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T8656 Sigma-Aldrich

Thiourea

ACS reagent, ≥99.0%

Synonym: Sulfourea, Thiocarbamide

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Properties

Related Categories Building Blocks, Chemical Synthesis, Core Bioreagents, General Reagents, Life Science Reagents for Protein Electrophoresis,
grade   ACS reagent
assay   ≥99.0%
ign. residue   ≤0.1% (as SO4)
loss   ≤0.5% loss on drying, 105°C, 2h
mp   170-176 °C(lit.)
  174-177 °C
solubility   H2O: passes test
Gene Information   mouse ... Ephx2(13850)

Description

Application

Chaotropic agent; strong denaturant. Increases solubility and recovery of proteins

Packaging

50, 100, 500 g in poly bottle

Price and Availability

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
RIDADR 
UN 3077 9 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
YU2800000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Thio-urea Using Karl Fischer Titration

Most sulfur compounds such as sulfides, disulfides, sulfonic acids and sulfates are titratable without problems. Mercaptans are oxidised by iodine. The KF titration demands special measures. The subs...
Keywords: Karl Fischer titrations, Titrations

Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important n-type semiconducting material that shows interesting characteristics such as photoswitchable surface wettability, high photocatalytic activity, bistable elect...
Jinshu Wang, Junshu Wu, Hongyi Li
Material Matters, Volume 7, Number 2, 2–6
Keywords: Adsorption, Building blocks, Catalysis, Ceramics, Condensations, Cosmetics, Degradations, Diffraction, Eliminations, Evaporation, Materials Science, Oxidations, Polymerization reactions, Semiconductor, Separation, Sol-gel

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Use of thiourea to increase the solubility of membrane proteins in two-dimensional electrophoresis. Rabilloud, T. Electrophoresis 19, 758-760, (1998)

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Preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins. Pasquali, C., et al. Electrophoresis 18, 2573-2581, (1997)

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Subcellular fractionation of polarized epithelial cells and identification of organelle-specific proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Fialka, I., et al. Electrophoresis 18, 2582-2590, (1997)

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A systematic interaction map of validated kinase inhibitors with Ser/Thr kinases. Oleg Fedorov et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 20523-8, (2007)

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An iterative workflow for mining the human intestinal metaproteome. Koos Rooijers et al BMC Genomics 12, 6, (2011)

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Thiourea derived Tröger's bases as molecular cleft receptors and colorimetric sensors for anions. Boyle EM, Comby S, Molloy JK, et al. J. Org. Chem. 78(17), 8312-9, (2013)

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Ammonium-induced shoot ethylene production is associated with the inhibition of lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. Li G, Li B, Dong G, et al. J. Exp. Bot. 64(5), 1413-25, (2013)

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Development of chiral thiourea catalysts and its application to asymmetric catalytic reactions. Takemoto Y Chem. Pharm. Bull. 58(5), 593-601, (2010)

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Thioureas as reporting elements for metal-responsive fluorescent chemosensors. Vonlanthen M and Finney NS J. Org. Chem. 78(8), 3980-8, (2013)

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Access to different nanostructures via self-assembly of thiourea-containing PEGylated amphiphiles. Venkataraman S, Chowdhury ZA, Lee AL, et al. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 34(8), 652-8, (2013)

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Enantioselective formal aza-Diels-Alder reactions of enones with cyclic imines catalyzed by primary aminothioureas. Lalonde MP, McGowan MA, Rajapaksa NS, et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(5), 1891-4, (2013)

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SK4 Ca2+ activated K+ channel is a critical player in cardiac pacemaker derived from human embryonic stem cells. Weisbrod D, Peretz A, Ziskind A, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(18), E1685-94, (2013)

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Inhaled birch pollen extract induces airway hyperresponsiveness via oxidative stress but independently of pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity, or the TLR4-TRIF pathway. Shalaby KH, Allard-Coutu A, O'Sullivan MJ, et al. J. Immunol. 191(2), 922-33, (2013)

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Enantioselective construction of functionalized thiopyrano-indole annulated heterocycles via a formal thio [3 + 3]-cyclization. Chen X, Qi ZH, Zhang SY, et al. Org. Lett. 17(1), 42-5, (2015)

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Genetic knockout and pharmacologic inhibition of NCX2 cause natriuresis and hypercalciuria. Gotoh Y, Kita S, Fujii M, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 456(2), 670-5, (2015)

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Presynaptic control of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) by physical and functional association with plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). de Juan-Sanz J, Núñez E, Zafra F, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(49), 34308-24, (2014)

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H4 histamine receptors inhibit steroidogenesis and proliferation in Leydig cells. Abiuso AM, Berensztein E, Pagotto RM, et al. J. Endocrinol. 223(3), 241-53, (2014)

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SIRT1 deacetylase is overexpressed in human melanoma and its small molecule inhibition imparts anti-proliferative response via p53 activation. Wilking MJ, Singh C, Nihal M, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 563, 94-100, (2014)

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Rapid assembly of complex cyclopentanes employing chiral, α,β-unsaturated acylammonium intermediates. Liu G, Shirley ME, Van KN, et al. Nature Chemistry 5(12), 1049-57, (2013)

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Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystal Bis Thiourea Zinc Acetate (BTZA) in the presence of L-Proline. Felicita Vimala J and Thomas Joseph Prakash J Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 107, 371-6, (2013)

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[Participation of the active oxygen forms in the induction of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase under heat hardening of wheat seedlings]. Kolupaev IuE and Oboznyĭ AI Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 84(6), 131-8, (2012)

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Killing by bactericidal antibiotics does not depend on reactive oxygen species. Keren I, Wu Y, Inocencio J, et al. Science 339(6124), 1213-6, (2013)

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Anion complexation and sensing using modified urea and thiourea-based receptors. Li AF, Wang JH, Wang F, et al. Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(10), 3729-45, (2010)

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Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abernethy G and Higgs K J. Chromatogr. A 1288, 10-20, (2013)

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Contribution of oxidative damage to antimicrobial lethality. Xiuhong Wang et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1395-402, (2009)

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One-step bleaching process for cotton fabrics using activated hydrogen peroxide. Abdel-Halim ES and Al-Deyab SS Carbohydr. Polym. 92(2), 1844-9, (2013)

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Highly enantioselective three-component direct Mannich reactions of unfunctionalized ketones catalyzed by bifunctional organocatalysts. Guo Q and Zhao JC Org. Lett. 15(3), 508-11, (2013)

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Thiourea-catalyzed aminolysis of N-acyl homoserine lactones. Bertucci MA, Lee SJ, and Gagné MR Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(20), 2055-7, (2013)

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An asymmetric approach toward chiral multicyclic spirooxindoles from isothiocyanato oxindoles and unsaturated pyrazolones by a chiral tertiary amine thiourea catalyst. Chen Q, Liang J, Wang S, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(16), 1657-9, (2013)

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Synthesis, antioxidant activities and urease inhibition of some new 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives. Imtiaz Khan et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 5200-7, (2010)

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The DNA damage response induces antigen presenting cell-like functions in fibroblasts. Tang ML, Khan MK, Croxford JL, et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 44(4), 1108-18, (2014)

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Protective neuronal induction of ATF5 in endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by status epilepticus. Torres-Peraza JF, Engel T, Martín-Ibáñez R, et al. Brain 136(Pt 4), 1161-76, (2013)

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Sodium channels contribute to degeneration of dorsal root ganglion neurites induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in an in vitro model of axonal injury. Persson AK, Kim I, Zhao P, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(49), 19250-61, (2013)

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Synthesis, biological assay in vitro and molecular docking studies of new Schiff base derivatives as potential urease inhibitors. Muhammad Adil S Aslam et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 5473-9, (2011)

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Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds. Kanerva L, Estlander T, and Jolanki R Contact Dermatitis 31(4), 242-8, (1994)

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Occurrence of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and its ultimate transformation product Guanylurea in several compartments of the aquatic cycle. Trautwein C, Berset JD, Wolschke H, et al. Environ. Int. 70, 203-12, (2014)

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Thiourea, triazole and thiadiazine compounds and their metal complexes as antifungal agents. Rodríguez-Fernández E, Manzano JL, Benito JJ, et al. J. Inorg. Biochem. 99(8), 1558-72, (2005)

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Inhibitors of eIF2α dephosphorylation slow replication and stabilize latency in Toxoplasma gondii. Konrad C, Queener SF, Wek RC, et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57(4), 1815-22, (2013)

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Novel inhibitors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry that act by three distinct mechanisms. Adedeji AO, Severson W, Jonsson C, et al. J. Virol. 87(14), 8017-28, (2013)

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Design, modification and 3D QSAR studies of novel naphthalin-containing pyrazoline derivatives with/without thiourea skeleton as anticancer agents. Yang W, Hu Y, Yang YS, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 21(5), 1050-63, (2013)

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Interleukin-6 modulates oxidative stress produced during the development of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Mitazaki S, Hashimoto M, Matsuhashi Y, et al. Life Sci. 92(12), 694-700, (2013)

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Direct asymmetric aldol addition-isomerization of α,β-unsaturated γ-butyrolactam with aryl α-ketoesters: synthesis of MBH-type products. Zhang J, Liu X, Ma X, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(32), 3300-2, (2013)

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Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rintala, E BMC Genomics 10, 461, (2009)

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Selective oxidation of thiourea with H(2)O(2) catalyzed by [Ru(III)(edta)(H(2)O)](-): kinetic and mechanistic studies. Chatterjee D, Rothbart S, and van Eldik R Dalton Trans. 42(13), 4725-9, (2013)

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Rotenone induces neuronal death by microglial phagocytosis of neurons. Emmrich JV, Hornik TC, Neher JJ, et al. FEBS J. 280(20), 5030-8, (2013)

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Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial BK(Ca) channels protects isolated cardiomyocytes against simulated reperfusion-induced injury. Borchert GH, Hlaváčková M, and Kolář F Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood.) 238(2), 233-41, (2013)

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ATR controls cellular adaptation to hypoxia through positive regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) expression. Fallone F, Britton S, Nieto L, et al. Oncogene 32(37), 4387-96, (2013)

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A chiral bisthiourea as a chiral solvating agent for carboxylic acids in the presence of DMAP. Bian G, Fan H, Yang S, et al. J. Org. Chem. 78(18), 9137-42, (2013)

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7-Methoxytacrine-adamantylamine heterodimers as cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease treatment--synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies. Spilovska K, Korabecny J, Kral J, et al. Molecules 18(2), 2397-418, (2013)

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Sympathetic activation increases NO release from eNOS but neither eNOS nor nNOS play an essential role in exercise hyperemia in the human forearm. Shabeeh H, Seddon M, Brett S, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 304(9), H1225-30, (2013)

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Oxyhalogen-sulfur chemistry: kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of captopril by acidified bromate and aqueous bromine. Kapungu GP, Rukweza G, Tran T, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 117(13), 2704-17, (2013)

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A novel vaginal microbicide containing the rationally designed anti-HIV compound HI-443 (N'-[2-(2-thiophene)ethyl]-N'-[2-(5-bromopyridyl)] thiourea]). D'Cruz OJ, Qazi S, Yiv S, et al. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 21(3), 265-79, (2012)

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Cathepsin L inhibition by the small molecule KGP94 suppresses tumor microenvironment enhanced metastasis associated cell functions of prostate and breast cancer cells. Sudhan DR and Siemann DW Clin. Exp. Metastasis 30(7), 891-902, (2013)

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Enantioselective tandem reaction of chromone-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with benzylamines catalyzed by a trifunctional organocatalyst: the synthesis of chiral 3-aminomethylene-flavanones. Zhong NJ, Liu L, Wang D, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(35), 3697-9, (2013)

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A silver complex of N,N'-disubstituted cyclic thiourea as an anti-inflammatory inhibitor of IκB kinase. Lin IW, Lok CN, Yan K, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(32), 3297-9, (2013)

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Synthesis and biological activity of substituted urea and thiourea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moieties. Kocyigit-Kaymakcioglu B, Celen AO, Tabanca N, et al. Molecules 18(3), 3562-76, (2013)

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Enantioselective Mannich reaction of β-keto esters with aromatic and aliphatic imines using a cooperatively assisted bifunctional catalyst. Neuvonen AJ and Pihko PM Org. Lett. 16(19), 5152-5, (2014)

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A mild method for the synthesis of carbamate-protected guanidines using the Burgess reagent. Maki T, Tsuritani T, and Yasukata T Org. Lett. 16(7), 1868-71, (2014)

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Oxygenated monoterpenes citral and carvacrol cause oxidative damage in Escherichia coli without the involvement of tricarboxylic acid cycle and Fenton reaction. Chueca B, Pagán R, and García-Gonzalo D Int. J. Food Microbiol. 189, 126-31, (2014)

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Molecular imaging of the ATM kinase activity. Williams TM, Nyati S, Ross BD, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 86(5), 969-77, (2013)

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Differential role of endothelial versus neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the regulation of coronary blood flow during pacing-induced increases in cardiac workload. Shabeeh H, Melikian N, Dworakowski R, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 304(9), H1277-82, (2013)

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Phosphorylation of eIF2α attenuates statin-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the stabilization and translocation of p53 to the mitochondria. Lee SK and Kim YS Int. J. Oncol. 42(3), 810-6, (2013)

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Flavin-containing monooxygenase S-oxygenation of a series of thioureas and thiones. Henderson MC, Siddens LK, Krueger SK, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 278(2), 91-9, (2014)

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Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays critical role in brain damage after chronic intermittent hypoxia in growing rats. Cai XH, Li XC, Jin SW, et al. Exp. Neurol. 257, 148-56, (2014)

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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor (PAC1) gene is suppressed by transglutaminase 2 activation. Miura A, Kambe Y, Inoue K, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(45), 32720-30, (2013)

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Novel broad-spectrum thiourea non-nucleoside inhibitors for the prevention of mucosal HIV transmission. D'Cruz OJ and Uckun FM Curr. HIV Res. 4(3), 329-45, (2006)

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Reverse mode of the sodium/calcium exchanger subtype 3 in interstitial cells of Cajal from rat bladder. Zhong X, Deng J, He P, et al. Urology 82(1), 254.e7-12, (2013)

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Growth, spectroscopic investigation, optical, mechanical, chemical etching and nonlinear optical studies of semi-organic crystal: Bis (thiourea) zinc formate. Hanumantharao R and Kalainathan S Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 106, 86-90, (2013)

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Development of a reliable analytical method for extraction spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium(III) from catalyst and fissium alloy using o-methylphenyl thiourea as a chromogenic chelating ligand. Kuchekar SR, Shelar YS, Aher HR, et al. Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 106, 1-11, (2013)

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Potentiated macrophage activation by acid sensing under low adiponectin levels. Negoro T, Kin M, Takuma A, et al. Mol. Immunol. 57(2), 141-50, (2014)

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Sarsasapogenin induces apoptosis via the reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway and ER stress pathway in HeLa cells. Shen S, Zhang Y, Zhang R, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 441(2), 519-24, (2013)

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Synergistic anti-leukemic effects of CK2 inhibitors and pentabromobenzylisothioureas in vitro. Koronkiewicz M, Chilmonczyk Z, and Kazimierczuk Z Anticancer Res. 33(11), 4891-9, (2013)

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An inhibitor of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange blocks activation of insect olfactory receptors. Bobkov Y, Corey E, and Ache B Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 450(2), 1104-9, (2014)

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Merck 14,9367

Beil. 3,IV,342

Aldrich MSDS 1, 1706:D / Corp MSDS 1 (2), 3338:B / FT-IR 2 (1), 1400:B / FT-IR 1 (1), 827:A / IR-Spectra (3), 491:E / IR-Spectra (2), 435:B / RegBook 1 (1), 971:B / Sax 6, 1672 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (2), 930:B / Structure Index 1, 151:D:3

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