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X100 Sigma-Aldrich

Triton X-100

laboratory grade

Synonym: 4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol, t-Octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol, Polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether

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Biochem/physiol Actions

Widely used non-ionic surfactant for recovery of membrane components under mild non-denaturing conditions.

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Triton is a trademark of The Dow Chemical Company or an affiliated company of Dow

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Sodium chloride

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BioReagent, suitable for electrophoresis, for molecular biology, ≥98.5% (GC)

Triton<SUP>™</SUP> X-100 solution

BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~10% in H2O

Trizma<SUP>®</SUP> base

Primary Standard and Buffer, ≥99.9% (titration), crystalline

TWEEN<SUP>®</SUP> 20

viscous liquid

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Triton<SUP>™</SUP> X-100

for electrophoresis

Triton<SUP>™</SUP> X-100 solution

BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~10% in H2O

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
RIDADR 
UN 3082 9 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
MD0907700
Flash Point(F) 
483.8 °F
Flash Point(C) 
251 °C

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Protocols

Enzymatic Assay of Cholesterol Oxidase

1. OBJECTIVE To standardize a procedure for the determination of the enzymatic assay of Cholesterol Oxidase.
Keywords: Enzyme activity, Extinction coefficient, Isomerizations

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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S100A1 is released from ischemic cardiomyocytes and signals myocardial damage via Toll-like receptor 4. Rohde D, Schön C, Boerries M, et al. EMBO Mol. Med. 6(6), 778-94, (2014)

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High content screening identifies decaprenyl-phosphoribose 2' epimerase as a target for intracellular antimycobacterial inhibitors. Christophe T PLoS Pathog. 5(10), e1000645, (2009)

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Claudin-1 induced sealing of blood-brain barrier tight junctions ameliorates chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Friederike Pfeiffer et al Acta Neuropathol. 122, 601-14, (2011)

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Type I IFN signaling in CD8- DCs impairs Th1-dependent malaria immunity. Haque A, Best SE, Montes de Oca M, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(6), 2483-96, (2014)

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The adaptor ASC has extracellular and 'prionoid' activities that propagate inflammation. Franklin BS, Bossaller L, De Nardo D, et al. Nat. Immunol. 15(8), 727-37, (2014)

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Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum. Rinaldi M, Dreesen L, Hoorens PR, et al. Vet. Res. 42(1), 61, (2011)

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Msp1/ATAD1 maintains mitochondrial function by facilitating the degradation of mislocalized tail-anchored proteins. Chen YC, Umanah GK, Dephoure N, et al. EMBO J. 33(14), 1548-64, (2014)

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PDGF receptors are activated in human epiretinal membranes. Cui J Exp. Eye Res. 88(3), 438-44, (2009)

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Endocannabinoids modulate cortical development by configuring Slit2/Robo1 signalling. Alpár A, Tortoriello G, Calvigioni D, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 4421, (2014)

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The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice. Braniste V, Al-Asmakh M, Kowal C, et al. Sci. Transl. Med. 6(263), 263ra158, (2014)

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Evaluation of strategies for improving proteolytic resistance of antimicrobial peptides by using variants of EFK17, an internal segment of LL-37. Strömstedt AA Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53(2), 593-602, (2009)

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SIRT1 mediates FOXA2 breakdown by deacetylation in a nutrient-dependent manner. van Gent R, Di Sanza C, van den Broek NJ, et al. PLoS ONE 9(5), e98438, (2014)

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Opposite effects of HIF-1α± and HIF-2α± on the regulation of IL-8 expression in endothelial cells. Urszula Florczyk et al Free Radic. Biol. Med. 51, 1882-92, (2011)

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Bax-induced apoptosis in Leber's congenital amaurosis: a dual role in rod and cone degeneration. Hamann S PLoS ONE 4(8), e6616, (2009)

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Listeria monocytogenes induces IFNβ expression through an IFI16-, cGAS- and STING-dependent pathway. Hansen K, Prabakaran T, Laustsen A, et al. EMBO J. 33(15), 1654-66, (2014)

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Large-scale screening of a targeted Enterococcus faecalis mutant library identifies envelope fitness factors. Rigottier-Gois L, Alberti A, Houel A, et al. PLoS ONE 6(12), e29023, (2011)

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A critical role of lateral hypothalamus in context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. Marchant NJ, Rabei R, Kaganovsky K, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(22), 7447-57, (2014)

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Prolonged neuroinflammation after lipopolysaccharide exposure in aged rats. Fu HQ, Yang T, Xiao W, et al. PLoS ONE 9(8), e106331, (2014)

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Phosphorylation of lipin 1 and charge on the phosphatidic acid head group control its phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity and membrane association. Eaton JM, Mullins GR, Brindley DN, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(14), 9933-45, (2013)

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Ezrin is required for the functional regulation of the epithelial sodium proton exchanger, NHE3. Hayashi H, Tamura A, Krishnan D, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e55623, (2013)

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Docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 induces neuronal survival via secretase- and PPARγ-mediated mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease models. Zhao Y PLoS ONE 6(1), e15816, (2011)

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Calcium-binding S100 protein expression in pterygium. Riau AK Mol. Vis. 15, 335-42, (2009)

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The SNARE protein vti1a functions in dense-core vesicle biogenesis. Walter AM, Kurps J, de Wit H, et al. EMBO J. 33(15), 1681-97, (2014)

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Substrate adhesion regulates sealing zone architecture and dynamics in cultured osteoclasts. Anderegg F PLoS ONE 6(12), e28583, (2011)

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Cep164 triggers ciliogenesis by recruiting Tau tubulin kinase 2 to the mother centriole. Čajánek L and Nigg EA Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(28), E2841-50, (2014)

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Giardia duodenalis cathepsin B proteases degrade intestinal epithelial interleukin-8 and attenuate interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis. Cotton JA, Bhargava A, Ferraz JG, et al. Infect. Immun. 82(7), 2772-87, (2014)

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Vitamin D up-regulates the vitamin D receptor by protecting it from proteasomal degradation in human CD4+ T cells. Kongsbak M, von Essen MR, Boding L, et al. PLoS ONE 9(5), e96695, (2014)

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A mouse model of lamellar intrastromal femtosecond laser keratotomy: ultra-structural, inflammatory, and wound healing responses. Angunawela RI, Poh R, Chaurasia SS, et al. Mol. Vis. 17, 3005-12, (2011)

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Exchange and redistribution dynamics of the cytoskeleton of the active zone molecule bassoon. Tsuriel S J. Neurosci. 29(2), 351-8, (2009)

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Identification of common mechanisms by which human and mouse cytomegalovirus seven-transmembrane receptor homologues contribute to in vivo phenotypes in a mouse model. Farrell HE, Abraham AM, Cardin RD, et al. J. Virol. 87(7), 4112-7, (2013)

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The roles of TGF-β3 and peroxynitrite in removal of hyper-radiosensitivity by priming irradiation. Edin NJ, Sandvik JA, Cheng C, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 90(7), 527-37, (2014)

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Biomarkers and mechanisms of FANCD2 function. Henning Willers et al J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2008, 821529, (2008)

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Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus) with multipotent differential potential. Favaron PO, Mess A, Will SE, et al. PLoS ONE 9(2), e95575, (2014)

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Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8. Vandaele L Vet. Res. 42(1), 14, (2011)

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Nitric oxide production by polymorphonuclear leucocytes in infected cystic fibrosis sputum consumes oxygen. Kolpen M, Bjarnsholt T, Moser C, et al. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 177(1), 310-9, (2014)

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Effects of lipid membrane curvature on lipid packing state evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Yokoyama H, Ikeda K, Wakabayashi M, et al. Langmuir 29(3), 857-60, (2013)

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GDNF-transfected macrophages produce potent neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease mouse model. Zhao Y, Haney MJ, Gupta R, et al. PLoS ONE 9(9), e106867, (2014)

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Astrocyte-derived tissue transglutaminase interacts with fibronectin: a role in astrocyte adhesion and migration? van Strien ME PLoS ONE 6(9), e25037, (2011)

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The major myelin-resident protein PLP is transported to myelin membranes via a transcytotic mechanism: involvement of sulfatide. Baron W, Ozgen H, Klunder B, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 35(1), 288-302, (2015)

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Decellularized periodontal ligament cell sheets with recellularization potential. Farag A, Vaquette C, Theodoropoulos C, et al. J. Dent. Res. 93(12), 1313-9, (2014)

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[Membrane-bound proteases of ompT+ and ompT- Vibrio cholerae strains]. Kozlov SN, Nikolaev VB, Markov EIu, et al. Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. (2), 3-12, (2013)

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"Mixed" anionic and non-ionic micellar liquid chromatography for high-speed radiometabolite analysis of positron emission tomography radioligands. Nakao R and Halldin C J. Chromatogr. A 1281, 54-9, (2013)

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Evaluation of x-inactivation status and cytogenetic stability of human dermal fibroblasts after long-term culture. Juan Chen et al Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 289653, (2010)

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Ethanolic Extract of Propolis Augments TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Death in Prostate Cancer Cells. Szliszka E Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 535172, (2011)

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Stromagenesis During Tumorigenesis: Characterization Of Tumor-associated Fibroblasts And Stroma-derived 3D Matrices. Castelló-Cros, R., and Cukierman, E. Methods Mol. Biol. 522, 275-305, (2009)

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The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin contributes to barrier properties of mouse brain endothelial cells by stabilizing adherens junctions. Steiner E, Enzmann GU, Lyck R, et al. Cell Tissue Res. 358(2), 465-79, (2014)

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Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Karen M. Lammers et al Gastroenterology 135, 194-204.e3, (2008)

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CX3CR1+ CD115+ CD135+ common macrophage/DC precursors and the role of CX3CR1 in their response to inflammation. Cedric Auffray et al J. Exp. Med. 206, 595-606, (2009)

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Cholesterol depletion reduces Helicobacter pylori CagA translocation and CagA-induced responses in AGS cells. Lai CH Infect. Immun. 76(7), 3293-303, (2008)

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Estrogenic regulation of testicular expression of stem cell factor and c-kit: implications in germ cell survival and male fertility. Correia S, Alves MR, Cavaco JE, et al. Fertil. Steril. 102(1), 299-306, (2014)

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Mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation on an injectable calcium phosphate-chitosan composite scaffold. Moreau JL Biomaterials 30(14), 2675-82, (2009)

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SERPINB3 protects from oxidative damage by chemotherapeutics through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex I. Ciscato F, Sciacovelli M, Villano G, et al. Oncotarget 5(9), 2418-27, (2014)

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Clozapine and sulpiride but not haloperidol or olanzapine activate brain DNA demethylation. E. Dong et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 13614-9, (2008)

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Umbilical cord blood-derived CD34⁺ cells improve outcomes of traumatic brain injury in rats by stimulating angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Chen SH, Wang JJ, Chen CH, et al. Cell. Transplant. 23(8), 959-79, (2014)

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Activity in vivo of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds selected from a high throughput screening. Andriani G PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 5(8), e1298, (2011)

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The mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 promotes chemoresistance in cancer cells. Derdak Z Cancer Res. 68(8), 2813-9, (2008)

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Rho-kinase-dependent F-actin rearrangement is involved in the inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt during ischemia-reperfusion-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. van der Heijden M Apoptosis 13(3), 404-12, (2008)

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Functional expression, purification and reconstitution of the recombinant phosphate transporter Pho89 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sengottaiyan P, Ruiz-Pavón L, and Persson BL FEBS J. 280(3), 965-75, (2013)

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The Reelin receptors Apoer2 and Vldlr coordinate the patterning of Purkinje cell topography in the developing mouse cerebellum. Larouche, M PLoS ONE 3(2), e1653, (2008)

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A small molecule cell-impermeant Hsp90 antagonist inhibits tumor cell motility and invasion. Tsutsumi S Oncogene 27(17), 2478-87, (2008)

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Inhibition of the microglial response is essential for the neuroprotective effects of Rho-kinase inhibitors on MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell death. Borrajo A, Rodriguez-Perez AI, Villar-Cheda B, et al. Neuropharmacology 85, 1-8, (2014)

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Transcription factor Mef2c is required for B cell proliferation and survival after antigen receptor stimulation. Wilker PR Nat. Immunol. 9(6), 603-12, (2008)

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Endogenously induced DNA double strand breaks arise in heterochromatic DNA regions and require ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Artemis for their repair. Woodbine L Nucleic Acids Res. 39(16), 6986-97, (2011)

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Blood-spinal cord barrier permeability in experimental spinal cord injury: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. David M. Cohen et al NMR Biomed. 22, 332-41, (2009)

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A gradient of Bmp7 specifies the tonotopic axis in the developing inner ear. Mann ZF, Thiede BR, Chang W, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 3839, (2014)

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Thin-film enhanced nerve guidance channels for peripheral nerve repair. Clements IP Biomaterials 30(23-24), 3834-46, (2009)

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Calcium influx is sufficient to induce muscular dystrophy through a TRPC-dependent mechanism. Millay DP Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106(45), 19023-8, (2009)

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Early expression of hypocretin/orexin in the chick embryo brain. Godden KE, Landry JP, Slepneva N, et al. PLoS ONE 9(9), e106977, (2014)

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A 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable but can be rescued through RNA recombination. Guo TC, Johansson DX, Haugland Ø, et al. PLoS ONE 9(7), e100184, (2014)

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Novel DNA microarray system for analysis of nascent mRNAs. Masaya Ohtsu et al DNA Research 15, 241-51, (2008)

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Increased expression of the WNT antagonist sFRP-1 in glaucoma elevates intraocular pressure. Wan-Heng Wang et al J. Clin. Invest. 118, 1056-64, (2008)

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Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors. Joseph EK, Green PG, Bogen O, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(7), 2849-59, (2013)

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Myosin heavy chain isoform composition and Ca(2+) transients in fibres from enzymatically dissociated murine soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Calderón JC J. Physiol. 588(Pt 1), 267-79, (2010)

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Mutant astrocytes differentiated from Rett syndrome patients-specific iPSCs have adverse effects on wild-type neurons. Williams EC, Zhong X, Mohamed A, et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 23(11), 2968-80, (2014)

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Mitochondrial effects of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha in brain endothelial cells. Razmara A J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 325(3), 782-90, (2008)

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The semisynthetic flavonoid monoHER sensitises human soft tissue sarcoma cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB. Jacobs H, Bast A, Peters GJ, et al. Br. J. Cancer 104(3), 437-40, (2011)

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Deposition and release kinetics of nano-TiO2 in saturated porous media: effects of solution ionic strength and surfactants. Godinez IG, Darnault CJ, Khodadoust AP, et al. Environ. Pollut. 174, 106-13, (2013)

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In vitro biliary clearance of angiotensin II receptor blockers and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes: comparison with in vivo biliary clearance. Abe K J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 326(3), 983-90, (2008)

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The VF rat with abnormal myelinogenesis has a mutation in Dopey1. Tanaka M, Izawa T, Yamate J, et al. Glia 62(9), 1530-42, (2014)

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Ultrasound-triggered release of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator from echogenic liposomes. Denise A.B. Smith et al Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 145-57, (2009)

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Suppression of the DHX9 helicase induces premature senescence in human diploid fibroblasts in a p53-dependent manner. Lee T, Di Paola D, Malina A, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(33), 22798-814, (2014)

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Benchmark experimental data set and assessment of adsorption free energy for peptide-surface interactions. Wei, Y Langmuir 25(10), 5637-46, (2009)

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Joint effect of phosphorus limitation and temperature on alkaline phosphatase activity and somatic growth in Daphnia magna. Wojewodzic MW Oecologia 165(4), 837-46, (2011)

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Hepatobiliary disposition of troglitazone and metabolites in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes: use of Monte Carlo simulations to assess the impact of changes in biliary excretion on troglitazone sulfate accumulation. Jin Kyung Lee et al J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 332, 26-34, (2010)

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Ionic components of electric current at rat corneal wounds. Vieira AC PLoS ONE 6(2), e17411, (2011)

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Topical administration of lacritin is a novel therapy for aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Vijmasi T, Chen FY, Balasubbu S, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5401-9, (2014)

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Vascular smooth muscle modulates endothelial control of vasoreactivity via reactive oxygen species production through myoendothelial communications. Billaud M PLoS ONE 4(7), e6432, (2009)

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Dysregulated estrogen receptor signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis in mice. Laws MJ, Kannan A, Pawar S, et al. PLoS Genet. 10(3), e1004230, (2014)

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Mesenchymal stem cell interaction with ultra-smooth nanostructured diamond for wear-resistant orthopaedic implants. Clem WC Biomaterials 29(24-25), 3461-8, (2008)

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Axonal regeneration and neuronal function are preserved in motor neurons lacking ß-actin in vivo. Cheever TR PLoS ONE 6(3), e17768, (2011)

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Proteolytic activation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus spike fusion protein by trypsin in cell culture. Wicht O, Li W, Willems L, et al. J. Virol. 88(14), 7952-61, (2014)

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Expression of a truncated ATHB17 protein in maize increases ear weight at silking. Rice EA, Khandelwal A, Creelman RA, et al. PLoS ONE 9(4), e94238, (2014)

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A nebulin ruler does not dictate thin filament lengths. Castillo A Biophys. J. 96(5), 1856-65, (2009)

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p62/SQSTM1 upregulation constitutes a survival mechanism that occurs during granulocytic differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells. Trocoli A, Bensadoun P, Richard E, et al. Cell Death Differ. 21(12), 1852-61, (2014)

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Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent lymphangiogenesis promotes nodal metastasis of postpartum breast cancer. Lyons TR, Borges VF, Betts CB, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(9), 3901-12, (2014)

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Direct Repeat 6 from human herpesvirus-6B encodes a nuclear protein that forms a complex with the viral DNA processivity factor p41. Schleimann MH PLoS ONE 4(10), e7457, (2009)

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T-type Ca(2+) channels facilitate NO-formation, vasodilatation and NO-mediated modulation of blood pressure. Svenningsen P, Andersen K, Thuesen AD, et al. Pflugers Arch. 466(12), 2205-14, (2014)

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Conductive microemulsions for template CoNi electrodeposition. Serrà A, Gómez E, Calderó G, et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(35), 14653-9, (2013)

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Retinoic acid-treated pluripotent stem cells undergoing neurogenesis present increased aneuploidy and micronuclei formation. Sartore, RC PLoS ONE 6(6), e20667, (2011)

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Plasticity of binocularity and visual acuity are differentially limited by nogo receptor. Stephany CÉ, Chan LL, Parivash SN, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(35), 11631-40, (2014)

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Caffeine and the analog CGS 15943 inhibit cancer cell growth by targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Edling CE, Selvaggi F, Ghonaim R, et al. Cancer Biol. Ther. 15(5), 524-32, (2014)

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Context-dependent adaption of EpCAM expression in early systemic esophageal cancer. Driemel C, Kremling H, Schumacher S, et al. Oncogene 33(41), 4904-15, (2014)

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Methoxychlor and estradiol induce oxidative stress DNA damage in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium. Symonds DA Toxicol. Sci. 105(1), 182-7, (2008)

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Enhanced production of pigments by addition of surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102. Wang Y, Zhang B, Lu L, et al. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93(13), 3339-44, (2013)

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Inhibition of RhoA signaling with increased Bves in trabecular meshwork cells. Russ PK Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(1), 223-30, (2010)

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Amino acids regulate transgene expression in MDCK cells. Torrente M, Guetg A, Sass JO, et al. PLoS ONE 9(5), e96823, (2014)

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Very small embryonic-like stem cells are present in adult murine organs: ImageStream-based morphological analysis and distribution studies. Zuba-Surma EK Cytometry. A 73A(12), 1116-27, (2008)

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Energy restriction impairs natural killer cell function and increases the severity of influenza infection in young adult male C57BL/6 mice. Ritz BW J. Nutr. 138(11), 2269-75, (2008)

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Lateral habenula projections to dopamine and GABA neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. Omelchenko N Eur. J. Neurosci. 30(7), 1239-50, (2009)

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Comparison of epigenetic mediator expression and function in mouse and human embryonic blastomeres. Chavez SL, McElroy SL, Bossert NL, et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 23(18), 4970-84, (2014)

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METTL23, a transcriptional partner of GABPA, is essential for human cognition. Reiff RE, Ali BR, Baron B, et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 23(13), 3456-66, (2014)

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Notch prevents transforming growth factor-beta-assisted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cultured limbal progenitor cells through the induction of Smad7. Tsai TH, Sun MH, Ho TC, et al. Mol. Vis. 20, 522-34, (2014)

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The chemokine receptors ACKR2 and CCR2 reciprocally regulate lymphatic vessel density. Lee KM, Danuser R, Stein JV, et al. EMBO J. 33(21), 2564-80, (2014)

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Mutation frequency dynamics in HPRT locus in culture-adapted human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells correspond to their differentiated counterparts. Krutá M, Šeneklová M, Raška J, et al. Stem Cells Dev. 23(20), 2443-54, (2014)

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Analysis of apoptosis by cytometry using TUNEL assay. Darzynkiewicz Z, Galkowski D, and Zhao H Methods 44(3), 250-4, (2008)

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Interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma modulate Fas-mediated apoptosis in mitomycin-C-resistant human Tenon's fibroblasts. Wang XY, Crowston JG, White AJ, et al. Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 42(6), 529-38, (2014)

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The directionality of the nuclear transport of the influenza A genome is driven by selective exposure of nuclear localization sequences on nucleoprotein. Wu WW Virol. J. 6, 68, (2009)

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MHC class I limits hippocampal synapse density by inhibiting neuronal insulin receptor signaling. Dixon-Salazar TJ, Fourgeaud L, Tyler CM, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(35), 11844-56, (2014)

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A biochemical analysis of the constraints of tail-anchored protein biogenesis. Pawel Leznicki et al Biochem. J. 436, 719-27, (2011)

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Deficiency of complement receptors CR2/CR1 in Cr2⁻/⁻ mice reduces the extent of secondary brain damage after closed head injury. Neher MD, Rich MC, Keene CN, et al. J. Neuroinflammation 11, 95, (2014)

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Dual targeting of hypoxia and homologous recombination repair dysfunction in triple-negative breast cancer. Hunter FW, Hsu HL, Su J, et al. Mol. Cancer Ther. 13(11), 2501-14, (2014)

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Semaphorin 3A signaling through neuropilin-1 is an early trigger for distal axonopathy in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Venkova K, Christov A, Kamaluddin Z, et al. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 73(7), 702-13, (2014)

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A mitotic GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation signaling complex alters the posttranslational state of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin. Slawson C Mol. Biol. Cell 19(10), 4130-40, (2008)

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Interferon regulatory factor-7 modulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Salem, M., et al. J. Neuroinflammation 8, 181, (2011)

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Golgi fragmentation and sphingomyelin transport to Chlamydia trachomatis during penicillin-induced persistence do not depend on the cytosolic presence of the chlamydial protease CPAF. Dille S, Herbst K, Volceanov L, et al. PLoS ONE 9(7), e103220, (2014)

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Novel coupling of surfactant assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with spectrophotometric determination for ultra trace nickel. Deng Q, Chen M, Kong L, et al. Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 104, 64-9, (2013)

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Surfactant-modified nanoclay exhibits an antiviral activity with high potency and broad spectrum. Liang JJ, Wei JC, Lee YL, et al. J. Virol. 88(8), 4218-28, (2014)

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Evaluation of two decellularization methods in the development of a whole-organ decellularized rat liver scaffold. Ren H, Shi X, Tao L, et al. Liver Int. 33(3), 448-58, (2013)

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Neonatal programming by immunological challenge: effects on ovarian function in the adult rat. Wu XQ Reproduction 141(2), 241-8, (2011)

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Porcine skin-derived stem cells can serve as donor cells for nuclear transfer. Yanhong Hao et al Cloning Stem Cells 11, 101-10, (2009)

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Assessment of functional recovery and axonal sprouting in oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) null mice after spinal cord injury. Benxiu Ji et al Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 39, 258-67, (2009)

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Ets-2 and p53 mediate cAMP-induced MMP-2 expression, activity and trophoblast invasion. Staun-Ram E Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 7, 135, (2009)

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Physicochemical and antibacterial properties of surfactant mixtures with quaternized chitosan microgels. Richardson KE, Xue Z, Huang Y, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 93(2), 709-17, (2013)

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Endosomal compartment contributes to the propagation of CD95/Fas-mediated signals in type II cells. Paola Matarrese et al Biochem. J. 413, 467-78, (2010)

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Enhanced growth and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Grausova L PLoS ONE 6(6), e20943, (2011)

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The molecular basis of emerin-emerin and emerin-BAF interactions. Berk JM, Simon DN, Jenkins-Houk CR, et al. J. Cell Sci. 127(Pt 18), 3956-69, (2014)

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Flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determination of copper, iron and zinc in food samples after solid-phase extraction on Schiff base-modified duolite XAD 761. Ghaedi M, Mortazavi K, Montazerozohori M, et al. Mater. Sci. Eng. C. Mater. Biol. Appl. 33(4), 2338-44, (2013)

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Automated Counting of Airborne Asbestos Fibers by a High-Throughput Microscopy (HTM) Method. Myoung-Ock Cho et al Sensors 11, 7231-42, (2011)

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Regulation of bestrophins by Ca2+: a theoretical and experimental study. Agata Kranjc et al PLoS ONE 4, e4672, (2009)

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Mechanosensitive ATP release from hemichannels and Ca²⁺ influx through TRPC6 accelerate wound closure in keratinocytes. Takada H, Furuya K, and Sokabe M J. Cell Sci. 127(Pt 19), 4159-71, (2014)

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Degenerate wave and capacitive coupling increase human MSC invasion and proliferation while reducing cytotoxicity in an in vitro wound healing model. Michelle Griffin et al PLoS ONE 6, e23404, (2011)

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The human Müller cell line MIO-M1 expresses opsins. Margrit Hollborn et al Mol. Vis. 17, 2738-50, (2011)

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The RACK1 signal anchor protein from Trypanosoma brucei associates with eukaryotic elongation factor 1A: a role for translational control in cytokinesis. Regmi S Mol. Microbiol. 70(3), 724-45, (2008)

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TMEM16A is a Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel expressed in the renal collecting duct. Svenningsen P, Nielsen MR, Marcussen N, et al. Acta Physiol. (Oxf.) 212(2), 166-74, (2014)

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Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFNβ in mouse pancreatic β-cells. Freudenburg W, Gautam M, Chakraborty P, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e52408, (2013)

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Establishment and characterization of a novel untransfected corneal endothelial cell line from New Zealand white rabbits. Fan T Mol. Vis. 15, 1070-8, (2009)

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CAR expression in human embryos and hESC illustrates its role in pluripotency and tight junctions. Krivega M, Geens M, and Van de Velde H Reproduction 148(5), 531-44, (2014)

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Enterococcus faecium isolated from Lombo, a Portuguese traditional meat product: characterisation of antibacterial compounds and factors affecting bacteriocin production. Todorov SD, Favaro L, Gibbs P, et al. Benef. Microbes 3(4), 319-30, (2012)

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Loss of Tbx2 delays optic vesicle invagination leading to small optic cups. Behesti H Dev. Biol. 333(2), 360-72, (2009)

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The bile response repressor BreR regulates expression of the Vibrio cholerae breAB efflux system operon. Cerda-Maira FA J. Bacteriol. 190(22), 7441-52, (2008)

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Dueling regulatory properties of a transcriptional activator (MtrA) and repressor (MtrR) that control efflux pump gene expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Zalucki YM, Dhulipala V, and Shafer WM MBio 3(6), e00446-12, (2012)

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Characterization of the yeast actin patch protein App1p phosphatidate phosphatase. Chae M and Carman GM J. Biol. Chem. 288(9), 6427-37, (2013)

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The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease. Hellesen A, Edvardsen K, Breivik L, et al. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 176(3), 351-62, (2014)

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In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures. Schlage WK, Iskandar AR, Kostadinova R, et al. Toxicol. Mech. Methods 24(7), 470-87, (2014)

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Analysis of EGFR signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by quantitative phosphoproteomics. Ruan L Proteome Sci. 9, 35, (2011)

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Ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction for the determination of Cd and Ni in tea and water samples. Ezoddin M, Taghizadeh T, and Majidi B Environ. Technol. 35(17-20), 2401-9, (2014)

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Genetic and pharmacological evidence that G2019S LRRK2 confers a hyperkinetic phenotype, resistant to motor decline associated with aging. Longo F, Russo I, Shimshek DR, et al. Neurobiol. Dis. 71, 62-73, (2014)

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Fibroblast-derived matrix (FDM) as a novel vascular endothelial growth factor delivery platform. Du P, Hwang MP, Noh YK, et al. J. Control. Release 194, 122-9, (2014)

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Modulating hydrogel crosslink density and degradation to control bone morphogenetic protein delivery and in vivo bone formation. Holloway JL, Ma H, Rai R, et al. J. Control. Release 191, 63-70, (2014)

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Neuronal pentraxin 2 supports clear cell renal cell carcinoma by activating the AMPA-selective glutamate receptor-4. von Roemeling CA, Radisky DC, Marlow LA, et al. Cancer Res. 74(17), 4796-810, (2014)

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Characterization of MHC class-I restricted TCRalphabeta+ CD4- CD8- double negative T cells recognizing the gp100 antigen from a melanoma patient after gp100 vaccination. Voelkl S Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 58(5), 709-18, (2009)

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SNX13 reduction mediates heart failure through degradative sorting of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain. Li J, Li C, Zhang D, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 5177, (2014)

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Myeloid derived hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha is required for protection against pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Shepardson KM, Jhingran A, Caffrey A, et al. PLoS Pathog. 10(9), e1004378, (2014)

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Megakaryocyte-specific Profilin1-deficiency alters microtubule stability and causes a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome-like platelet defect. Bender M, Stritt S, Nurden P, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 4746, (2014)

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Sorption and transport studies of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 in clayey soil. Harendra S and Vipulanandan C J. Environ. Sci. (China) 25(3), 576-84, (2013)

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Prior extended daily access to cocaine elevates the reward threshold in a conditioned place preference test. Su ZI, Wenzel J, Ettenberg A, et al. Addict. Biol. 19(5), 826-37, (2014)

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Endogenous species of mammalian nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB include activated monomers and heteropolymers. Shutova MS, Spessott WA, Giraudo CG, et al. Curr. Biol. 24(17), 1958-68, (2014)

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Netrin-4 derived from murine vascular endothelial cells inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and prevents bone loss in vivo. Enoki Y, Sato T, Tanaka S, et al. FEBS Lett. 588(14), 2262-9, (2014)

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Chloride channels in stellate cells are essential for uniquely high secretion rates in neuropeptide-stimulated Drosophila diuresis. Cabrero P, Terhzaz S, Romero MF, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(39), 14301-6, (2014)

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A Drosophila model of mitochondrial disease caused by a complex I mutation that uncouples proton pumping from electron transfer. Burman JL, Itsara LS, Kayser EB, et al. Dis. Model Mech. 7(10), 1165-74, (2014)

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Overexpression of oxytocin receptors in the hypothalamic PVN increases baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and buffers BP variability in conscious rats. Lozić M, Greenwood M, Šarenac O, et al. Br. J. Pharmacol. 171(19), 4385-98, (2014)

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Interaction of the cell adhesion molecule CHL1 with vitronectin, integrins, and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 promotes CHL1-induced neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Katic J, Loers G, Kleene R, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(44), 14606-23, (2014)

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Frontal cortical and subcortical projections provide a basis for segmenting the cingulum bundle: implications for neuroimaging and psychiatric disorders. Heilbronner SR and Haber SN J. Neurosci. 34(30), 10041-54, (2014)

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Arid3b is essential for second heart field cell deployment and heart patterning. Uribe V, Badía-Careaga C, Casanova JC, et al. Development 141(21), 4168-81, (2014)

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Transforming growth factor beta isoforms regulation of Akt activity and XIAP levels in rat endometrium during estrous cycle, in a model of pseudopregnancy and in cultured decidual cells. Caron, PL Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 7, 80, (2009)

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The ATP/DNA ratio is a better indicator of islet cell viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. T.M. Suszynski et al Transplant. Proc. 40, 346-50, (2009)

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Evidence for decreased expression of ADAMTS-1 associated with impaired oocyte quality in PCOS patients. Xiao S, Li Y, Li T, et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 99(6), E1015-21, (2014)

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Transparent, biocompatible nanostructured surfaces for cancer cell capture and culture. Cheng B, He Z, Zhao L, et al. Int. J. Nanomedicine 9, 2569-80, (2014)

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Neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects of the hemodialysate actovegin on primary rat neurons in vitro. Martin W. Elmlinger et al Neuromolecular Med. 13, 266-74, (2011)

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IFITM3 polymorphism rs12252-C restricts influenza A viruses. Williams DE, Wu WL, Grotefend CR, et al. PLoS ONE 9(10), e110096, (2014)

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Opioid-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in rat enteric neurons following chronic morphine treatment. Duraffourd C, Kumala E, Anselmi L, et al. PLoS ONE 9(10), e110230, (2014)

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The hemodynamically-regulated vascular microenvironment promotes migration of the steroidogenic tissue during its interaction with chromaffin cells in the zebrafish embryo. Chou CW, Zhuo YL, Jiang ZY, et al. PLoS ONE 9(9), e107997, (2014)

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Haemolysis and perturbations in the systemic iron metabolism of suckling, copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice - an animal model of Menkes disease. Lenartowicz M, Starzyński RR, Krzeptowski W, et al. PLoS ONE 9(9), e107641, (2014)

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HIV-1 transgenic rats display alterations in immunophenotype and cellular responses associated with aging. Abbondanzo SJ and Chang SL PLoS ONE 9(8), e105256, (2014)

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Toll-like receptor-3 is dispensable for the innate microRNA response to West Nile virus (WNV). Chugh PE, Damania BA, and Dittmer DP PLoS ONE 9(8), e104770, (2014)

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Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy. Schwab AJ and Ebert AD PLoS ONE 9(7), e103112, (2014)

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The Ran GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP1) is critically involved in smooth muscle cell differentiation, proliferation and migration following vascular injury: implications for neointima formation and restenosis. Vorpahl M, Schönhofer-Merl S, Michaelis C, et al. PLoS ONE 9(7), e101519, (2014)

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In vitro ischemia triggers a transcriptional response to down-regulate synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons. Fernandes J, Vieira M, Carreto L, et al. PLoS ONE 9(6), e99958, (2014)

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Re-engineered p53 activates apoptosis in vivo and causes primary tumor regression in a dominant negative breast cancer xenograft model. Okal A, Matissek KJ, Matissek SJ, et al. Gene Ther. 21(10), 903-12, (2014)

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Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of copper ions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and its mixture with Brij 35, Tween 80 and Triton X-100. Zhao B, Li R, Zhong J, et al. Water Sci. Technol. 67(10), 2154-9, (2013)

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Corneal epithelial and neuronal interactions: role in wound healing. Kowtharapu BS, Stahnke T, Wree A, et al. Exp. Eye Res. 125, 53-61, (2014)

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Cerium oxide nanoparticles inhibit adipogenesis in rat mesenchymal stem cells: potential therapeutic implications. Rocca A, Mattoli V, Mazzolai B, et al. Pharm. Res. 31(11), 2952-62, (2014)

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Myeloid-specific disruption of tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 promotes alternative activation of macrophages and predisposes mice to pulmonary fibrosis. Tao B, Jin W, Xu J, et al. J. Immunol. 193(6), 2801-11, (2014)

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Candida albicans cis-prenyltransferase Rer2 is required for protein glycosylation, cell wall integrity and hypha formation. Juchimiuk M, Orłowski J, Gawarecka K, et al. Fungal Genet. Biol. 69, 1-12, (2014)

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CD133-enriched Xeno-Free human embryonic-derived neural stem cells expand rapidly in culture and do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mice. Haus DL, Nguyen HX, Gold EM, et al. Stem Cell Res. 13(2), 214-26, (2014)

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COUP-TFII regulates metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by modulating Snail1. Bao Y, Gu D, Feng W, et al. Br. J. Cancer 111(5), 933-43, (2014)

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Adsorption of GST-PI3Kgamma at the air-buffer interface and at substrate and nonsubstrate phospholipid monolayers. Hermelink A Biophys. J. 96(3), 1016-25, (2009)

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Galectin Hco-gal-m from Haemonchus contortus modulates goat monocytes and T cell function in different patterns. Wang W, Wang S, Zhang H, et al. Parasit. Vectors 7, 342, (2014)

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Oligonucleotides designed to inhibit TLR9 block Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection at multiple steps. Sauter MM, Gauger JJ, and Brandt CR Antiviral Res. 109, 83-96, (2014)

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Evaluation of expression and function of the H+/myo-inositol transporter HMIT. Elena Di Daniel et al BMC Cell Biol. 10, 54, (2009)

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Molecular and immunocytochemical characterization of primary neuronal cultures from adult rat brain: Differential expression of neuronal and glial protein markers. Balmiki Ray et al J. Neurosci. Methods 184, 294-302, (2010)

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CD1d favors MHC neighborhood, GM1 ganglioside proximity and low detergent sensitive membrane regions on the surface of B lymphocytes. Shrestha D, Exley MA, Vereb G, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1840(1), 667-80, (2014)

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Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation. Chauhan V, Howland M, and Wilkins R BMC Med. Genomics 7, 43, (2014)

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Molecular characterization of chordoma xenografts generated from a novel primary chordoma cell source and two chordoma cell lines. Karikari IO, Gilchrist CL, Jing L, et al. J. Neurosurg. Spine 21(3), 386-93, (2014)

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Removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation using an agitated vessel. Amin NK, El-Ashtouky ES, and Abdelwahab O Environ. Technol. 35(9-12), 1208-18, (2014)

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Long-term testosterone administration affects the number of paracervical ganglion ovary-projecting neurons in sexually mature gilts. Jana B, Całka J, Bulc M, et al. Neurosci. Res. 83, 89-96, (2014)

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Extraction of lipase and protease and characterization of activated sludge from pulp and paper industry. Karn SK, Kumar P, and Pan X Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 43(2), 152-62, (2013)

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Activin A supplement in the hESCs culture enhances the endoderm differentiation efficiency. Guo S, Mao X, He F, et al. Cell Biol. Int. 38(7), 849-56, (2014)

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B7-H3 and B7-H1 expression in cerebral spinal fluid and tumor tissue correlates with the malignancy grade of glioma patients. Baral A, Ye HX, Jiang PC, et al. Oncol. Lett. 8(3), 1195-1201, (2014)

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Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10(789)): a voltage gated potassium channel associated protein is abnormally expressed in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Chen T, Gai WP, and Abbott CA Biomed Res. Int. 2014, 209398, (2014)

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Merck 14,6761

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