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537020 Sigma-Aldrich

Acetic acid

glacial, ≥99.85%

Synonym: Glacial acetic acid

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Properties

vapor density   2.07 (vs air)
assay   ≥99.85%
autoignition temp.   800 °F
expl. lim.   16 %, 92 °F
  4 %, 59 °F
refractive index   n20/D 1.371(lit.)
bp   117-118 °C(lit.)
mp   16.2 °C(lit.)
density   1.049 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

Description

Other Notes

This product has been replaced by A6283-Sigma-Aldrich | Acetic acid, ReagentPlus, ≥99% | CH3CO2H

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United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
RIDADR 
UN 2789PSN1 3(8) / PGII
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
AF1225000
Flash Point(F) 
104 °F
Flash Point(C) 
40 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Acetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Levels of 7-oxocholesterol in cerebrospinal fluid are more than one thousand times lower than reported in multiple sclerosis. Leoni V, Lütjohann D, and Masterman T J. Lipid Res. 46(2), 191-5, (2005)

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The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Smallegange RC J. Chem. Ecol. 35(8), 933-43, (2009)

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Failure to achieve castration levels in patients using leuprolide acetate in locally advanced prostate cancer. Yri OE, Bjoro T, and Fossa SD Eur. Urol. 49(1), 54-8; discussion 58, (2006)

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Interactions of carbon dioxide and food odours in Drosophila: olfactory hedonics and sensory neuron properties. Faucher CP, Hilker M, and de Bruyne M PLoS ONE 8(2), e56361, (2013)

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SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine. Jacobs DM, Spiesser L, Garnier M, et al. Anal. Bioanal. Chem 404(8), 2349-61, (2012)

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Study on analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Cordia myxa fruit hydro-alcoholic extract. Ranjbar M, Varzi HN, Sabbagh A, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(24), 2066-9, (2013)

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Standardization of DNA extraction from methanol acetic acid fixed cytogenetic cells of cattle and buffalo. Kotikalapudi R, Patel RK, and Katragadda S Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(23), 1823-5, (2013)

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Alpha amylase enzyme inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effect of Lawsonia inermis. Imam H, Mahbub NU, Khan MF, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(23), 1796-800, (2013)

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[The laterally spreading colon tumors. Diagnostic efficacy of colonoscopy and chromoscopy using indigocarmine and acetic acid]. Iakovenko VO and Kuryk OH Klin. Khir. (11), 21-3, (2013)

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Lymphangioma of the vagina. Tomai XH and Phan TH J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Can. 35(9), 827-30, (2013)

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[Comparative study on toxicity of extracts from Phytolaccae Radix before and after being processed with vinegar]. Gong L, Wu H, Yu HL, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(10), 1610-3, (2013)

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[Development of conditions for preparing specimens for the detection of blood parasites]. Arakel'ian AS, Arakel'ian RS, Galimzianov KhM, et al. Med. Parazitol. (Mosk.) (1), 38-41, (2013)

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[Study on efficacy and mechanism of weiyangning pills against experimental gastric ulcer]. Xu JJ, Huang P, Wu QH, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(5), 736-9, (2013)

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[Study on detoxication and mechanism of vinegar-processed Euphorbia pekinensis on normal liver cells LO2]. Chen HY, Cao YD, Yan XJ, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(6), 866-70, (2013)

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Enamel protection from acid challenge--benefits of marketed fluoride dentifrices. Faller RV and Eversole SL J. Clin. Dent. 24(1), 25-30, (2013)

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[Regularity of changes in main active components of Schisandra chinensis before and after being processed with vinegar]. Li L, Xiao YQ, Yu DR, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 37(23), 3545-8, (2012)

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Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, et al. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita 41(2), 213-6, (2005)

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On the formation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl acetic acid esters of hecogenin and aza-homo-hecogenin and their antileukemic activity. Camoutsis C, Trafalis D, Pairas G, et al. Il Farmaco 60(10), 826-9, (2005)

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[Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid]. Yagi K, Nakamura A, and Sekine A Nihon Rinsho. 63(8), 1411-5, (2005)

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[Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides]. Li M, Pan XL, Wang LL, et al. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 85(16), 1109-12, (2005)

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Oxidative stress in patients with multiple sclerosis. Syburra C and Passi S Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 71(3), 112-5, (1999)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, et al. Anal. Chem. 67(5), 793-811, (1995)

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Calculating virtual log P in the alkane/water system (log P(N)(alk)) and its derived parameters deltalog P(N)(oct-alk) and log D(pH)(alk). Giulia Caron et al J. Med. Chem. 48, 3269-79, (2005)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Static coatings for the analysis of intact monoclonal antibody drugs by capillary zone electrophoresis. Gassner AL, Rudaz S, and Schappler J Electrophoresis 34(18), 2718-24, (2013)

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The probiotic mixture VSL#3 accelerates gastric ulcer healing by stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor. Dharmani P, De Simone C, and Chadee K PLoS ONE 8(3), e58671, (2013)

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Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, et al. Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9288-97, (2008)

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Measurement of immune markers in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients during clinical remission. Shaw CE, Dunbar PR, Macaulay HA, et al. J. Neurol. 242(2), 53-8, (1995)

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Organic acids pretreatment effect on Rosa bourbonia phyto-biomass for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous media. Manzoor Q, Nadeem R, Iqbal M, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 132, 446-52, (2013)

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Oligosaccharides and monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass. Mateo S, Puentes JG, Sánchez S, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 93(2), 416-23, (2013)

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Solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and metabolomic approaches for detection of potential urinary cancer biomarkers--a powerful strategy for breast cancer diagnosis. Silva CL, Passos M, and Câmara JS Talanta 89, 360-8, (2012)

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Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, et al. Kidney Int. 79(11), 1244-53, (2011)

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The lifespan-promoting effect of acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide. Ming-Hong Chuang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 7831-40, (2009)

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1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, et al. J. Dent. Res. 81(6), 422-7, (2002)

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A generic model for spoilage of acidic emulsified foods: combining physicochemical data, diversity and levels of specific spoilage organisms. Manios SG, Lambert RJ, and Skandamis PN Int. J. Food Microbiol. 170, 1-11, (2014)

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Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, et al. Clin. Chem. 53(6), 1129-36, (2007)

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Impact of Schwartz enhanced visualization solution on staging colorectal cancer and clinicopathological features associated with lymph node count. Chapman B, Paquette C, Tooke C, et al. Dis. Colon Rectum 56(9), 1028-35, (2013)

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Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, et al. NMR Biomed. 18(4), 213-25, (2005)

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Inhibition of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) by bicarbonate and other anions. Zhao R, Visentin M, Suadicani SO, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 84(1), 95-103, (2013)

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Selective liquid chromatographic separation of yttrium from heavier rare earth elements using acetic acid as a novel eluent. Kifle D and Wibetoe G J. Chromatogr. A 1307, 86-90, (2013)

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Serum uric acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with activity of disease and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Toncev G, Milicic B, Toncev S, et al. Eur. J. Neurol. 9(3), 221-6, (2002)

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Up-regulation of GLT1 expression increases glutamate uptake and attenuates the Huntington's disease phenotype in the R6/2 mouse. Miller BR Neuroscience 153(1), 329-37, (2008)

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Neonatal colonic inflammation sensitizes voltage-gated Na(+) channels via upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase expression in rat primary sensory neurons. Qu R, Tao J, Wang Y, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 304(9), G763-72, (2013)

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Identification of the toxic trigger in mushroom poisoning. Masanori Matsuura et al Nat. Chem. Biol. 5, 465-7, (2009)

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Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation. Heise RL, Ivanova J, Parekh A, et al. Tissue Eng. Part A 15(12), 3951-60, (2009)

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Inflammatory multiple-sclerosis plaques generate characteristic metabolic profiles in cerebrospinal fluid. Lutz NW, Viola A, Malikova I, et al. PLoS ONE 2(7), e595, (2007)

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Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase. Baez A and Shiloach J Microb. Cell Fact. 12, 23, (2013)

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Yeast growth in raffinose results in resistance to acetic-acid induced programmed cell death mostly due to the activation of the mitochondrial retrograde pathway. Guaragnella N, Zdralević M, Lattanzio P, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1833(12), 2765-74, (2013)

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The acid-secreting parietal cell as an endocrine source of Sonic Hedgehog during gastric repair. Engevik AC, Feng R, Yang L, et al. Endocrinology 154(12), 4627-39, (2013)

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SATP (YaaH), a succinate-acetate transporter protein in Escherichia coli. Sá-Pessoa J, Paiva S, Ribas D, et al. Biochem. J. 454(3), 585-95, (2013)

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The first synthetic agonists of FFA2: Discovery and SAR of phenylacetamides as allosteric modulators. Wang, Y., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 493-498, (2010)

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New vinegar produced by tomato suppresses adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and obese rat model. Lee JH, Cho HD, Jeong JH, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 3241-9, (2013)

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A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars. Ordóñez JL, Callejón RM, Morales ML, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 2713-9, (2013)

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Metabolomic analysis reveals key metabolites related to the rapid adaptation of Saccharomyce cerevisiae to multiple inhibitors of furfural, acetic acid, and phenol. Wang X, Li BZ, Ding MZ, et al. OMICS 17(3), 150-9, (2013)

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Evaluation of chemical preparation on insect wing shape for geometric morphometrics. Lorenz C and Suesdek L Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89(5), 928-31, (2013)

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TRP and ASIC channels mediate the antinociceptive effect of citronellyl acetate. Rios ER, Rocha NF, Carvalho AM, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(3), 573-9, (2013)

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Modeling of breakthrough curves of single and quaternary mixtures of ethanol, glucose, glycerol and acetic acid adsorption onto a microporous hyper-cross-linked resin. Zhou J, Wu J, Liu Y, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 143, 360-8, (2013)

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Inhibitory effect of novel 5-O-acyl juglones on mammalian DNA polymerase activity, cancer cell growth and inflammatory response. Maruo S, Kuriyama I, et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 5803-5812, (2011)

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Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release. Marques C, Oliveira CS, Alves S, et al. Cell Death Dis. 4, e507, (2013)

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Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells. Pinmai K, Chunlaratthanabhorn S, Ngamkitidechakul C, et al. World J. Gastroenterol. 14(10), 1491-7, (2008)

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Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, et al. Neurochem. Res. 28(9), 1321-8, (2003)

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Comparing PAP smear cytology, aided visual inspection, screening colposcopy, cervicography and HPV testing as optional screening tools in Latin America. Study design and baseline data of the LAMS study. Syrjänen K, Naud P, Derchain S, et al. Anticancer Res. 25(5), 3469-80, (2005)

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Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated PMMA microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations. Currie CA Electrophoresis 30(24), 4245-50, (2009)

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Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract. Yong YK, Zakaria ZA, Kadir AA, et al. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 13, 32, (2013)

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Detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 patients studied because of suspected inherited disease. Vaca G, Hernández A, Ibarra B, et al. Arch. Invest. Med. (Mex.) 12(3), 341-8, (1981)

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Effects of curcumin on apoptosis and oxidoinflammatory regulation in a rat model of acetic acid-induced colitis: the roles of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Topcu-Tarladacalisir Y, Akpolat M, Uz YH, et al. J. Med. Food 16(4), 296-305, (2013)

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The effect of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on nutrient removal in SBR with biomass adapted to dairy wastewater. Janczukowicz W, Rodziewicz J, Czaplicka K, et al. J. Environ. Sci. Health. A. Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 48(7), 809-16, (2013)

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Determination of the carbohydrates from Notopterygium forbesii Boiss by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Zhang S, Li C, Zhou G, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 794-9, (2013)

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Acidocella aromatica sp. nov.: an acidophilic heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium with unusual phenotypic traits. Jones RM, Hedrich S, and Johnson DB Extremophiles 17(5), 841-50, (2013)

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Aberrant anaplastic lymphoma kinase activity induces a p53 and Rb-dependent senescence-like arrest in the absence of detectable p53 stabilization. McDuff FK PLoS ONE 6(3), e17854, (2011)

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Characteristics of fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli containing human-like collagen cDNA at different specific growth rates. Fan DD, Luo Y, Mi Y, et al. Biotechnol. Lett. 27(12), 865-70, (2005)

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The effect of melatonin on plasma markers of inflammation and on expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta in acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. Sayyed HG, Jaumdally RJ, Idriss NK, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(11), 3156-64, (2013)

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A theoretical study of the thermodynamics of microbial growth using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a different free energy equation. Battley EH Q. Rev. Biol. 88(2), 69-96, (2013)

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Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin. Menconi A, Shivaramaiah S, Huff GR, et al. Poult. Sci. 92(8), 2216-20, (2013)

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Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Qian K, Zhu JJ, Sims SR, et al. J. Econ. Entomol. 106(2), 979-87, (2013)

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Characterization of alpha-nitromethyl ketone as a new zinc-binding group based on structural analysis of its complex with carboxypeptidase A. Shou-Feng Wang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 5009-11, (2009)

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Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients. Muniz-Junqueira MI, Braga Lopes C, Magalhães CA, et al. Life Sci. 77(25), 3141-55, (2005)

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A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators. Luo M, Zheng Y, Xiong C, et al. J. AOAC Int. 96(5), 1048-53, (2013)

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In vitro studies investigating the dentin tubule-occlusion properties of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice. Burnett GR, Willson RJ, and Lucas RA Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 10A-14A, (2013)

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Acute uterine irritation provokes colonic motility via transient receptor potential A(1)-dependent spinal NR2B phosphorylation in rats. Peng HY, Yeh CM, Cheng JK, et al. Anesthesiology 120(2), 436-46, (2014)

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Potentiated macrophage activation by acid sensing under low adiponectin levels. Negoro T, Kin M, Takuma A, et al. Mol. Immunol. 57(2), 141-50, (2014)

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Density functional theory study on the interactions between Ni(n) (n = 1,..., 6) and methylamine or acetic acid. Wei F, Liu W, Lv G, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4223-7, (2013)

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Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults. Igarashi G, Higuchi R, Yamazaki T, et al. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 19(3), 243-9, (2013)

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Purification and primary structure of a mannose/glucose-binding lectin from Parkia biglobosa Jacq. seeds with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. Silva HC, Bari AU, Rocha BA, et al. J. Mol. Recognit. 26(10), 470-8, (2013)

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Understanding alternative fluxes/effluxes through comparative metabolic pathway analysis of phylum actinobacteria using a simplified approach. Verma M, Lal D, Saxena A, et al. Gene 531(2), 306-17, (2013)

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The effect of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice on the acid resistance of dentin smear layers. Burnett GR Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 15A-18A, (2013)

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Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids. Konecki K, Gernold M, Wensing A, et al. Arch. Microbiol. 195(10-11), 759-64, (2013)

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Influence of acetic acid on a pap smear of dysplastic lesion. Hoellen F, Bohlmann MK, Brade J, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(3), 1125-30, (2013)

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Peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy's solution as a rational surgical approach to odontogenic keratocyst: a case report with a 5-year follow-up. Matijević S, Damjanović Z, Lazić Z, et al. Vojnosanit. Pregl. 69(12), 1101-5, (2012)

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Screening with acetic acid could prevent 22 000 deaths from cervical cancer in India every year. Kay M BMJ 346, f3935, (2013)

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The many roles for fluorine in medicinal chemistry. William K Hagmann et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 4359-69, (2008)

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Merck 14,55

Vapor Phase 3, 573:B

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