of hydroxy radical with poly-hydroxy benzenes: ESR spin trapping combined with UV-A photolysis. Nakagawa S Anal. Sci. 29(3), 377-80, (2013)

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Determination of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in surface waters from a Brazilian subtropical hydrographic basin. Fernandes AN, Gouveia CD, Grassi MT, et al. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 92(4), 455-9, (2014)

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[Biomarkers of occupational and environmental exposure to benzene and styrene determinated by LC-MS/MS]. Stragierowicz J, Mikołajewska K, Zawadzka-Stolarz M, et al. Med. Pr. 63(5), 565-72, (2012)

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Take a number. Francl M Nature Chemistry 5(9), 725-6, (2013)

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Authors' response to comments on Petty et al. (2011), "a quantitative method for estimating dermal benzene absorption from benzene containing hydrocarbon liquids," IJOEH, 17:287-300 by Pamela R.D. Williams, Jennifer Sahmel, Annette L.Bunge, Jeffrey Knutsen, and John Spencer. Petty SE, Nicas M, and Boiarski AA Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 19(2), 147-54, (2013)

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Comments on Petty et al. (2011), "a quantitative method for estimating dermal benzene absorption from benzene-containing hydrocarbon liquids," IJOEH, 17:287-300. Williams PR, Sahmel J, Bunge AL, et al. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 19(2), 139-46, (2013)

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Letter to the editor in response to 'Low-dose metabolism of benzene in humans: science and obfuscation' Rappaport et al. (2013). Price PS, Rey TD, Fontaine DD, et al. Carcinogenesis 34(7), 1692-6, (2013)

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Ignoring and adding errors do not improve the science. Rappaport SM, Johnson BA, Bois FY, et al. Carcinogenesis 34(7), 1689-91, (2013)

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Updating IARC's carcinogenicity assessment of benzene. Cogliano VJ, Baan R, and Straif K Am. J. Ind. Med. 54(2), 165-7, (2011)

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The IARC october 2009 evaluation of benzene carcinogenicity was incomplete and needs to be reconsidered. Infante PF Am. J. Ind. Med. 54(2), 157-64, (2011)

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Merck 14,1066

Beil. 5,IV,583

Aldrich MSDS 1, 152:C / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 349:A / FT-IR 2 (2), 1626:A / FT-IR 1 (1), 931:A / FT-NMR 1 (2), 1:A / IR-Spectra (2), 499:A / IR-Spectra (3), 561:A / NMR-Reference 2 (1), 733:A / RegBook 1 (1), 1129:A / Sax 6, 360 / Structure Index 1, 174:A:1 / Vapor Phase 3, 849:A

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