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G4251 Sigma-Aldrich

L-Glutathione reduced

≥98.0%

Synonym: γ-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH

Purchase

Description

Amino Acid Sequence

γ-Glu-Cys-Gly

Frequently Asked Questions

Live Chat and Frequently Asked Questions are available for this Product.

Application

May be used at 5-10 mM to elute glutathione S-transferase (GST) from glutathione agarose.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Endogenous antioxidant that plays a major role in reducing reactive oxygen species formed during cellular metabolism and the respiratory burst. Glutathione-S-transferase catalyzes the formation of glutathione thioethers with xenobiotics, leukotrienes, and other molecules that have an electrophilic center. Glutathione also forms disulfide bonds with cysteine residues in proteins. Via these mechanisms, it can have the paradoxical effect of reducing the efficacy of anti-cancer agents.

Packaging

1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 g in poly bottle

300 mg in poly bottle

10 mg in autosample vial

Price and Availability

TruPAGE™ Pre-cast Polyacrylamide Gels


TruPAGE™ Pre-cast Polyacrylamide GelsTruPAGE Gels run true every time!

  • . 2-Year Shelf Life
  • . Superior Band Resolution
  • . Strong & Tear Resistant
  • . Higher Capacity Wells



Mass Spectrometry Metabolite Library

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
MC0556000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Dietary Antioxidants

Antioxidants protect biological systems from oxidative damage produced by oxygen-containing free radicals and from redoxactive transition metal ions such as iron, copper, and cadmium.1 During the oxi...
BioFiles 2007, 2.2, 2.
Keywords: Adhesion, Anti-inflammatory agents, Applications, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Catalysis, Diabetes, Diseases, Gene expression, Metabolism, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Peroxidations, Phosphorylations, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Reductions, Transcription, Transduction, Vitamins

Mitochondrial Stress and ROS

Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of lipotoxicity in both animal and human studies. Chronic oxidative stress is linked to insulin resistance in multiple tissues. Oxidative stress is ...
BioFiles 2011, 6.4, 22.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agents, Apoptosis, Cancer, Catalog, Cell signaling, Cellular processes, Gene expression, Indicators, Metabolism, Oxidations, Respiratory

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Structural characterization of the catalytic site of a Nilaparvata lugens delta-class glutathione transferase. Yamamoto K, Higashiura A, Hossain MT, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 566, 36-42, (2015)

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Studies on the oxidative stress and gill histopathology in Channa punctatus of the canal receiving heavy metal-loaded effluent of Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant. Javed M, Usmani N, Ahmad I, et al. Environ. Monit. Assess. 187(1), 4179, (2015)

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Differential expression of HO-1 and CYP1A2 during up-regulation of ERK in stressed fish hepatocytes. Padmini E and Tharani J Environ. Monit. Assess. 187(1), 4147, (2015)

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Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers. Aguilar-Dorado IC, Hernández G, Quintanar-Escorza MA, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 281(2), 195-202, (2014)

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Piperaquine and Lumefantrine resistance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA associated with increased expression of Ca2+/H+ antiporter and glutathione associated enzymes. Kiboi D, Irungu B, Orwa J, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 147, 23-32, (2014)

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Chemical and computational methods for the characterization of covalent reactive groups for the prospective design of irreversible inhibitors. Flanagan ME, Abramite JA, Anderson DP, et al. J. Med. Chem. 57(23), 10072-9, (2014)

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Nox2-dependent glutathionylation of endothelial NOS leads to uncoupled superoxide production and endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury. Wu F, Szczepaniak WS, Shiva S, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 307(12), L987-97, (2014)

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Antioxidant responses and renal crystal formation in rainbow trout treated with melamine administered individually or in combination with cyanuric acid. Pacini N, Prearo M, Abete MC, et al. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 76(8), 491-508, (2013)

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Glutathione metabolism and Parkinson's disease. Smeyne M and Smeyne RJ Free Radic. Biol. Med. 62, 13-25, (2013)

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Measurement of immune markers in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients during clinical remission. Shaw CE, Dunbar PR, Macaulay HA, et al. J. Neurol. 242(2), 53-8, (1995)

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A tamoxifen derivative, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl) phenoxy] ethanamine, selectively targets P-glycoprotein-positive multidrug resistant Chinese hamster cells. Georges E, Lian J, and Laberge R Biochem. Pharmacol. 90(2), 107-14, (2014)

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IMPa-4, an Arabidopsis importin alpha isoform, is preferentially involved in agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. Bhattacharjee S Plant Cell 20(10), 2661-80, (2008)

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Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, et al. Pediatr. Res. 51(5), 571-8, (2002)

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S-nitrosoglutathione inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation by redox posttranslational modification in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Rosales MA, Silva KC, Duarte DA, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 2921-32, (2014)

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Functional consequences of age-dependent changes in glutathione status in the brain. Currais A and Maher P Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19(8), 813-22, (2013)

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Acyloxy nitroso compounds as nitroxyl (HNO) donors: kinetics, reactions with thiols, and vasodilation properties. Mai E Shoman et al J. Med. Chem. 54, 1059-70, (2011)

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Isorhamnetin protects against oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and inducing the expression of its target genes. Yang JH, Shin BY, Han JY, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 274(2), 293-301, (2014)

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Involvement of oxidative stress and immune- and inflammation-related factors in azathioprine-induced liver injury. Matsuo K, Sasaki E, Higuchi S, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 224(2), 215-24, (2014)

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Thiol-based antioxidant supplementation alters human skeletal muscle signaling and attenuates its inflammatory response and recovery after intense eccentric exercise. Michailidis Y, Karagounis LG, Terzis G, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98(1), 233-45, (2013)

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A light in the darkness: new biotransformation genes, antioxidant parameters and tissue-specific responses in oysters exposed to phenanthrene. Lüchmann KH, Dafre AL, Trevisan R, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 152, 324-34, (2014)

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20S proteasome activity is modified via S-glutathionylation based on intracellular redox status of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: implications for the degradation of oxidized proteins. Demasi M, Hand A, Ohara E, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 557, 65-71, (2014)

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NO dioxygenase activity in hemoglobins is ubiquitous in vitro, but limited by reduction in vivo. Smagghe BJ, Trent JT, and Hargrove MS PLoS ONE 3(4), e2039, (2008)

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Determination of glutathione in hemolysed erythrocyte with amperometric sensor based on TTF-TCNQ. Calvo-Marzal P, Chumbimuni-Torres KY, Höehr NF, et al. Clin. Chim. Acta 371(1-2), 152-8, (2006)

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Alanyl-glutamine and glutamine plus alanine supplements improve skeletal redox status in trained rats: involvement of heat shock protein pathways. Petry ER, Cruzat VF, Heck TG, et al. Life Sci. 94(2), 130-6, (2014)

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Systemic treatment with glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone (2B3-201) improves therapeutic efficacy in a model of ocular inflammation. Reijerkerk A, Appeldoorn CC, Rip J, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(4), 2788-94, (2014)

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Glutathione and its dependent enzymes' modulatory responses to toxic metals and metalloids in fish--a review. Srikanth K, Pereira E, Duarte AC, et al. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 20(4), 2133-49, (2013)

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One-electron oxidation of diclofenac by human cytochrome P450s as a potential bioactivation mechanism for formation of 2'-(glutathion-S-yl)-deschloro-diclofenac. Boerma JS, Vermeulen NP, and Commandeur JN Chem. Biol. Interact. 207, 32-40, (2014)

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Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in the induction and progression of chronic periodontitis. Tsai CC, Chen HS, Chen SL, et al. J. Periodont. Res. 40(5), 378-84, (2005)

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Interaction between glutathione and apoptosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Shah D, Sah S, and Nath SK Autoimmun. Rev. 12(7), 741-51, (2013)

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Topological polar surface area defines substrate transport by multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1). Janaina Fernandes et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 1214-8, (2009)

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Integration of hepatic drug transporters and phase II metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms of hepatic excretion of sulfate, glucuronide, and glutathione metabolites. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Hoffmaster KA, Nezasa K, et al. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 27(5), 447-86, (2006)

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A mechanistic view of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) developmental neurotoxicity. Costa LG, de Laat R, Tagliaferri S, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 230(2), 282-94, (2014)

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Multifunctional magnetic nanocarriers for image-tagged SiRNA delivery to intact pancreatic islets. Medarova Z Transplantation 86(9), 1170-7, (2008)

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Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, et al. Clin. Chem. 53(6), 1129-36, (2007)

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Glutathione transporters. Bachhawat AK, Thakur A, Kaur J, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830(5), 3154-64, (2013)

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The induction of biochemical changes in Daphnia magna by CuO and ZnO nanoparticles. Mwaanga P, Carraway ER, and van den Hurk P Aquat. Toxicol. 150, 201-9, (2014)

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Glutathione and glutathione reductase: a boon in disguise for plant abiotic stress defense operations. Gill SS, Anjum NA, Hasanuzzaman M, et al. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 70, 204-12, (2013)

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Analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in human saliva using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with mass spectrometry. Iwasaki Y, Hoshi M, Ito R, et al. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 839(1-2), 74-9, (2006)

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Glutathione in multiple sclerosis. Ferreira B, Mendes F, Osório N, et al. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 70(2), 75-9, (2013)

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Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash. Marchini T, Magnani ND, Paz ML, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 274(2), 274-82, (2014)

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A novel pathway for arsenic elimination: human multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) mediates cellular export of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) and the diglutathione conjugate of monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII). Banerjee M, Carew MW, Roggenbeck BA, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 86(2), 168-79, (2014)

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Glutathione defense mechanism in liver injury: insights from animal models. Chen Y, Dong H, Thompson DC, et al. Food Chem. Toxicol. 60, 38-44, (2013)

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Serum glutathione in adolescent males predicts parental coronary heart disease. Morrison JA, Jacobsen DW, Sprecher DL, et al. Circulation 100(22), 2244-7, (1999)

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Serum uric acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with activity of disease and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Toncev G, Milicic B, Toncev S, et al. Eur. J. Neurol. 9(3), 221-6, (2002)

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Influence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population-based samples. Kumar J, Monica Lind P, Salihovic S, et al. Chemosphere 114, 303-9, (2014)

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[2Fe-2S] cluster transfer in iron-sulfur protein biogenesis. Banci L, Brancaccio D, Ciofi-Baffoni S, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6203-8, (2014)

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Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of patients with small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Kaynar H, Meral M, Turhan H, et al. Cancer Lett. 227(2), 133-9, (2005)

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Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake. Hänggi P, Makhro A, Gassmann M, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 167(2), 252-64, (2014)

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OATP8/1B3-mediated cotransport of bile acids and glutathione: an export pathway for organic anions from hepatocytes? Briz O, Romero MR, Martinez-Becerra P, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 281(41), 30326-35, (2006)

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The glyoxalase pathway: the first hundred years... and beyond. Sousa Silva M, Gomes RA, Ferreira AE, et al. Biochem. J. 453(1), 1-15, (2013)

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Buthionine sulfoximine has anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity in a murine model of acute Chagas' disease and enhances the efficacy of nifurtimox. Mario Faúndez et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1837-9, (2008)

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Ethylene production is associated with alleviation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress by sulfur in mustard types differing in ethylene sensitivity. Asgher M, Khan NA, Khan MI, et al. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 106, 54-61, (2014)

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Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, et al. Clin. Biochem. 38(11), 997-1008, (2005)

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Analysis of perfusates during hypothermic machine perfusion by NMR spectroscopy: a potential tool for predicting kidney graft outcome. Bon D, Claire B, Thuillier R, et al. Transplantation 97(8), 810-6, (2014)

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Chloroquine synergizes sunitinib cytotoxicity via modulating autophagic, apoptotic and angiogenic machineries. Abdel-Aziz AK, Shouman S, El-Demerdash E, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 217, 28-40, (2014)

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Transcription factor Nrf1 negatively regulates the cystine/glutamate transporter and lipid-metabolizing enzymes. Tsujita T, Peirce V, Baird L, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(20), 3800-16, (2014)

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Reduced glutathione: a radioprotector or a modulator of DNA-repair activity? Chatterjee A Nutrients 5(2), 525-42, (2013)

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Toxicity evaluation of β-diketone antibiotics on the development of embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). Wang H, Che B, Duan A, et al. Environ. Toxicol. 29(10), 1134-46, (2014)

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Human islet isolation processing times shortened by one hour: minimized incubation time between tissue harvest and islet purification. Ståhle M, Honkanen-Scott M, Ingvast S, et al. Transplantation 96(12), e91-3, (2013)

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Merck 14,4475

Beil. 4,IV,3165

FT-IR 1 (1), 787:D / FT-IR 2 (1), 1334:C / FT-NMR 1 (1), 1283:B / IR-Spectra (2), 414:G / IR-Spectra (3), 467:F / RegBook 1 (1), 919:L / Sax 6, 1478 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (1), 359:B / Structure Index 1, 143:B:1

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