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A2181 Sigma

Acetyl coenzyme A lithium salt

≥93% (HPLC)

Synonym: Acetyl-CoA, Acetyl-S-CoA Li3



Related Categories Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology, Coenzyme A and Other Acyl Transfer Reagents, Cofactors, Core Bioreagents,
Quality Level   PREMIUM
assay   ≥93% (HPLC)
solubility   H2O: soluble100 mg/mL, clear, colorless
storage temp.   −20°C
Gene Information   human ... CHAT(1103), HAT1(8520), KAT2A(2648), KAT2B(8850), KAT5(10524)
mouse ... HAT1(107435), KAT2A(14534), KAT2B(18519), KAT5(81601)
rat ... HAT1(296501), KAT2A(303539), KAT2B(301164), KAT5(192218)



An essential cofactor in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions.

Acetyl coenzyme A is suitable in CAT reporter assay for the measurement of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase by incubating the cell extract with 0.1 μCi [14C] chloramphenicol and 0.5mM acetyl-CoA.1,2,3,4

Biochem/physiol Actions

Acetyl-CoA is an essential cofactor and carrier of acyl groups in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions. It is formed either by the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in mitochondria, by the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, or by the oxidative degradation of certain amino acids. Acetyl-CoA is the starting compound for the citric acid cycle (Kreb′s cycle). It is also a key precursor in lipid biosynthesis, and the source of all fatty acid carbons. Acetyl-CoA positively regulates the activity pyruvate carboxylase. It is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Histone acetylases (HAT) use Acetyl-CoA as the donor for the acetyl group use in the post-translational acetylation reactions of histone and non-histone proteins.

Alterations in the gene encoding acetyl-CoA have been linked to Alzheimer′s disease and mild cognitive impairment.5 Defects in the gene cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea. 6,7

Other Notes

For more more technical information and a complete list of Coenzyme A deriviatives visit the Acyl Transfer Reagents Resource.

Preparation Note

Prepared enzymatically


Acetyl CoA is soluble in deionized water at 100 mg/mL. Acetyl CoA is stable in neutral and moderately acidic solutions but will hydrolyze in alkaline and strongly acidic solutions. Aqueous solutions stored in single-use aliquots are stable for up to two weeks at −20°C and up to 6 months at −80°C.

Physical properties

This moisture-sensitive powder should be stored desiccated at −20°C.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
WGK Germany 

Protocols & Articles


Citric Acid Cycle

Acetyl-CoA enters a cycle whose discovery by Hans Krebs 70 years ago marked a milestone in biochemistry. The citric acid cycle is also termed the tricarboxylic acid cycle, TCA cycle or Krebs cycle (s...
BioFiles 2007, 2.6, 16.
Keywords: Addition reactions, Biochemistry, Biofiles, Catalysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Decarboxylations, Dehydration reaction, Hydration reaction, Metabolites, Oxidations, Phosphorylations

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Metabolic Defects

Defects in mitochondrial function are associated with insulin resistance in both human and animal studies. Insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in the number, oxidative capacity, size, an...
Keywords: Acetylations, Apoptosis, Biofiles, Cancer, Carboxylations, Catalog, Catalysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Decarboxylations, Degradations, Diabetes, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Glycolysis, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Lipid Metabolism, Metabolism, Metabolites, Neurotransmitters, Obesity, Oxidations, Phosphorylations, Physiological Processes, Protocols, Transcription, Transduction, Transfection, Western blot

Pyruvate Transformations

Depending on the environmental conditions, e.g. whether oxygen is present or not, pyruvate, a product of glucose metabolism, can undergo different biotransformations as shown in Figure 2. Under reduc...
BioFiles 2007, 2.6, 10.
Keywords: Anaerobic, Biofiles, Catalysis, Environmental, Metabolism

Peer-Reviewed Papers


Set your institution to view full text papers.

1. Productive infection and bICP0 early promoter activity of bovine herpesvirus 1 are stimulated by E2F1. Workman A and Jones C J. Virol. 84(13), 6308-17, (2010)


2. A Protein (ORF2) Encoded By The Latency-Related Gene Of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Interacts With Notch1 And Notch3. Workman, A., et al. J. Virol. 85, 2536-46, (2011)


3. Dexamethasone Treatment Of Calves Latently Infected With Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Leads To Activation Of The BICP0 Early Promoter, In Part By The Cellular Transcription Factor C/EBP-alpha. Workman, A., et al. J. Virol. 83, 8800-9, (2009)


4. Localization of sequences in a protein (ORF2) encoded by the latency-related gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 that inhibits apoptosis and interferes with Notch1-mediated trans-activation of the bICP0 promoter. Sinani, D., and Jones, C. J. Virol. 85, 12124-33, (2011)


5. Choline acetyltransferase 2384G>a polymorphism and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Lee JJ, Jo SA, Park JH, et al. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 26(1), 81-7, (2012)


6. Congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea in patients homozygous for a CHAT missense mutation. Kraner S, Laufenberg I, Strassburg HM, et al. Arch. Neurol. 60(5), 761-3, (2003)


7. Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. Ohno K, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98(4), 2017-22, (2001)


Role of carnitine acetyltransferases in acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Hynes MJ, Murray SL, et al. Eukaryotic Cell 10, 547-555, (2011)


Key role of acetyl-CoA in cytoplasm of nerve terminals in disturbances of acetylcholine metabolism in brain. Szutowicz, A. Folia Neuropathol. 35, 241, (1997)


Structure of the Histone Acetyltransferase Hat1 Dutnall, R.N., et al. Cell 94, 427-438, (1998)


K-acetylation and its enzymes: overview and new developments. Aka JA, Kim GW, Yang XJ. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 206, 1-12, (2011)


Decker, K., Bergmeyer, H.U., ed. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis 7, 186-200, (1985)

Beutler, H., Supp, M., Bergmeyer, H.U., ed. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis 2, 329-330, (1984)

Garland P.B., Bergmeyer, H.U., ed. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis 7, 206-211, (1985)

Nucleosome eviction and activated transcription require p300 acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14. Luebben WR, Sharma N, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 19254-19259, (2010)


Protein acyltransferase function of purified calreticulin: the exclusive role of P-domain in mediating protein acylation utilizing acyloxycoumarins and acetyl CoA as the acyl group donors. Singh P, Ponnan P, Priya N, et al. Protein Pept. Lett. 18, 507-517, (2011)


Purification and characterization of the acetyl-CoA synthetase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Li R, Gu J, Chen P, et al. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) 43(11), 891-9, (2011)


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