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47036 Sigma

Saponin

for molecular biology, used as non-ionic surfactant, adjuvant

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Properties

Related Categories Antigen-Vaccine Preparation, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Culture, Core Bioreagents, Detergents,
grade   for molecular biology
composition   Sapogenin, 8-25%
CMC   0.001-0.01%
density   1.015-1.020 g/mL at 20 °C (5% in H2O)(lit.)
foreign activity   DNase, RNase, Protease, Phosphatase, none detected
solubility   Do you have solubility information on this product that you would like to share?

Description

Application

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Glycoside widely distributed in plants.1 Nonionic sufactant that forms oil-in-water emulsions and acts as protective colloid. Used for the direct determination of metals in milk by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.2 Also used in permeabilization of cell membranes and separation of low molecular weight contaminants,3,4 and as an adjuvant in vaccine development.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
Xi
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
26-37/39
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
VQ1400000

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Birk, Y. and Peri, I., Liener, I.E., ed. Toxic Const. Plant Foodst. New York , (1980), 161

2. Arpadjan, S. and Stojanova, D. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 320, 206, (1980)

3. Polarized distribution of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 at the cell surface of cultured human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Jalal, F., et al. Biochem. J. 288, 945, (1992)

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4. Effect of saponin from Quillaja saponaria (molina) on antibody, tumour necrosis factor and interferon-gamma production. Cainelli, G., et al. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 22, 31, (1995)

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Helicobacter pylori usurps cell polarity to turn the cell surface into a replicative niche. Tan S PLoS Pathog. 5(5), e1000407, (2009)

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N-terminal processing of proteins exported by malaria parasites Chang,H et al. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 160(2), 107-115, (2008)

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Functional impairment of PRRSV-specific peripheral CD3+CD8high cells. Costers S Vet. Res. 40(5), 46, (2009)

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Phenotypic and functional characterization of human memory T cell responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei. Patcharaporn Tippayawat et al PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3, e407, (2009)

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CD11b⁺, Ly6G⁺ cells produce type I interferon and exhibit tissue protective properties following peripheral virus infection. Fischer MA, Davies ML, Reider IE, et al. PLoS Pathog. 7(11), e1002374, (2011)

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Plasmodium falciparum Sec24 marks transitional ER that exports a model cargo via a diacidic motif. Lee MC Mol. Microbiol. 68(6), 1535-46, (2008)

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A PDZ-binding motif controls basolateral targeting of syndecan-1 along the biosynthetic pathway in polarized epithelial cells. Maday S Traffic 9(11), 1915-24, (2008)

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The binding of NCAM to FGFR1 induces a specific cellular response mediated by receptor trafficking. Francavilla C J. Cell Biol. 187(7), 1101-16, (2009)

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Cellular players and role of selectin ligands in leukocyte recruitment in a T-cell-initiated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Doebis C Am. J. Pathol. 173(4), 1067-76, (2008)

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Human NK cells kill resting but not activated microglia via NKG2D- and NKp46-mediated recognition. Lünemann A J. Immunol. 181(9), 6170-7, (2008)

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Neurosteroids block the increase in intracellular calcium level induced by Alzheimer’s β-amyloid protein in long-term cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Kato-Negishi M Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat. 4(1), 209-18, (2008)

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Neuropilin-1 expression on regulatory T cells enhances their interactions with dendritic cells during antigen recognition. Sarris M Immunity 28(3), 402-13, (2008)

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Identification and characterization of IL-10/IFN-gamma-producing effector-like T cells with regulatory function in human blood. Häringer B, Lozza L, Steckel B, et al. J. Exp. Med. 206(5), 1009-17, (2009)

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miR-34a regulates mouse neural stem cell differentiation. Márcia M. Aranha et al PLoS ONE 6, e21396, (2011)

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S100 calgranulin proteins S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 are expressed in the inflamed gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori-infected children. Leach ST Can. J. Gastroenterol. 22(5), 461-4, (2008)

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Human dendritic cells infected with an adenoviral vector suppress proliferation of autologous and allogeneic T cells. Newton KR Immunology 125(4), 469-79, (2008)

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Mitochondrial translocation of p53 modulates neuronal fate by preventing differentiation-induced mitochondrial stress. Xavier JM, Morgado AL, Solá S, et al. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21(7), 1009-24, (2014)

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Cytopathicity of Chlamydia is largely reproduced by expression of a single chlamydial protease. Paschen SA J. Cell Biol. 182(1), 117-27, (2008)

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BAT3 guides misfolded glycoproteins out of the endoplasmic reticulum. Claessen JH and Ploegh HL PLoS ONE 6(12), e28542, (2011)

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IFN-gamma reverses IL-2- and IL-4-mediated T-cell steroid resistance. Goleva E Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 40(2), 223-30, (2009)

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Global response of Plasmodium falciparum to hyperoxia: a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach. Torrentino-Madamet M Malaria Journal 10, 4, (2011)

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Interferon-λ1 (interleukin-29) preferentially down-regulates interleukin-13 over other T helper type 2 cytokine responses in vitro. Shekar Srinivas et al Immunology 125, 492-502, (2008)

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Production of reactive oxygen species is turned on and rapidly shut down in epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. Boncompain G Infect. Immun. 78(1), 80-7, (2010)

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The meningococcal ABC-Type L-glutamate transporter GltT is necessary for the development of experimental meningitis in mice. Colicchio R Infect. Immun. 77(9), 3578-87, (2009)

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L-type Ca2+ channel function is linked to dystrophin expression in mammalian muscle. Friedrich O PLoS ONE 3(3), e1762, (2008)

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Endothelial function of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene: control of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Champion KJ Cancer Res. 68(12), 4649-57, (2008)

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Antibodies from women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis predominantly recognized the plasmid protein pgp3 in a conformation-dependent manner. Li, Z BMC Microbiol. 8, 90, (2008)

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TRIF is a critical negative regulator of TLR agonist mediated activation of dendritic cells in vivo. Seregin SS, Aldhamen YA, Appledorn DM, et al. PLoS ONE 6(7), e22064, (2011)

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CAF01 potentiates immune responses and efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets. Cyril Jean-Marie Martel et al PLoS ONE 6, e22891, (2011)

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Distinct roles of CD28- and CD40 ligand-mediated costimulation in the development of protective immunity and pathology during Chlamydia muridarum urogenital infection in mice. Chen L Infect. Immun. 77(7), 3080-9, (2009)

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Equal force recovery in dysferlin-deficient and wild-type muscles following saponin exposure. Zhao P, Xu L, Ait-Mou Y, et al. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2011, 235216, (2011)

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Increased level of extracellular ATP at tumor sites: in vivo imaging with plasma membrane luciferase. Patrizia Pellegatti et al PLoS ONE 3, e2599, (2008)

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Increase in double-stranded DNA break-related foci in early-stage thymocytes of aged mice. Hesse JE Exp. Gerontol. 44(10), 676-84, (2009)

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Regulation of T cell priming by lymphoid stroma. Khan O, Headley M, Gerard A, et al. PLoS ONE 6(11), e26138, (2011)

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Host inactivation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide prevents prolonged tolerance following gram-negative bacterial infection. Lu M Cell Host Microbe 4(3), 293-302, (2008)

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Apoptosis in Toxoplasma gondii activated T cells: the role of IFNgamma in enhanced alteration of Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential. Begum-Haque S Microb. Pathog. 47(5), 281-8, (2009)

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Immunization with an immunodominant self-peptide derived from glucose-6-phosphate isomerase induces arthritis in DBA/1 mice. Bruns L Arthritis. Res. Ther. 11(4), R117, (2009)

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CD45RC isoform expression identifies functionally distinct T cell subsets differentially distributed between healthy individuals and AAV patients. Ordonez L PLoS ONE 4(4), e5287, (2009)

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The research on the immuno-modulatory defect of mesenchymal stem cell from Chronic Myeloid Leukemia patients. Zhu Xishan et al J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res 30, 47, (2011)

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Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 modulates retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells. Schulz C PLoS ONE 6(6), e20820, (2011)

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Intranasal delivery of cationic PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine encoding IL-6 elicited protective immunity against FMDV challenge. Gang Wang et al PLoS ONE 6, e27605, (2011)

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Functional characterization of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity protein loops. Cole JG and Jerse AE PLoS ONE 4(12), e8108, (2009)

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