|Related Categories||AIDS and Viral Research Reagents, Antibacterial, Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics T-Z,|
|solubility||methanol: soluble4.9-5.1 mg/mL, clear to slightly hazy, colorless to yellow|
|methanol: soluble4.9-5.1 mg/mL|
|95% ethanol: soluble1 mg/mL, clear to faintly hazy|
|THF: soluble <1 mg/mL|
|dioxane: soluble <1 mg/mL|
|DMF: soluble >10 mg/mL|
|DMSO: soluble10 mg/mL, clear|
|pyridine: >10 mg/mL|
|aqueous base: insoluble|
|ethyl acetate: insoluble|
Tunicamycin dissolves in methanol at 4.9-5.1 mg/ml and yields a clear to very slightly hazy, colorless to yellow solution. It is also soluble in DMSO at 10 mg/ml and yields a clear solution. Furthermore, tunicamycin is soluble in DMF (>10 mg/ml), pyridine (>10 mg/ml), water (<5 mg/ml, pH 9.0), dioxane (<1 mg/ml) and THF. However, it is insoluble in other organic solvents such as acetone, chloroform, and ethyl acetate, and in aqueous solutions with pH <6. Aqueous solutions can be prepared from stock solutions by diluting with water at pH 8-10 or with buffers with pH >7, preferably >8. Tunicamycin will not dissolve in phosphate buffer, pH 8, at 1 mg/ml, even with heating, but solubility can be achieved by raising the pH to 9 and back titrating to pH 7-8.
Tunicamycin has been used to study the effect of N-linked glycosylation of human proton-coupled folate transporter (HsPCFT) in HeLa cells1. Tunicamycin has also been used to study the functional effects of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) glycosylation in COS-7 cells2.
Antibacterial and antifungal. Blocks the formation of protein N-glycosidic linkages by inhibiting the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate to dolichol monophosphate. Inhibits bacterial and eukaryote N-acetylglucosamine transferases and prevents formation of N-acetylglucosamine lipid intermediates.
Contains homologues A,B,C, and D. Composition may vary from lot to lot. Actual content given on label.
Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
|Precautionary statements||P264-P301 + P310|
|Personal Protective Equipment||Eyeshields, Faceshields, full-face particle respirator type N100 (US), Gloves, respirator cartridge type N100 (US), type P1 (EN143) respirator filter, type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges|
|Hazard Codes (Europe)||T+|
|Risk Statements (Europe)||28|
|Safety Statements (Europe)||28-37/39-45|
|RIDADR||UN 3462 6.1 / PGII|
Antibiotics are molecules that specifically target and kill cells. The term antibiotic is frequently used interchangeably with the word antibacterial, but antiviral, antifungal and antineoplastic com...
BioFiles 2006, 1.4, 7.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Antifungals, Antivirals, Building blocks, Glycosylations, Metabolism
1. N-linked glycosylation and its impact on the electrophoretic mobility and function of the human proton-coupled folate transporter (HsPCFT). Unal ES, Zhao R, Qiu A, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1778(6), 1407-14, (2008)
2. Functional effects of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor glycosylation on homophilic adhesion and adenoviral infection. Excoffon KJ, Gansemer N, Traver G, et al. J. Virol. 81(11), 5573-8, (2007)
Glycosylation of proteins during a critical time window is necessary for the maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region. Matthies H. Jr, Kretlow J., Matthies H., Smalla K.H., Staak S., Krug M. Neuroscience 91, 175-183, (1999)
The Functional Roles Of The His247 And His281 Residues In Folate And Proton Translocation Mediated By The Human Proton-coupled Folate Transporter SLC46A1. Unal, E.S., et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 284, 17846-57, (2009)
Overexpression of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) in astrocytes alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell damage and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Cheng L, Zhao H, Zhang W, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 435(1), 34-9, (2013)
Defects in IRE1 enhance cell death and fail to degrade mRNAs encoding secretory pathway proteins in the Arabidopsis unfolded protein response. Mishiba K, Nagashima Y, Suzuki E, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(14), 5713-8, (2013)
Osteocalcin reverses endoplasmic reticulum stress and improves impaired insulin sensitivity secondary to diet-induced obesity through nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Zhou B, Li H, Xu L, et al. Endocrinology 154(3), 1055-68, (2013)
Oxidative activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated kinase II mediates ER stress-induced cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. Roe ND and Ren J Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 304(6), H828-39, (2013)
Sex-specific response of rat costochondral cartilage growth plate chondrocytes to 17β-estradiol involves differential regulation of plasma membrane associated estrogen receptors. Elbaradie KB, Wang Y, Boyan BD, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1833(5), 1165-72, (2013)
Exendin-4 attenuates high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of SERCA2a. Younce CW, Burmeister MA, and Ayala JE Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 304(6), C508-18, (2013)
Aberrant endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular smooth muscle increases vascular contractility and blood pressure in mice deficient of AMP-activated protein kinase-α2 in vivo. Liang B, Wang S, Wang Q, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 33(3), 595-604, (2013)
Tanshinone IIA improves endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced insulin resistance through AMP-activated protein kinase. Hwang SL, Yang JH, Jeong YT, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 430(4), 1246-52, (2013)
A sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100) prevents tunicamycin-induced cell death via GRP78 induction in hippocampal cells. Ono Y, Tanaka H, Tsuruma K, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 434(4), 904-9, (2013)
Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by 2-deoxyglucose but not glucose starvation activates AMPK through CaMKKβ leading to autophagy. Xi H, Barredo JC, Merchan JR, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 85(10), 1463-77, (2013)
Integrated regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by EEF2K controls cellular fate and modulates the efficacy of curcumin and velcade against tumor cells. Cheng Y, Ren X, Zhang Y, et al. Autophagy 9(2), 208-19, (2013)
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