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22040 Sigma

β-Carotene

≥97.0% (UV)

Synonym: β,β-Carotene, Provitamin A

  • CAS Number 7235-40-7

  • Empirical Formula (Hill Notation) C40H56

  • Molecular Weight 536.87

  •  Beilstein Registry Number 1917416

  •  EC Number 230-636-6

  •  MDL number MFCD00001556

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Description

Other Notes

As a probe of lipid domains of reconstituted human plasma low-density lipoprotein1

Tandem Mass Spectrometry data independently generated by Scripps Center for Metabolomics is available to view or download in PDF. 22040.pdf Tested metabolites are featured on Scripps Center for Metabolomics METLIN Metabolite Database. To learn more, visit sigma.com/metlin.

Biochem/physiol Actions

The most important of the provitamins A, β-carotene can be classified as an antioxidant due to its inhibition of radical initiated peroxidation in vitro. However, in vivo it appears to act either as an antioxidant or a prooxidant depending on cellular environment. It reduces the incidence of many cancers, but enhances lung cancer incidence in smokers.

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β-Carotene

Type I, synthetic, ≥93% (UV), powder

β-Carotene

Type II, synthetic, ≥95% (HPLC), crystalline

β-Carotene

pharmaceutical secondary standard; traceable to USP

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Personal Protective Equipment 
Risk Statements (Europe) 
44
Safety Statements (Europe) 
7-15-18
WGK Germany 
1
RTECS 
FI0329500
Flash Point(F) 
217.4 °F
Flash Point(C) 
103 °C

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

1. beta-Carotene as a probe of lipid domains of reconstituted human plasma low-density lipoprotein: induced circular dichroism. G.C. Chen et al. Biochemistry 19, 4706, (1980)

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The antioxidant and biological properties of the carotenoids. Krinsky, N.I. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 854, 443-447, (1998)

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Carotenoids and protection of phospholipids in solution or in liposomes against oxidation by peroxyl radical. Woodall, A.A., et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1336, 575-586, (1997)

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Prooxidant effects of beta-carotene in cultured cells. Palozza, P., et al. Mol. Aspects Med. 24, 353-362, (2003)

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The antioxidant conundrum in cancer. Seifried, H.E., et al. Cancer Res. 63, 4295-4298, (2003)

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β-carotene: a cancer chemopreventive agent or a co-carcinogen? Paolini, M., et al. Mutat. Res. 543, 195-200, (2003)

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The orphan nuclear receptor SHP inhibits apoptosis during the monocytic differentiation by inducing p21WAF1. Kim, K., et al. Exp. Mol. Med. 41, 429-39, (2009)

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Antioxidant vitamins and magnesium and the risk of hearing loss in the US general population. Choi YH, Miller JM, Tucker KL, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 99(1), 148-55, (2014)

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Sunscreen and prevention of skin aging: a randomized trial. Hughes MC, Williams GM, Baker P, et al. Ann. Intern. Med. 158(11), 781-90, (2013)

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Periodic root branching in Arabidopsis requires synthesis of an uncharacterized carotenoid derivative. Van Norman JM, Zhang J, Cazzonelli CI, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(13), E1300-9, (2014)

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Vitamin A in human skin: II Concentrations of carotene, retinol and dehydroretinol in various components of normal skin. Vahlquist A, Lee JB, Michaëlsson G, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 79(2), 94-7, (1982)

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CFH and ARMS2 genetic polymorphisms predict response to antioxidants and zinc in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Awh CC, Lane AM, Hawken S, et al. Ophthalmology 120(11), 2317-23, (2013)

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Iridophores and not carotenoids account for chromatic variation of carotenoid-based coloration in common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). San-Jose LM, Granado-Lorencio F, Sinervo B, et al. Am. Nat. 181(3), 396-409, (2013)

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Zinc plus beta-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to beta-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants. Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT, West CE, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(5), 1299-307, (2004)

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Regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response by β-carotene in RAW264.7 cells. Lin HW, Chang TJ, Yang DJ, et al. Food Chem. 134(4), 2169-75, (2012)

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Pro-surfactant protein B as a biomarker for lung cancer prediction. Sin DD, Tammemagi CM, Lam S, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(36), 4536-43, (2013)

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Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women in a Mediterranean area. Vioque J, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Gimenez-Monzó D, et al. Nutr. J. 12, 26, (2013)

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Effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality: 18-year postintervention follow-up of the Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Kontto J, et al. Int. J. Cancer 135(1), 178-85, (2014)

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Complement c3 is inversely associated with habitual intake of provitamin A but not with dietary fat, fatty acids, or vitamin E in middle-aged to older white adults and positively associated with intake of retinol in middle-aged to older white women. van Greevenbroek MM, Arts IC, van der Kallen CJ, et al. J. Nutr. 144(1), 61-7, (2014)

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Mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in oxygenic photosynthetic proteins. Mendes-Pinto MM, Galzerano D, Telfer A, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 18758-65, (2013)

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Plasma alkylresorcinols reflect important whole-grain components of a healthy Nordic diet. Magnusdottir OK, Landberg R, Gunnarsdottir I, et al. J. Nutr. 143(9), 1383-90, (2013)

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Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians' Health Study. Matsumoto C, Petrone AB, Sesso HD, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 101(2), 362-7, (2015)

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Comparative effects between fucoxanthinol and its precursor fucoxanthin on viability and apoptosis of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Rwigemera A, Mamelona J, and Martin LJ Anticancer Res. 35(1), 207-19, (2015)

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A dietary guideline adherence score is positively associated with dietary biomarkers but not lipid profile in healthy children. Golley RK, McNaughton SA, and Hendrie GA J. Nutr. 145(1), 128-33, (2015)

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Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: a community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Gannon B, Kaliwile C, Arscott SA, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 100(6), 1541-50, (2014)

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Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. Liu J, Shi WQ, Cao Y, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 112(12), 2041-8, (2014)

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Rice cytochrome P450 MAX1 homologs catalyze distinct steps in strigolactone biosynthesis. Zhang Y, van Dijk AD, Scaffidi A, et al. Nat. Chem. Biol. 10(12), 1028-33, (2014)

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Treatment response to antioxidants and zinc based on CFH and ARMS2 genetic risk allele number in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Awh CC, Hawken S, and Zanke BW Ophthalmology 122(1), 162-9, (2015)

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Antioxidants for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Ahmed Ali U, Jens S, Busch OR, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8, CD008945, (2014)

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Association of seropositivity to Helicobacter species and biliary tract cancer in the ATBC study. Murphy G, Michel A, Taylor PR, et al. Hepatology 60(6), 1963-71, (2014)

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Summaries for patients. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer: recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann. Intern. Med. 160(8), I-24, (2014)

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[Genetic variability of synthesis feature of carotenoids in Streptomyces globisporus 1912]. Polishchuk LV, Holembiovs'ka SL, Matseliukh BP, et al. Mikrobiol. Z. 75(5), 40-6, (2013)

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Isolation of Streptomyces globisporus and Blakeslea trispora mutants with increased carotenoid content. Matselyukh BP, Matselyukh DY, Golembiovska SL, et al. Mikrobiol. Z. 75(6), 10-6, (2013)

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Eating for good vision. Add these nutrients to your diet to preserve and protect your eyesight. Harv. Womens. Health Watch 21(2), 6, (2013)

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Improved tolerance of recombinant Escherichia coli to the toxicity of crude glycerol by overexpressing trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsBA) for the production of β-carotene. Nguyen Ado Q, Kim YG, Kim SB, et al. Bioresour. Technol. 143, 531-7, (2013)

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Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake. Jabłonowska-Lietz B, Jarosz A, and Nowicka G Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig. 64(1), 43-8, (2013)

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[Effect of Tri-V-Plus preparation on experimental echinococcal pathology in rats]. Zanginian AV, Kazarian GS, and Ovselian LM Eksp. Klin. Farmakol. 76(4), 36-8, (2013)

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Daily use of sunscreen prevents ageing of the skin. BMJ 346, f3586, (2013)

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Summaries for patients. Sunscreen and prevention of skin aging. Ann. Intern. Med. 158(11), I-28, (2013)

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Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. JAMA 309(19), 2005-15, (2013)

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Reply to E Giovannucci. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97(3), 659-60, (2013)

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Beta-carotene in dermatology: Does it help? Bayerl Ch Acta Dermatovenerol. Alp. Panonica. Adriat. 17(4), 160-2, 164-6, (2008)

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The importance of beta-carotene as a source of vitamin A with special regard to pregnant and breastfeeding women. Strobel M, Tinz J, and Biesalski HK Eur. J. Nutr. 46 Suppl 1, I1-20, (2007)

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Biochemical and hematological manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Chanarat N, Chanarat P, Viratsethasin K, et al. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 32(3), 500-3, (2001)

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The bioavailability of beta-carotene in stir- or deep-fried vegetables in men determined by measuring the serum response to a single ingestion. Huang C, Tang YL, Chen CY, et al. J. Nutr. 130(3), 534-40, (2000)

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Influence of particle size on lipid digestion and β-carotene bioaccessibility in emulsions and nanoemulsions. Salvia-Trujillo L, Qian C, Martín-Belloso O, et al. Food Chem. 141(2), 1472-80, (2013)

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Effect of ozone pre-conditioning on quality and antioxidant capacity of papaya fruit during ambient storage. Ali A, Ong MK, and Forney CF Food Chem. 142, 19-26, (2014)

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Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants. Wilson SA and Roberts SC Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 26, 174-82, (2014)

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Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 98(4), 245-54, (2006)

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Plasma and dietary carotenoids, and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. Wu K, Erdman JW, Schwartz SJ, et al. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 13(2), 260-9, (2004)

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Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71(3), 795-8, (2000)

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The contribution of β-carotene to vitamin A supply of humans. Weber D and Grune T Mol. Nutr. Food. Res. 56(2), 251-8, (2012)

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A review of vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene in various food matrices for human consumption. Van Loo-Bouwman CA, Naber TH, and Schaafsma G Br. J. Nutr. 111(12), 2153-66, (2014)

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CD36 and SR-BI are involved in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids by Caco-2 and HEK cells, and some of their genetic variants are associated with plasma concentrations of these micronutrients in humans. Borel P, Lietz G, Goncalves A, et al. J. Nutr. 143(4), 448-56, (2013)

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Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, et al. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 223(2), 170-4, (2000)

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Determination of beta-carotene and its cis isomers in serum. Rushin WG, Catignani GL, and Schwartz SJ Clin. Chem. 36(11), 1986-9, (1990)

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Beta-carotene supplementation and cancer risk: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Druesne-Pecollo N, Latino-Martel P, Norat T, et al. Int. J. Cancer 127(1), 172-84, (2010)

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β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight. Stahl W and Sies H Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96(5), 1179S-84S, (2012)

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Beta-carotene breakdown products may impair mitochondrial functions--potential side effects of high-dose beta-carotene supplementation. Siems W, Wiswedel I, Salerno C, et al. J. Nutr. Biochem. 16(7), 385-97, (2005)

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Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry. Sáiz-Abajo MJ, González-Ferrero C, Moreno-Ruiz A, et al. Food Chem. 138(2-3), 1581-7, (2013)

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Effect of subadequate maternal vitamin-A status on placental transfer of retinol and beta-carotene to the human fetus. Dimenstein R, Trugo NM, Donangelo CM, et al. Biol. Neonate 69(4), 230-4, (1996)

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Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake. El-Sohemy A, Baylin A, Kabagambe E, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76(1), 172-9, (2002)

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Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. Heinrich U, Gärtner C, Wiebusch M, et al. J. Nutr. 133(1), 98-101, (2003)

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Optimisation of the formulation of β-carotene loaded nanostructured lipid carriers prepared by solvent diffusion method. Hejri A, Khosravi A, Gharanjig K, et al. Food Chem. 141(1), 117-23, (2013)

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Exploitation of Dunaliella for beta-carotene production. Raja R, Hemaiswarya S, and Rengasamy R Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 74(3), 517-23, (2007)

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Role of Frizzled6 in the molecular mechanism of beta-carotene action in the lung. Piga R, van Dartel D, Bunschoten A, et al. Toxicology 320, 67-73, (2014)

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The formation, occurrence, and function of β-apocarotenoids: β-carotene metabolites that may modulate nuclear receptor signaling. Harrison EH, dela Sena C, Eroglu A, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96(5), 1189S-92S, (2012)

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The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans. Haskell MJ Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96(5), 1193S-203S, (2012)

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Can beta-carotene regulate cell growth by a redox mechanism? An answer from cultured cells. Palozza P Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1740(2), 215-21, (2005)

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Impact of acute renal failure on antioxidant status in multiple organ failure. Metnitz GH, Fischer M, Bartens C, et al. Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 44(3), 236-40, (2000)

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Evaluation of the preruminant calf as a model for the study of human carotenoid metabolism. Poor CL, Bierer TL, Merchen NR, et al. J. Nutr. 122(2), 262-8, (1992)

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Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the volatile oil and methanol extract of Xenophyllum poposum. González AM, Tracanna MI, Amani SM, et al. Nat. Prod. Commun. 7(12), 1663-6, (2012)

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cis-trans isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene in human serum and tissues. Stahl W, Schwarz W, Sundquist AR, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 294(1), 173-7, (1992)

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Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ye Y, Li J, and Yuan Z PLoS ONE 8(2), e56803, (2013)

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Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin. McArdle F, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(5), 1270-5, (2004)

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Maternal-fetal transfer and metabolism of vitamin A and its precursor β-carotene in the developing tissues. Spiegler E, Kim YK, Wassef L, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1821(1), 88-98, (2012)

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Rapid HPLC assay for the assessment of vitamin K1, A, E and beta-carotene status in children (7-19 years). Jakob E and Elmadfa I Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 65(1), 31-5, (1995)

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Estimation of fruit and vegetable intake using a two-item dietary questionnaire: a potential tool for primary health care workers. Cappuccio FP, Rink E, Perkins-Porras L, et al. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 13(1), 12-9, (2003)

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Specific carotenoid intake is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Wang L, Li B, Pan MX, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 111(9), 1686-95, (2014)

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Cloning and characterization of an Orange gene that increases carotenoid accumulation and salt stress tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato cultures. Kim SH, Ahn YO, Ahn MJ, et al. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 70, 445-54, (2013)

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Two carotenoid oxygenases contribute to mammalian provitamin A metabolism. Amengual J, Widjaja-Adhi MA, Rodriguez-Santiago S, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(47), 34081-96, (2013)

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Conversion of beta-carotene to retinal pigment. Biesalski HK, Chichili GR, Frank J, et al. Vitam. Horm. 75, 117-30, (2007)

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Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement. Moyer VA Ann. Intern. Med. 160(8), 558-64, (2014)

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Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations. Wang Y, Chung SJ, McCullough ML, et al. J. Nutr. 144(7), 1067-74, (2014)

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Techniques for measuring vitamin A activity from β-carotene. Tang G Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96(5), 1185S-8S, (2012)

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Beta-carotene and lung cancer in smokers: review of hypotheses and status of research. Goralczyk R Nutr. Cancer 61(6), 767-74, (2009)

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The effect of antioxidant supplementation on superoxide dismutase activity, Cu and Zn levels, and total antioxidant status in erythrocytes of patients with Graves' disease. Bacic-Vrca V, Skreb F, Cepelak I, et al. Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 43(4), 383-8, (2005)

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Qualitative methods to evaluate Mediterranean diet in adults. Gerber M Publ. Health Nutr. 9(1A), 147-51, (2006)

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The effects of daily consumption of β-cryptoxanthin-rich tangerines and β-carotene-rich sweet potatoes on vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations in plasma and breast milk of Bangladeshi women with low vitamin A status in a randomized controlled trial. Turner T, Burri BJ, Jamil KM, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98(5), 1200-8, (2013)

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Alpha and omega of carotenoid cleavage. Lakshman MR J. Nutr. 134(1), 241S-245S, (2004)

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Chemoprevention of lung cancers: lessons from CARET, the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial, and prospects for the future. Omenn GS Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 16(3), 184-91, (2007)

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A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency. Souganidis E, Laillou A, Leyvraz M, et al. Nutrients 5(8), 3257-71, (2013)

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Beta-carotene plasma levels and content in oral mucosal epithelium is skin type associated. Gollnick HP and Siebenwirth C Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. 15(5), 360-6, (2002)

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Degradation of carotenoids in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) during drying process. Fratianni A, Albanese D, Mignogna R, et al. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 68(3), 241-6, (2013)

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Oxidative stress before and after operation in patients with chronic cholecystitis containing gallstone. Zhou JF, Chen P, Yang JL, et al. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 13(4), 254-62, (2000)

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A rapid HPLC column switching method for sample preparation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements. Brabcová I, Hlaváčková M, Satínský D, et al. Food Chem. 141(2), 1433-7, (2013)

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Self-report of fruit and vegetable intake that meets the 5 a day recommendation is associated with reduced levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and increased levels of antioxidant defense in premenopausal women. Rink SM, Mendola P, Mumford SL, et al. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 113(6), 776-85, (2013)

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Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Piper officinarum (Piperaceae). Salleh WM, Ahmad F, Yen KH, et al. Nat. Prod. Commun. 7(12), 1659-62, (2012)

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Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum induces inhibition of free radicals and enhanced phototoxicity in human melanoma cells under ultraviolet light. Menichini G, Alfano C, Marrelli M, et al. Cell Prolif. 46(2), 193-202, (2013)

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Early neonatal feeding is common and associated with subsequent breastfeeding behavior in rural Bangladesh. Sundaram ME, Labrique AB, Mehra S, et al. J. Nutr. 143(7), 1161-7, (2013)

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Preoperative levels of plasma micronutrients are related to endometrial cancer risk. Jeong NH, Song ES, Lee JM, et al. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 88(4), 434-9, (2009)

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Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari). Gomes S, Torres AG, Godoy R, et al. Food Nutr. Bull. 34(1), 65-74, (2013)

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Metabolic alterations of lutein, β-carotene and chlorophyll a during germination of two soybean sprout varieties. Lee J, Hwang YS, Lee JD, et al. Food Chem. 141(3), 3177-82, (2013)

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Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots. Kopec RE, Cooperstone JL, Schweiggert RM, et al. J. Nutr. 144(8), 1158-66, (2014)

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β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo. Wassef L, Wirawan R, Chikindas M, et al. J. Nutr. 144(5), 608-13, (2014)

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Mammalian metabolism of β-carotene: gaps in knowledge. Shete V and Quadro L Nutrients 5(12), 4849-68, (2013)

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Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers. Kasperczyk S, Dobrakowski M, Kasperczyk J, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 280(1), 36-41, (2014)

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Retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin D status in European adolescents; regional differences an variability: a review. Valtueña J, Breidenassel C, Folle J, et al. Nutr. Hosp. 26(2), 280-8, (2011)

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Genetic and chemical characterization of an EMS induced mutation in Cucumis melo CRTISO gene. Galpaz N, Burger Y, Lavee T, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 539(2), 117-25, (2013)

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Embryonic phenotype, β-carotene and retinoid metabolism upon maternal supplementation of β-carotene in a mouse model of severe vitamin A deficiency. Wassef L, Spiegler E, and Quadro L Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 539(2), 223-9, (2013)

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Relative vitamin A values of 9-cis- and 13-cis-β-carotene do not differ when fed at physiological levels during vitamin A depletion in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Bresnahan KA, Davis CR, and Tanumihardjo SA Br. J. Nutr. 112(2), 162-9, (2014)

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Cloning, molecular characterization and functional analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) gene for diterpenoid tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. Hao G, Shi R, Tao R, et al. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 70, 21-32, (2013)

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Nutritional and neutraceutical composition of five wild culinary-medicinal species of genus Pleurotus (higher Basidiomycetes) from northwest India. Atri N, Sharma SK, Joshi R, et al. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 15(1), 49-56, (2013)

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β-carotene regulates expression of β-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase in human alveolar epithelial cells. Gong X, Marisiddaiah R, and Rubin LP Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 539(2), 230-8, (2013)

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Proteasomal degradation of beta-carotene metabolite--modified proteins. Sommerburg O, Karius N, Siems W, et al. Biofactors 35(5), 449-59, (2009)

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A derivative of ascorbic acid modulates cAMP production. Bordignon B, Mones S, Rahman F, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 439(1), 137-41, (2013)

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Skin carotenoids: a biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake in children. Aguilar SS, Wengreen HJ, Lefevre M, et al. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 114(8), 1174-80, (2014)

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Evaluation of web-based, self-administered, graphical food frequency questionnaire. Kristal AR, Kolar AS, Fisher JL, et al. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 114(4), 613-21, (2014)

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Biflavonoids from the unripe fruits of Clusia paralicola and their antioxidant activity. Oliveira RF, Camara CA, de Agra MF, et al. Nat. Prod. Commun. 7(12), 1597-600, (2012)

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Current flow of single-walled carbon nanotubes upon the encapsulation of beta-carotene by using conducting probe atomic force microscopy. Lee J, Park T, Lee J, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(11), 7430-3, (2013)

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Improvement of cloud stability, yield and β-carotene content of carrot juice by process modification. Yu LJ and Rupasinghe HP Food Sci. Technol. Int. 19(5), 399-406, (2013)

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Vitamins - wrong approaches. Moser U Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 82(5), 327-32, (2012)

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Overexpression and characterization of lycopene cyclase (CrtY) from marine bacterium Paracoccus haeundaensis. Jeong TH, Ji K, and Kim YT J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23(2), 144-8, (2013)

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Biotechnology: Against the grain. Eisenstein M Nature 514(7524), S55-7, (2014)

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Nutrient biomarkers are not always simple markers of nutrient intake. Giovannucci E Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97(3), 657-9, (2013)

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Technical Service:

Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.

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