|Related Categories||B, Bioactive Small Molecules, Cell Biology, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience, Gene Regulation and Expression,|
|Gene Information||human ... PPARD(5467)|
10, 50 g in poly bottle
2-Bromohexadecanoic acid is a PPARδ agonist. It has also been shown to inhibit fatty acid oxidation, inhibit DHHC-mediated palmitoylation1, and promote glucose uptake in rat cardiac cells and the insulin-sensitive murine fibroblast line A31-IS2.
PPARδ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, delta isoform) acts as a transcription factor for gene expression as well as playing a role in lipid metabolism regulation; activity of this receptor is ligand-regulated. 2-Bromohexadecanoic acid is a metabolically stable analoge of the fatty acid palmitic acid that has been shown to be a natural ligand for the PPARδ receptor.3 2-Bromohexadecanoic acid has also been used in studies of fatty acid oxidation, palmitoylation, and glucose uptake.
|Precautionary statements||P261-P305 + P351 + P338|
|Personal Protective Equipment||dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves|
|Hazard Codes (Europe)||Xi|
|Risk Statements (Europe)||36/37/38|
|Safety Statements (Europe)||26-36|
|Flash Point(F)||235.4 °F|
|Flash Point(C)||113 °C|
Freely turning over palmitate in erythrocyte membrane proteins is not responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton: a study with bio-orthogonal chemical probes. Ciana A, Achilli C, Hannoush RN, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828(3), 924-31, (2013)
Upregulation of phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase by cytokines in pancreatic beta-cells: attenuation of oxidative and nitrosative stress by 2-bromopalmitate. Mohammed AM, Syeda K, Hadden T, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 85(1), 109-14, (2013)
A highly conserved cytoplasmic cysteine residue in the α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is palmitoylated and regulates protein expression. Amici SA, McKay SB, Wells GB, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 287(27), 23119-27, (2012)
Protein palmitoylation inhibition by 2-bromopalmitate alters gliding, host cell invasion and parasite morphology in Toxoplasma gondii. Alonso AM, Coceres VM, De Napoli MG, et al. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 184(1), 39-43, (2012)
The stress-induced cytokine interleukin-6 decreases the inhibition/excitation ratio in the rat temporal cortex via trans-signaling. Garcia-Oscos F, Salgado H, Hall S, et al. Biol. Psychiatry 71(7), 574-82, (2012)
Identification, organ expression and ligand-dependent expression levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). He S, Liang XF, Qu CM, et al. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 155(2), 381-8, (2012)
The effects of 2-bromopalmitate on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Oku H, Tokuda M, and Umino T Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B Biochem. Mol. Biol. 152(4), 370-5, (2009)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids block platelet-activating factor-induced phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt-mediated apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Lu J, Caplan MS, Li D, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 294(5), G1181-90, (2008)
Plasma membrane localization is required for RasA-mediated polarized morphogenesis and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. Fortwendel JR, Juvvadi PR, Rogg LE, et al. Eukaryotic Cell 11(8), 966-77, (2012)
Myocardial macronutrient transporter adaptations in the adult pregestational female intrauterine and postnatal growth-restricted offspring. Abbasi A, Thamotharan M, Shin BC, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 302(11), E1352-62, (2012)
Neurotensin receptor-1 inducible palmitoylation is required for efficient receptor-mediated mitogenic-signaling within structured membrane microdomains. Heakal Y, Woll MP, Fox T, et al. Cancer Biol. Ther. 12(5), 427-35, (2011)
Interplay of palmitoylation and phosphorylation in the trafficking and localization of phosphodiesterase 10A: implications for the treatment of schizophrenia. Charych EI, Jiang LX, Lo F, et al. J. Neurosci. 30(27), 9027-37, (2010)
Role of PSD95 in membrane association and catalytic activity of nNOSalpha in nitrergic varicosities in mice gut. Chaudhury A, He XD, and Goyal RK Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 297(4), G806-13, (2009)
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