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537020 Sigma-Aldrich

Acetic acid

glacial, ≥99.85%

Synonym: Glacial acetic acid

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Properties

Related Categories Acetic Acid, Acids, Acids & Bases, Chemical Synthesis, Essential Chemicals,
vapor density   2.07 (vs air)
assay   ≥99.85%
autoignition temp.   800 °F
expl. lim.   16 %, 92 °F
  4 %, 59 °F
refractive index   n20/D 1.371(lit.)
bp   117-118 °C(lit.)
mp   16.2 °C(lit.)
density   1.049 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

Description

Other Notes

This product has been replaced by A6283-Sigma-Aldrich | Acetic acid, ReagentPlus, ≥99% | CH3CO2H

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United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
C
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
23-26-45
RIDADR 
UN 2789PSN1 3(8) / PGII
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
AF1225000
Flash Point(F) 
104 °F
Flash Point(C) 
40 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Acetic acid Using Karl Fischer Titration

The determination of water in carboxylic acids is usually straightforward provided the substances are soluble. Strong acids must be neutralized. Acetic acid and related compounds have a tendency to u...
Keywords: Esterifications, Pharmaceutical, Titrations

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Molarity Calculator and Normality Calculator for Acids and Bases

The molarity calculator tool provides lab-ready directions describing how to prepare an acid or base solution of specified Molarity (M) or Normality (N) from a concentrated acid or base solution.  To...

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Selective liquid chromatographic separation of yttrium from heavier rare earth elements using acetic acid as a novel eluent. Kifle D and Wibetoe G J. Chromatogr. A 1307, 86-90, (2013)

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SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine. Jacobs DM, Spiesser L, Garnier M, et al. Anal. Bioanal. Chem 404(8), 2349-61, (2012)

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1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, et al. J. Dent. Res. 81(6), 422-7, (2002)

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Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, et al. Kidney Int. 79(11), 1244-53, (2011)

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Study on analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Cordia myxa fruit hydro-alcoholic extract. Ranjbar M, Varzi HN, Sabbagh A, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(24), 2066-9, (2013)

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Standardization of DNA extraction from methanol acetic acid fixed cytogenetic cells of cattle and buffalo. Kotikalapudi R, Patel RK, and Katragadda S Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(23), 1823-5, (2013)

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Alpha amylase enzyme inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effect of Lawsonia inermis. Imam H, Mahbub NU, Khan MF, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(23), 1796-800, (2013)

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[The laterally spreading colon tumors. Diagnostic efficacy of colonoscopy and chromoscopy using indigocarmine and acetic acid]. Iakovenko VO and Kuryk OH Klin. Khir. (11), 21-3, (2013)

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A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators. Luo M, Zheng Y, Xiong C, et al. J. AOAC Int. 96(5), 1048-53, (2013)

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Lymphangioma of the vagina. Tomai XH and Phan TH J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Can. 35(9), 827-30, (2013)

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Evaluation of chemical preparation on insect wing shape for geometric morphometrics. Lorenz C and Suesdek L Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89(5), 928-31, (2013)

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[Comparative study on toxicity of extracts from Phytolaccae Radix before and after being processed with vinegar]. Gong L, Wu H, Yu HL, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(10), 1610-3, (2013)

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Density functional theory study on the interactions between Ni(n) (n = 1,..., 6) and methylamine or acetic acid. Wei F, Liu W, Lv G, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4223-7, (2013)

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[Development of conditions for preparing specimens for the detection of blood parasites]. Arakel'ian AS, Arakel'ian RS, Galimzianov KhM, et al. Med. Parazitol. (Mosk.) (1), 38-41, (2013)

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Screening with acetic acid could prevent 22 000 deaths from cervical cancer in India every year. Kay M BMJ 346, f3935, (2013)

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[Study on efficacy and mechanism of weiyangning pills against experimental gastric ulcer]. Xu JJ, Huang P, Wu QH, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(5), 736-9, (2013)

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[Study on detoxication and mechanism of vinegar-processed Euphorbia pekinensis on normal liver cells LO2]. Chen HY, Cao YD, Yan XJ, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(6), 866-70, (2013)

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TRP and ASIC channels mediate the antinociceptive effect of citronellyl acetate. Rios ER, Rocha NF, Carvalho AM, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(3), 573-9, (2013)

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Enamel protection from acid challenge--benefits of marketed fluoride dentifrices. Faller RV and Eversole SL J. Clin. Dent. 24(1), 25-30, (2013)

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[Regularity of changes in main active components of Schisandra chinensis before and after being processed with vinegar]. Li L, Xiao YQ, Yu DR, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 37(23), 3545-8, (2012)

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The many roles for fluorine in medicinal chemistry. William K Hagmann et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 4359-69, (2008)

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Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, et al. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita 41(2), 213-6, (2005)

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On the formation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl acetic acid esters of hecogenin and aza-homo-hecogenin and their antileukemic activity. Camoutsis C, Trafalis D, Pairas G, et al. Il Farmaco 60(10), 826-9, (2005)

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[Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid]. Yagi K, Nakamura A, and Sekine A Nihon Rinsho. 63(8), 1411-5, (2005)

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[Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides]. Li M, Pan XL, Wang LL, et al. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 85(16), 1109-12, (2005)

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Oxidative stress in patients with multiple sclerosis. Syburra C and Passi S Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 71(3), 112-5, (1999)

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The human serum metabolome. Psychogios N, Hau DD, Peng J, et al. PLoS ONE 6(2), e16957, (2011)

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Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, et al. Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9288-97, (2008)

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Organic acids pretreatment effect on Rosa bourbonia phyto-biomass for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous media. Manzoor Q, Nadeem R, Iqbal M, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 132, 446-52, (2013)

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The lifespan-promoting effect of acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide. Ming-Hong Chuang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 7831-40, (2009)

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Neonatal colonic inflammation sensitizes voltage-gated Na(+) channels via upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase expression in rat primary sensory neurons. Qu R, Tao J, Wang Y, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 304(9), G763-72, (2013)

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Impact of Schwartz enhanced visualization solution on staging colorectal cancer and clinicopathological features associated with lymph node count. Chapman B, Paquette C, Tooke C, et al. Dis. Colon Rectum 56(9), 1028-35, (2013)

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Solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and metabolomic approaches for detection of potential urinary cancer biomarkers--a powerful strategy for breast cancer diagnosis. Silva CL, Passos M, and Câmara JS Talanta 89, 360-8, (2012)

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In vitro studies investigating the dentin tubule-occlusion properties of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice. Burnett GR, Willson RJ, and Lucas RA Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 10A-14A, (2013)

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Oligosaccharides and monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass. Mateo S, Puentes JG, Sánchez S, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 93(2), 416-23, (2013)

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Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase. Baez A and Shiloach J Microb. Cell Fact. 12, 23, (2013)

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Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, et al. Clin. Chem. 53(6), 1129-36, (2007)

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Inhibition of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) by bicarbonate and other anions. Zhao R, Visentin M, Suadicani SO, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 84(1), 95-103, (2013)

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Failure to achieve castration levels in patients using leuprolide acetate in locally advanced prostate cancer. Yri OE, Bjoro T, and Fossa SD Eur. Urol. 49(1), 54-8; discussion 58, (2006)

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Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release. Marques C, Oliveira CS, Alves S, et al. Cell Death Dis. 4, e507, (2013)

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Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, et al. NMR Biomed. 18(4), 213-25, (2005)

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Interactions of carbon dioxide and food odours in Drosophila: olfactory hedonics and sensory neuron properties. Faucher CP, Hilker M, and de Bruyne M PLoS ONE 8(2), e56361, (2013)

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Calculating virtual log P in the alkane/water system (log P(N)(alk)) and its derived parameters deltalog P(N)(oct-alk) and log D(pH)(alk). Giulia Caron et al J. Med. Chem. 48, 3269-79, (2005)

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Yeast growth in raffinose results in resistance to acetic-acid induced programmed cell death mostly due to the activation of the mitochondrial retrograde pathway. Guaragnella N, Zdralević M, Lattanzio P, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1833(12), 2765-74, (2013)

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Static coatings for the analysis of intact monoclonal antibody drugs by capillary zone electrophoresis. Gassner AL, Rudaz S, and Schappler J Electrophoresis 34(18), 2718-24, (2013)

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Identification of the toxic trigger in mushroom poisoning. Masanori Matsuura et al Nat. Chem. Biol. 5, 465-7, (2009)

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1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, et al. NMR Biomed. 4(4), 192-200, (1991)

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A theoretical study of the thermodynamics of microbial growth using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a different free energy equation. Battley EH Q. Rev. Biol. 88(2), 69-96, (2013)

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Generating elastin-rich small intestinal submucosa-based smooth muscle constructs utilizing exogenous growth factors and cyclic mechanical stimulation. Heise RL, Ivanova J, Parekh A, et al. Tissue Eng. Part A 15(12), 3951-60, (2009)

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The first synthetic agonists of FFA2: Discovery and SAR of phenylacetamides as allosteric modulators. Wang, Y., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 493-498, (2010)

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Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated PMMA microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations. Currie CA Electrophoresis 30(24), 4245-50, (2009)

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Serum uric acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with activity of disease and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Toncev G, Milicic B, Toncev S, et al. Eur. J. Neurol. 9(3), 221-6, (2002)

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The effect of melatonin on plasma markers of inflammation and on expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta in acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. Sayyed HG, Jaumdally RJ, Idriss NK, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(11), 3156-64, (2013)

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Influence of acetic acid on a pap smear of dysplastic lesion. Hoellen F, Bohlmann MK, Brade J, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(3), 1125-30, (2013)

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Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells. Pinmai K, Chunlaratthanabhorn S, Ngamkitidechakul C, et al. World J. Gastroenterol. 14(10), 1491-7, (2008)

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Aberrant anaplastic lymphoma kinase activity induces a p53 and Rb-dependent senescence-like arrest in the absence of detectable p53 stabilization. McDuff FK PLoS ONE 6(3), e17854, (2011)

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Comparing PAP smear cytology, aided visual inspection, screening colposcopy, cervicography and HPV testing as optional screening tools in Latin America. Study design and baseline data of the LAMS study. Syrjänen K, Naud P, Derchain S, et al. Anticancer Res. 25(5), 3469-80, (2005)

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The acid-secreting parietal cell as an endocrine source of Sonic Hedgehog during gastric repair. Engevik AC, Feng R, Yang L, et al. Endocrinology 154(12), 4627-39, (2013)

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Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Qian K, Zhu JJ, Sims SR, et al. J. Econ. Entomol. 106(2), 979-87, (2013)

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Inhibitory effect of novel 5-O-acyl juglones on mammalian DNA polymerase activity, cancer cell growth and inflammatory response. Maruo S, Kuriyama I, et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 5803-5812, (2011)

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Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, et al. Neurochem. Res. 28(9), 1321-8, (2003)

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New vinegar produced by tomato suppresses adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and obese rat model. Lee JH, Cho HD, Jeong JH, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 3241-9, (2013)

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A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars. Ordóñez JL, Callejón RM, Morales ML, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 2713-9, (2013)

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Modeling of breakthrough curves of single and quaternary mixtures of ethanol, glucose, glycerol and acetic acid adsorption onto a microporous hyper-cross-linked resin. Zhou J, Wu J, Liu Y, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 143, 360-8, (2013)

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Determination of the carbohydrates from Notopterygium forbesii Boiss by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Zhang S, Li C, Zhou G, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 794-9, (2013)

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Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients. Muniz-Junqueira MI, Braga Lopes C, Magalhães CA, et al. Life Sci. 77(25), 3141-55, (2005)

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Characterization of alpha-nitromethyl ketone as a new zinc-binding group based on structural analysis of its complex with carboxypeptidase A. Shou-Feng Wang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 5009-11, (2009)

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Characteristics of fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli containing human-like collagen cDNA at different specific growth rates. Fan DD, Luo Y, Mi Y, et al. Biotechnol. Lett. 27(12), 865-70, (2005)

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SATP (YaaH), a succinate-acetate transporter protein in Escherichia coli. Sá-Pessoa J, Paiva S, Ribas D, et al. Biochem. J. 454(3), 585-95, (2013)

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Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin. Menconi A, Shivaramaiah S, Huff GR, et al. Poult. Sci. 92(8), 2216-20, (2013)

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Inflammatory multiple-sclerosis plaques generate characteristic metabolic profiles in cerebrospinal fluid. Lutz NW, Viola A, Malikova I, et al. PLoS ONE 2(7), e595, (2007)

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Metabolomic analysis reveals key metabolites related to the rapid adaptation of Saccharomyce cerevisiae to multiple inhibitors of furfural, acetic acid, and phenol. Wang X, Li BZ, Ding MZ, et al. OMICS 17(3), 150-9, (2013)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract. Yong YK, Zakaria ZA, Kadir AA, et al. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 13, 32, (2013)

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Peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy's solution as a rational surgical approach to odontogenic keratocyst: a case report with a 5-year follow-up. Matijević S, Damjanović Z, Lazić Z, et al. Vojnosanit. Pregl. 69(12), 1101-5, (2012)

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Acute uterine irritation provokes colonic motility via transient receptor potential A(1)-dependent spinal NR2B phosphorylation in rats. Peng HY, Yeh CM, Cheng JK, et al. Anesthesiology 120(2), 436-46, (2014)

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Acidocella aromatica sp. nov.: an acidophilic heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium with unusual phenotypic traits. Jones RM, Hedrich S, and Johnson DB Extremophiles 17(5), 841-50, (2013)

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Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults. Igarashi G, Higuchi R, Yamazaki T, et al. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 19(3), 243-9, (2013)

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Purification and primary structure of a mannose/glucose-binding lectin from Parkia biglobosa Jacq. seeds with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. Silva HC, Bari AU, Rocha BA, et al. J. Mol. Recognit. 26(10), 470-8, (2013)

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The probiotic mixture VSL#3 accelerates gastric ulcer healing by stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor. Dharmani P, De Simone C, and Chadee K PLoS ONE 8(3), e58671, (2013)

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Understanding alternative fluxes/effluxes through comparative metabolic pathway analysis of phylum actinobacteria using a simplified approach. Verma M, Lal D, Saxena A, et al. Gene 531(2), 306-17, (2013)

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The effect of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice on the acid resistance of dentin smear layers. Burnett GR Am. J. Dent. 26 Spec No A, 15A-18A, (2013)

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Effects of curcumin on apoptosis and oxidoinflammatory regulation in a rat model of acetic acid-induced colitis: the roles of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Topcu-Tarladacalisir Y, Akpolat M, Uz YH, et al. J. Med. Food 16(4), 296-305, (2013)

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The effect of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on nutrient removal in SBR with biomass adapted to dairy wastewater. Janczukowicz W, Rodziewicz J, Czaplicka K, et al. J. Environ. Sci. Health. A. Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 48(7), 809-16, (2013)

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Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids. Konecki K, Gernold M, Wensing A, et al. Arch. Microbiol. 195(10-11), 759-64, (2013)

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Detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 patients studied because of suspected inherited disease. Vaca G, Hernández A, Ibarra B, et al. Arch. Invest. Med. (Mex.) 12(3), 341-8, (1981)

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A generic model for spoilage of acidic emulsified foods: combining physicochemical data, diversity and levels of specific spoilage organisms. Manios SG, Lambert RJ, and Skandamis PN Int. J. Food Microbiol. 170, 1-11, (2014)

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Potentiated macrophage activation by acid sensing under low adiponectin levels. Negoro T, Kin M, Takuma A, et al. Mol. Immunol. 57(2), 141-50, (2014)

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Merck 14,55

Vapor Phase 3, 573:B

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