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B2434 Sigma

Bleomycin sulfate from Streptomyces verticillus

BioXtra, crystalline

Synonym: Blenoxane, Bleo, Blexane

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Properties

Related Categories Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics A-F, Antibiotics by Application, Antifungal,
product line   BioXtra
form   crystalline
potency   1.5-2.0 units per mg
solubility   H2O: soluble20 mg/mL, clear, colorless
cation traces   Cu: ≤0.10%
suitability   suitable for cell culture
storage temp.   2-8°C

Description

Components

This product is a mixture of glycopeptides antibiotics containing Bleomycin A2 (70%) and B2(30%). Bleomycins differ from each other in the terminal amine and show varying biological activity.

Application

Bleomycin Sulfate is an atineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces verticillus. It is recommended for use as a cell culture agent at 10-100 μg/mL.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Mode of Action: Bleomycin Sulfate binds to DNA, inhibits DNA synthesis, and causes single strand DNA scission at specific base sequences. This antibiotic can also cleave RNA, to a lesser degree but more selectively, and ats as an inducer and regulator of apoptosis and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. To cleave DNA, it is required to bind oxygen and a metal ion.

Caution

This product should be stored at 2-8°C.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water in water at 20 mg/mL and is active for several days. A solution of 2 units/mL in 0.1 M neutral potassium phosphate should be used within 14 days. A solution is active for three months at 3 units/mL in normal saline.

Protocols & Applications

Antibiotic Selector for application, solubility, solution stability, working concentration, and mode of action information

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.



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European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Bleomycin sulfate from <I>Streptomyces verticillus</I>

crystalline, 1.5-2.0 units/mg solid

Bleomycin sulfate from <I>Streptomyces verticillus</I>

1.5-2.0 units/mg solid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture

Bleomycin sulfate from <I>Streptomyces verticillus</I>

for fluorescence, mixture of bleomycin sulfate salts, lyophilized, powder, white

BLMH human
SRP6127BLMH human

recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE)

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS08  GHS08
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
36/37-45
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
EC5991990

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

DNA Damage and Repair

Damage to cellular DNA is involved in mutagenesis and the development of cancer. The DNA in a human cell undergoes several thousand to a million damaging events per day, generated by both external (e...
BioFiles 2007, 2.4, 20.
Keywords: AGE, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Applications, Biochemistry, Cancer, Carcinogens, Catalysis, Clinical, DNA replication, Deaminations, Environmental, Error, Events, Gene expression, Metabolites, Methylations, Mutagens, Oxidations, Polymorphisms, Rearrangements, Recombination, Sequences, Substitutions, Transcription, Type

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Regulation of apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes and alteration of apoptosis by nongenotoxic carcinogens. Christensen, J.G., et al. Cell Growth Differ. 9, 815-825, (1998)

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Induction of apoptosis by bleomycin in resting and cycling human lymphocytes. Vernole, P, et al. Mutagenesis 13, 209-215, (1998)

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Sequence-specific changes in the metal site of ferric bleomycin induced by the binding of DNA. Sam, J.W., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 16090-16097, (1998)

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Changes in c-Jun but not Bcl-2 family proteins in p53-dependent apoptosis of mouse cerebellar granule neurons induced by DNA damaging agent bleomycin. Araki, T, et al. Brain Res. 794, 239-247, (1998)

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Antiangiogenic chemotherapeutic agents: characterization in comparison to their tumor growth inhibition in human renal cell carcinoma models. Schirner, M., et al. Clin. Cancer Res. 4, 1331-1336, (1998)

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On the chemistry of RNA degradation by Fe bleomycin. Holmes, C.E, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 5, 1235-1248, (1997)

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Bleomycin: revival of an old drug. Mir, L.M., et al. Gen. Pharmacol. 27, 745-748, (1996)

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Fe bleomycin as a probe of RNA conformation. Holmes, C.E, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3399-3406, (1996)

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Bleomycin induces apoptosis in human alveolar macrophages. Hamilton, R.F., et al. Am. J. Physiol. 26, L318-L325, (1995)

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Iron (II) bleomycin-mediated degradation of a DNA-RNA heteroduplex. Morgan, M.A. and Hecht, S.M. Biochemistry 33, 10286-10293, (1994)

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Cleavage of tRNA by Fe(II)-bleomycin. Huttenhofer, A., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24471-24475, (1992)

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Specificity of deoxyribonucleic acid cleavage by bleomycin, phleomycin and tallysomycin. Kross, J, et al. Biochemistry 21, 4310-4318, (1982)

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Structural basis for the deoxyribonucleic acid affinity of bleomycins. Kross, J, et al. Biochemistry 21, 3711-3721, (1982)

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[Necrotizing gastritis in a patient in severe neutropenia]. Pielaciński K, Lech-Marańda E, Warzocha K, et al. Pol. Merkur. Lekarski 37(222), 344-7, (2014)

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Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. Zhang L, Ji Y, Kang Z, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 283(1), 50-6, (2015)

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PET/CT with 18F-FDG- and 18F-FBEM-labeled leukocytes for metabolic activity and leukocyte recruitment monitoring in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Bondue B, Sherer F, Van Simaeys G, et al. J. Nucl. Med. 56(1), 127-32, (2015)

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Intralesional bleomycin sclerotherapy of lymphangioma: partial response to treatment. Pires AM, Reinehr C, Boff F, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 41(1), 175-7, (2015)

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Outcome of 3-day bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapeutic regimen for patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours: a Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Chen CA, Lin H, Weng CS, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(18), 3161-7, (2014)

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Personalised chemotherapy based on tumour marker decline in poor prognosis germ-cell tumours (GETUG 13): a phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial. Fizazi K, Pagliaro L, Laplanche A, et al. Lancet Oncol. 15(13), 1442-50, (2014)

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Young patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma benefit from intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab compared with CHOP plus rituximab: analysis of data from the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte/lymphoma study association phase III trial LNH 03-2B. Molina TJ, Canioni D, Copie-Bergman C, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 32(35), 3996-4003, (2014)

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Nitrated fatty acids reverse pulmonary fibrosis by dedifferentiating myofibroblasts and promoting collagen uptake by alveolar macrophages. Reddy AT, Lakshmi SP, Zhang Y, et al. FASEB J. 28(12), 5299-310, (2014)

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Effects of combined treatment of α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, selenium and zinc on bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin-induced alterations in testosterone synthesis pathway in rats. Kilarkaje N Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 74(6), 1175-89, (2014)

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Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults. Gbabe OF, Okwundu CI, Dedicoat M, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8, CD003256, (2014)

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Prevention of bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice by naproxen and JNJ7777120 treatment. Rosa AC, Pini A, Lucarini L, et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 351(2), 308-16, (2014)

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Fibroblast growth factor 2 is required for epithelial recovery, but not for pulmonary fibrosis, in response to bleomycin. Guzy RD, Stoilov I, Elton TJ, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 52(1), 116-28, (2015)

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Neoadjuvant therapy combined with a BMP regimen for treating penile cancer patients with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective study in China. Zou B, Han Z, Wang Z, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 140(10), 1733-8, (2014)

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Latent transforming growth factor-β1 protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. Tang YJ, Xiao J, Huang XR, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 51(6), 761-71, (2014)

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Different clones of acute leukemia after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Schnetzke U, Schrenk K, Spies-Weisshart B, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 2077-9, (2014)

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Transfer RNA is cleaved by activated bleomycin. Maggliozzo, R.S, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 35, 428-432, (1989)

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Reliability of estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients treated with platinum containing therapy. Lauritsen J, Gundgaard MG, Mortensen MS, et al. Int. J. Cancer 135(7), 1733-9, (2014)

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Primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: limited options and poor survival--but not always. Gavini A, Reagan JL, Winer ES, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(8), 853-7, (2014)

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Prostatic metastases from testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: two case reports and a review of the literature. Torelli T, Lughezzani G, Catanzaro M, et al. Tumori 99(5), e203-7, (2013)

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New light is shed on the enigmatic origin of the lung myofibroblast. Rosas IO, Kottmann RM, and Sime PJ Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 188(7), 765-6, (2013)

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[Effect of compound panax notoginsenoside granules on TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis]. Wu J, Ling C, He H, et al. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 29(9), 927-30, (2013)

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[Effectiveness and toxicity of MOPP, ABVD, BEACOPP chemotherapy in first-diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma with a poor prognosis]. Filatova LV, Plotnikova AA, Gershanovich ML, et al. Vopr. Onkol. 59(2), 59-65, (2013)

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[Treatment of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma]. Kreissl S and Borchmann P Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 138(23), 1212-4, (2013)

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Contribution of involved-field radiotherapy to survival in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. Eroglu C, Kaynar L, Orhan O, et al. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 38(1), 68-73, (2015)

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WNT/β-catenin signaling induces IL-1β expression by alveolar epithelial cells in pulmonary fibrosis. Aumiller V, Balsara N, Wilhelm J, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 49(1), 96-104, (2013)

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How can outcomes be improved for older patients with Hodgkin lymphoma? Evens AM and Hong F J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1502-5, (2013)

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ABVD in older patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated within the German Hodgkin Study Group HD10 and HD11 trials. Böll B, Görgen H, Fuchs M, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1522-9, (2013)

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miR-199a-5p Is upregulated during fibrogenic response to tissue injury and mediates TGFbeta-induced lung fibroblast activation by targeting caveolin-1. Lino Cardenas CL, Henaoui IS, Courcot E, et al. PLoS Genet. 9(2), e1003291, (2013)

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Tropisetron suppresses collagen synthesis in skin fibroblasts via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and attenuates fibrosis in a scleroderma mouse model. Stegemann A, Sindrilaru A, Eckes B, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 65(3), 792-804, (2013)

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Site-specific cleavage of RNA by Fe(II) bleomycin. Carter, B.J, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 9373-9377, (1990)

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Regulation of myofibroblast differentiation and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by adrenomedullin. Kach J, Sandbo N, Sethakorn N, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(11), L757-64, (2013)

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Profibrotic activities for matrix metalloproteinase-8 during bleomycin-mediated lung injury. Craig VJ, Quintero PA, Fyfe SE, et al. J. Immunol. 190(8), 4283-96, (2013)

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Treatment of orbital vascular malformations with intralesional injection of pingyangmycin. Yue H, Qian J, Elner VM, et al. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(6), 739-45, (2013)

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TORC2 signaling pathway guarantees genome stability in the face of DNA strand breaks. Shimada K, Filipuzzi I, Stahl M, et al. Mol. Cell. 51(6), 829-39, (2013)

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Berberine attenuates bleomycin induced pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis via suppressing NF-κB dependant TGF-β activation: a biphasic experimental study. Chitra P, Saiprasad G, Manikandan R, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 219(2), 178-93, (2013)

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A study to investigate dose escalation of doxorubicin in ABVD chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma incorporating biomarkers of response and toxicity. Gibb A, Greystoke A, Ranson M, et al. Br. J. Cancer 109(10), 2560-5, (2013)

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Gene expression profiles reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the progression and resolution of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Cabrera S, Selman M, Lonzano-Bolaños A, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(9), L593-601, (2013)

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Long-acting human serum albumin-thioredoxin fusion protein suppresses bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis progression. Tanaka R, Watanabe H, Kodama A, et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 345(2), 271-83, (2013)

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Male Sex Hormones Exacerbate Lung Function Impairment after Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis. James W. Voltz, Jeffrey W. Card, et. Al Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 39, 45-52, (2008)

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Intralesional treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars: a review. Ledon JA, Savas J, Franca K, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 39(12), 1745-57, (2013)

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Interleukin-22 inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Liang M, Wang J, Chu H, et al. Mediators Inflamm. 2013, 209179, (2013)

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Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with bleomycin and electroporation. Manca G, Pandolfi P, Gregorelli C, et al. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 132(4), 621e-630e, (2013)

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Levels of target activation predict antifibrotic responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Maurer B, Distler A, Dees C, et al. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 72(12), 2039-46, (2013)

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Bendamustine efficacy in Hodgkin lymphoma patients relapsed/refractory to brentuximab vedotin. Zinzani PL, Derenzini E, Pellegrini C, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 163(5), 681-3, (2013)

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Treatment outcome in children and adolescents with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma--results of the UK HD3 relapse treatment strategy. Shankar A, Hayward J, Kirkwood A, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 165(4), 534-44, (2014)

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Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor. Yang J, Velikoff M, Canalis E, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(8), L786-96, (2014)

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Pulmonary lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma with early response to ABVD therapy. Honda A, Nakamura F, Nannya Y, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(6), 1073-4, (2014)

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Limited utility of routine surveillance imaging for classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients in first complete remission. Pingali SR, Jewell SW, Havlat L, et al. Cancer 120(14), 2122-9, (2014)

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Long-term outcomes and complications in patients with craniopharyngioma: the British Columbia Cancer Agency experience. Lo AC, Howard AF, Nichol A, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 88(5), 1011-8, (2014)

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CD109 overexpression ameliorates skin fibrosis in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Vorstenbosch J, Al-Ajmi H, Winocour S, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 65(5), 1378-83, (2013)

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Tumor necrosis factor-α accelerates the resolution of established pulmonary fibrosis in mice by targeting profibrotic lung macrophages. Redente EF, Keith RC, Janssen W, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 50(4), 825-37, (2014)

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All-transretinoic acid ameliorates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by downregulating the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in rats. Song X, Liu W, Xie S, et al. Lab. Invest. 93(11), 1219-31, (2013)

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Suppression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase contributes to bleomycin-induced oxidative stress and fibrogenesis. Liu R, Chen H, Bai H, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 220(1), 15-25, (2013)

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Upregulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae efflux pump Tpo1 rescues an Imp2 transcription factor-deficient mutant from bleomycin toxicity. Berra S, Ayachi S, and Ramotar D Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55(6), 518-24, (2014)

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Pitfalls in management of patients with germ cell tumors and slight elevation of serum α-fetoprotein. Albany C and Einhorn L J. Clin. Oncol. 32(19), 2114-5, (2014)

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Kaposi's sarcoma in children: an open randomised trial of vincristine, oral etoposide and a combination of vincristine and bleomycin. Chagaluka G, Stanley C, Banda K, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(8), 1472-81, (2014)

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Genetic ablation of mast cells redefines the role of mast cells in skin wound healing and bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Willenborg S, Eckes B, Brinckmann J, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 134(7), 2005-15, (2014)

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A novel murine model of hypertrophic scarring using subcutaneous infusion of bleomycin. Cameron AM, Adams DH, Greenwood JE, et al. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 133(1), 69-78, (2014)

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The impact of R-VACOP-B and interim FDG-PET/CT on outcome in primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. Avigdor A, Sirotkin T, Kedmi M, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(8), 1297-304, (2014)

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Targeting the hedgehog-glioma-associated oncogene homolog pathway inhibits bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Moshai EF, Wémeau-Stervinou L, Cigna N, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 51(1), 11-25, (2014)

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A chemotherapy only therapeutic approach to pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: AHOPCA LH 1999. Castellanos EM, Barrantes JC, Báez LF, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(6), 997-1002, (2014)

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Clozapine, cancer chemotherapy and neutropenia - dilemmas in management. Sankaranarayanan A, Mulchandani M, and Tirupati S Psychiatr. Danub. 25(4), 419-22, (2013)

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Oncological outcomes of metastatic testicular cancers under centralized management through regional medical network. Inai H, Kawai K, Kojima T, et al. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 43(12), 1249-54, (2013)

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Brentuximab vedotin: first-line agent for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma. Cao H, Yamamoto K, Yang LX, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(9), 3879-85, (2013)

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Reply: a novel murine model of hypertrophic scarring using subcutaneous infusion of bleomycin. Cameron AM Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 134(1), 164e, (2014)

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Mast cells: a pivotal role in pulmonary fibrosis. Veerappan A, O'Connor NJ, Brazin J, et al. DNA Cell. Biol. 32(4), 206-18, (2013)

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Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: past, present and future perspectives. Eyre TA, King AJ, and Collins GP Br. J. Hosp. Med. (Lond.) 74(11), 612-8, (2013)

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The role of electrochemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic head and neck cancer. De Virgilio A, Fusconi M, Greco A, et al. Tumori 99(5), 634, (2013)

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Malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors in children: a 30-year experience from a single institution. Büyükpamukçu M, Varan A, Küpeli S, et al. Tumori 99(1), 51-6, (2013)

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Pulmonary fibrosis effect of ammonium perchlorate exposure in rabbit. Wu F, Chen H, Zhou X, et al. Arch. Environ. Occup. Health 68(3), 161-5, (2013)

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[Interest of an intensive chemotherapy for intravascular large B cell lymphoma]. Baldolli A, Chuffart M, Geffray L, et al. Bull. Cancer 100(4), 317-21, (2013)

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Serial micro-CT assessment of the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model. Choi EJ, Jin GY, Bok SM, et al. Korean J. Radiol. 15(4), 448-55, (2014)

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Role of FDG-PET in the implementation of involved-node radiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Girinsky T, Aupérin A, Ribrag V, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(5), 1047-52, (2014)

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A novel murine model of hypertrophic scarring using subcutaneous infusion of bleomycin. Sacak B and Akalin BE Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 134(1), 163e-164e, (2014)

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Enhancement of CD147 on M1 macrophages induces differentiation of Th17 cells in the lung interstitial fibrosis. Geng JJ, Zhang K, Chen LN, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1842(9), 1770-82, (2014)

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Ameliorative effect of mepenzolate bromide against pulmonary fibrosis. Kurotsu S, Tanaka K, Niino T, et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 350(1), 79-88, (2014)

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A phase II study of dose-dense and dose-intense ABVD (ABVDDD-DI ) without consolidation radiotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma. Russo F, Corazzelli G, Frigeri F, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 166(1), 118-29, (2014)

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Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease. Lee R, Reese C, Bonner M, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(8), L736-48, (2014)

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[Flagellate dermatitis after bleomycin chemotherapy in a patient with malignant germ cell tumor]. Schummer C, Winkler Y, Tittelbach J, et al. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 139(3), 84-6, (2014)

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Extracellular ATP mediates the late phase of neutrophil recruitment to the lung in murine models of acute lung injury. Shah D, Romero F, Stafstrom W, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(2), L152-61, (2014)

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Hydrogen sulfide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by inhibiting NF-κB expression and regulating Th1/Th2 balance. Cao H, Zhou X, Zhang J, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 224(3), 387-94, (2014)

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Phase-directed therapy: TSG-6 targeted to early inflammation improves bleomycin-injured lungs. Foskett AM, Bazhanov N, Ti X, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(2), L120-31, (2014)

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Preclinical evaluation of human secretoglobin 3A2 in mouse models of lung development and fibrosis. Cai Y, Winn ME, Zehmer JK, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(1), L10-22, (2014)

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis protects against lung fibrosis by inhibiting the MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Meng Y, Yu CH, Li W, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 50(4), 723-36, (2014)

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Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy techniques to quantify the kinetics of DNA double strand break repair proteins after γ-irradiation and bleomycin treatment. Abdisalaam S, Davis AJ, Chen DJ, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 42(1), e5, (2014)

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Diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma: at times a challenge. Abbasi NZ, Jalal-ud-Din M, Zahur Z, et al. J. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak. 23(10), 752-3, (2013)

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Metabolic tumor volume by positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a clinical parameter to determine therapeutic modality for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Song MK, Chung JS, Lee JJ, et al. Cancer Sci. 104(12), 1656-61, (2013)

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The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells. Murray V, Chen JK, and Galea AM Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 71(8), 1505-12, (2014)

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15361 Bleomycin sulfate from Streptomyces verticillus, for fluorescence, mixture of bleomycin sulfate salts, lyophilized, powder, white

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