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A2385 Sigma

5-Azacytidine

≥98% (HPLC)

Synonym: 4-Amino-1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one, 5-Azacitidine, Ladakamycin

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Description

Frequently Asked Questions

Live Chat and Frequently Asked Questions are available for this Product.

Packaging

1 g in poly bottle

100, 250 mg in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

A potent growth inhibitor and cytotoxic agent; inhibits DNA methyltransferase, an important regulatory mechanism of gene expression, gene activation and silencing.

Causes DNA demethylation or hemi-demethylation, creating openings that allow transcription factors to bind to DNA and reactivate tumor suppressor genes.

Features and Benefits

This compound is a featured product for Gene Regulation research. Click here to discover more featured Gene Regulation products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at sigma.com/discover-bsm.

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

This compound was developed by Celgene. To browse the list of other pharma-developed compounds and Approved Drugs/Drug Candidates, click here.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Price and Availability


DISCOVER Bioactive Small Molecules

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
22-36/37/39-45
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
XZ3017500

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Carcinogenesis and Epigenetics

Cancer research has revealed that the classical model of carcinogenesis, a three step process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression, is not complete. The expansion of the carcinogenesi...
Vicki Caligur
BioFiles 2008, 3.5, 18.
Keywords: Acetylations, Adhesion, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Biofiles, Cancer, Carcinogens, Cell division, Cell proliferation, Cell signaling, DNA microarrays, Drug discovery, Environmental, Epigenetics, Events, Gene expression, Genetic, Hormones, Metabolism, Methylations, Microarray Analysis, Mutagens, PAGE, Recombination, Reductions, Sequences, Transcription, Type, transformation

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Gene Regulation

The loss of regulation of gene expression is a key component to many human disease states, including neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune conditions and, most prominently, cancers. Regulation of g...
Keywords: Acetylations, Epigenetics, Gene expression, Genomics, Methylations, Post translational modifications, Transcription

Modulators and Proteins for Methylation

DNA methyltransferases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA. There are five related DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferases (DNMTs) that transfer a methyl group from ...
Savita Bagga, PhD.
BioFiles v7 n3, 2012, 7–9
Keywords: Gene expression, Methylations, PAGE

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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DNA methylation regulates p27kip1 expression in rodent pituitary cell lines. Qian X., et al. Am. J. Pathol. 153, 1475-1482, (1998)

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Epigenetic control of programmed cell death: inhibition by 5-azacytidine of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced programmed cell death in C6.9 glioma cells. Canova C., et al. Mech. Ageing Dev. 101, 153-166, (1998)

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Association of 5′-CpG demethylation and altered chromatin structure in the promoter region with transcriptional activation of the multidrug resistance 1 gene in human cancer cells. Kusaba H., et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 262, 924-932, (1999)

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5-Azacytidine induces transgene silencing by DNA methylation in Chinese hamster cells. Broday L., et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19, 3198-3204, (1999)

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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)-regulated DNA Methylation Alters CCCTC-binding Factor (CTCF)/cohesin Binding And Transcription At The BDNF Locus. Chang, J., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 21836-41, (2010)

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Multiple Distinct Molecular Mechanisms Influence Sensitivity And Resistance To MDM2 Inhibitors In Adult Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. Long, J., et al. Blood 116, 71-80, (2010)

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Selective Activation Of SHP2 Activity By Cisplatin Revealed By A Novel Chemical Probe-based Assay. Kuo, C.C., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 391, 230-4, (2010)

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Mesenchymal To Embryonic Incomplete Transition Of Human Cells By Chimeric OCT4/3 (POU5F1) With Physiological Co-activator EWS. Makino, H., et al. Exp. Cell Res. 315, 2727-40, (2009)

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Chemical genetics reveals a complex functional ground state of neural stem cells Diamandis, P., et. al. Nat. Chem. Biol. 3(5), 268-273, (2007)

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5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine causes replication lesions that require Fanconi anemia-dependent homologous recombination for repair. Orta ML, Calderón-Montaño JM, Domínguez I, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 41(11), 5827-36, (2013)

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SOXC transcription factors in mantle cell lymphoma: the role of promoter methylation in SOX11 expression. Wasik AM, Lord M, Wang X, et al. Sci. Rep. 3, 1400, (2013)

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Azacitidine in untreated acute myeloid leukemia: a report on 149 patients. Thépot S, Itzykson R, Seegers V, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(4), 410-6, (2014)

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5-Azacytidine, DNA methylation, and differentiation. Taylor SM, Constantinides PA, and Jones PA Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 108, 115-27, (1984)

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5-Azacytidine in myelodysplastic syndromes: a clinical practice guideline. Buckstein R, Yee K, and Wells RA Cancer Treat. Rev. 37(2), 160-7, (2011)

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Azacitidine results in comparable outcome in newly diagnosed AML patients with more or less than 30% bone marrow blasts. van der Helm LH, Veeger NJ, Kooy Mv, et al. Leuk. Res. 37(8), 877-82, (2013)

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Global methylation analysis identifies prognostically important epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in multiple myeloma. Kaiser MF, Johnson DC, Wu P, et al. Blood 122(2), 219-26, (2013)

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Trend analysis of a database of intravenous pharmacokinetic parameters in humans for 670 drug compounds. R Scott Obach et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 36, 1385-405, (2008)

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Azacitidine in the front-line treatment of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms: a multicenter case series. Minoia C, Sgherza N, Loseto G, et al. Anticancer Res. 35(1), 461-6, (2015)

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Human DNA methyltransferase gene-transformed yeasts display an inducible flocculation inhibited by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Sugiyama K, Takamune M, Furusawa H, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 456(2), 689-94, (2015)

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The high mobility group A2 protein epigenetically silences the Cdh1 gene during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Tan EJ, Kahata K, Idås O, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 43(1), 162-78, (2015)

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Multivariable time-dependent analysis of the impact of azacitidine in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and unfavorable specific lower-risk score. Falantes J, Delgado RG, Calderón-Cabrera C, et al. Leuk. Res. 39(1), 52-7, (2015)

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Methylation-associated silencing of miR-495 inhibit the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells by directly targeting PRL-3. Li Z, Zhang G, Li D, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 456(1), 344-50, (2015)

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A phase I/II trial of Erlotinib in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia after azacitidine failure. Thepot S, Boehrer S, Seegers V, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(12), 1430-4, (2014)

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Androgen receptor DNA methylation regulates the timing and androgen sensitivity of mouse prostate ductal development. Keil KP, Abler LL, Laporta J, et al. Dev. Biol. 396(2), 237-45, (2014)

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Minimizing risk of hypomethylating agent failure in patients with higher-risk MDS and practical management recommendations. Santini V, Prebet T, Fenaux P, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(12), 1381-91, (2014)

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Both mature KIR+ and immature KIR- NK cells control pediatric acute B-cell precursor leukemia in NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid IL2rgtmWjl/Sz mice. Kübler A, Woiterski J, Witte KE, et al. Blood 124(26), 3914-23, (2014)

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Inhibition of bladder cancer invasion by Sp1-mediated BTG2 expression via inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1. Devanand P, Kim SI, Choi YW, et al. FEBS J. 281(24), 5581-601, (2014)

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Intensive chemotherapy, azacitidine, or supportive care in older acute myeloid leukemia patients: an analysis from a regional healthcare network. Bories P, Bertoli S, Bérard E, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(12), E244-52, (2014)

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Dismal outcome of acute myeloid leukemia secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia after azacitidine failure in a daily-life setting. Niscola P, Tendas A, Cupelli L, et al. Acta Haematol. 133(1), 64-6, (2015)

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[Myelodysplastic syndrome with rapid disease progression after withdrawal of treatment with azacitidine]. Ueda H, Yoshida M, Kanashima H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(7), 875-7, (2014)

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Combination therapy with ruxolitinib plus 5-azacytidine or continuous infusion of low dose cytarabine is feasible in patients with blast-phase myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mwirigi A, Galli S, Keohane C, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 167(5), 714-6, (2014)

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'Default' generated neonatal regulatory T cells are hypomethylated at conserved non-coding sequence 2 and promote long-term cardiac allograft survival. Cheng C, Wang S, Ye P, et al. Immunology 143(4), 618-30, (2014)

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Azacitidine as the post-remission therapy for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Yamamoto R, Yokoyama A, Yoneda M, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 2081-2, (2014)

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News products to avoid. Prescrire Int. 23(148), 105, (2014)

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Decitabine. Acute myeloid leukaemia: no progress. Prescrire Int. 23(148), 92-4, (2014)

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Different clones of acute leukemia after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Schnetzke U, Schrenk K, Spies-Weisshart B, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 2077-9, (2014)

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Azacitidine in the treatment of pediatric therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Inoue A, Kawakami C, Takitani K, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 36(5), e322-4, (2014)

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[Successful treatment with azacitidine for a patient with relapsed myelodysplastic syndrome after cord blood transplantation]. Ueda S, Miyakoshi S, Chizuka A, et al. Rinsho. Ketsueki. 54(12), 2177-81, (2013)

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[Decitabine treatment in myelodysplastic syndromes--results of a compassionate patient program in Israel]. Klepfish A, Silbershatz I, Lugassy G, et al. Harefuah 152(10), 591-4, 624, (2013)

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The DNA hypomethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, enhances tumor cell invasion through a transcription-dependent modulation of MMP-1 expression in human fibrosarcoma cells. Poplineau M, Schnekenburger M, Dufer J, et al. Mol. Carcinog. 54(1), 24-34, (2015)

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[The methylation of ZHX2 gene promoter enhances AFP gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma]. Lv Z, DU Y, and Wen J Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 29(7), 706-9, (2013)

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[Effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on growth and methylation of RUNX3 gene in human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaca2]. Han X, Tan ZJ, Guo RD, et al. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 35(1), 17-21, (2013)

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[Small interfering RNA targeting to hepatitis B virus X gene and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidineon inhibited growth of the subcutaneous implanted tumor of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice]. Mai L, Yang L, Kuang JY, et al. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 26(5), 362-5, (2012)

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Can 5-azacytidine convert the adult stem cells into cardiomyocytes? A brief overview. Burlacu A Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 112(4-5), 260-4, (2006)

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Decitabine: 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine, Aza dC, DAC, dezocitidine, NSC 127716. Drugs R. D. 4(6), 352-8, (2003)

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Decitabine: 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine, Aza dC, DAC, dezocitidine, NSC 127716. Drugs R. D. 4(3), 179-84, (2003)

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Review of the clinical experience with 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in solid tumors. Aparicio A and Weber JS Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 3(4), 627-33, (2002)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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Phase 2 study of azacytidine plus sorafenib in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and FLT-3 internal tandem duplication mutation. Ravandi F, Alattar ML, Grunwald MR, et al. Blood 121(23), 4655-62, (2013)

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Altering gene expression with 5-azacytidine. Jones PA Cell 40(3), 485-6, (1985)

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Brief demethylation step allows the conversion of adult human skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells. Pennarossa G, Maffei S, Campagnol M, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(22), 8948-53, (2013)

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The effects of 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine on chromosome structure and function: implications for methylation-associated cellular processes. Haaf T Pharmacol. Ther. 65(1), 19-46, (1995)

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Quantitative structure-activity relationship and complex network approach to monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors. Lourdes Santana et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 6740-51, (2008)

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5-Azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine as inhibitors of DNA methylation: mechanistic studies and their implications for cancer therapy. Christman JK Oncogene 21(35), 5483-95, (2002)

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Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase activity associates with white blood cell count in myeloid leukemias. Pirnes-Karhu S, Jantunen E, Mäntymaa P, et al. Exp. Hematol. 42(7), 574-80, (2014)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Identification of new functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase using a structure-property-activity relation model. Johannes Kornhuber et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 219-37, (2008)

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Effects of 5-azacytidine and its 2'-deoxyderivative on cell differentiation and DNA methylation. Jones PA Pharmacol. Ther. 28(1), 17-27, (1985)

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Clinical development of demethylating agents in hematology. Navada SC, Steinmann J, Lübbert M, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(1), 40-6, (2014)

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The NuRD complex cooperates with DNMTs to maintain silencing of key colorectal tumor suppressor genes. Cai Y, Geutjes EJ, de Lint K, et al. Oncogene 33(17), 2157-68, (2014)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) and 5-azacytidine in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes: past, present and future trends. Pinto A and Zagonel V Leukemia 7 Suppl 1, 51-60, (1993)

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Development of TRAIL resistance by radiation-induced hypermethylation of DR4 CpG island in recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Lee JC, Lee WH, Min YJ, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 88(5), 1203-11, (2014)

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CD49d is overexpressed by trisomy 12 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: evidence for a methylation-dependent regulation mechanism. Zucchetto A, Caldana C, Benedetti D, et al. Blood 122(19), 3317-21, (2013)

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Silibinin synergizes with histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in upregulating E-cadherin expression together with inhibition of migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Mateen S, Raina K, Agarwal C, et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 345(2), 206-14, (2013)

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Bone marrow hypocellularity does not affect tolerance or efficacy of azacitidine in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Seymour JF, Bennett JM, List AF, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 165(1), 49-56, (2014)

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Randomized open-label phase II study of decitabine in patients with low- or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Garcia-Manero G, Jabbour E, Borthakur G, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(20), 2548-53, (2013)

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Epigenetic action of decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) is more effective against acute myeloid leukemia than cytotoxic action of cytarabine (ARA-C). Momparler RL, Côté S, and Momparler LF Leuk. Res. 37(8), 980-4, (2013)

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Epigenetic silencing of CHD5, a novel tumor-suppressor gene, occurs in early colorectal cancer stages. Fatemi M, Paul TA, Brodeur GM, et al. Cancer 120(2), 172-80, (2014)

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Conversion of peripheral blood NK cells to a decidual NK-like phenotype by a cocktail of defined factors. Cerdeira AS, Rajakumar A, Royle CM, et al. J. Immunol. 190(8), 3939-48, (2013)

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Mode of action and effects of 5-azacytidine and of its derivatives in eukaryotic cells. Veselý J Pharmacol. Ther. 28(2), 227-35, (1985)

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Determinants of the establishment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 latency. Duverger A J. Virol. 83(7), 3078-93, (2009)

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FDA drug approval summary: azacitidine (5-azacytidine, Vidaza) for injectable suspension. Kaminskas E, Farrell AT, Wang YC, et al. Oncologist 10(3), 176-82, (2005)

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Key clinical observations after 5-azacytidine and decitabine treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes suggest practical solutions for better outcomes. Saunthararajah Y Hematology Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program 2013, 511-21, (2013)

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Azacitidine in CMML: matched-pair analyses of daily-life patients reveal modest effects on clinical course and survival. Pleyer L, Germing U, Sperr WR, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(4), 475-83, (2014)

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Potential role of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced MAGE-A4 expression in immunotherapy for anaplastic thyroid cancer. Gunda V, Cogdill AP, Bernasconi MJ, et al. Surgery 154(6), 1456-62; discussion 1462, (2013)

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Prognostic value of TP53 gene mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia treated with azacitidine. Bally C, Adès L, Renneville A, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(7), 751-5, (2014)

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A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010)

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Genome-wide DNA methylation as an epigenetic consequence of Epstein-Barr virus infection of immortalized keratinocytes. Birdwell CE, Queen KJ, Kilgore PC, et al. J. Virol. 88(19), 11442-58, (2014)

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Smac mimetic and demethylating agents synergistically trigger cell death in acute myeloid leukemia cells and overcome apoptosis resistance by inducing necroptosis. Steinhart L, Belz K, and Fulda S Cell Death Dis. 4, e802, (2013)

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Lenalidomide-based maintenance therapy reduces TNF receptor 2 on CD4 T cells and enhances immune effector function in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Govindaraj C, Madondo M, Kong YY, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(8), 795-802, (2014)

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Van-Gogh-like 2 antagonises the canonical WNT pathway and is methylated in colorectal cancers. Piazzi G, Selgrad M, Garcia M, et al. Br. J. Cancer 108(8), 1750-6, (2013)

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Hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) ameliorates multiple sclerosis in mouse models. Mangano K, Fagone P, Bendtzen K, et al. J. Cell Physiol. 229(12), 1918-25, (2014)

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A randomised, phase II trial of the DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) in combination with carboplatin vs carboplatin alone in patients with recurrent, partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Glasspool RM, Brown R, Gore ME, et al. Br. J. Cancer 110(8), 1923-9, (2014)

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A rapid and sensitive assay for DNA-protein covalent complexes in living cells. Kiianitsa K and Maizels N Nucleic Acids Res. 41(9), e104, (2013)

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Synthesis of indirubin-N'-glycosides and their anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. Stefanie Libnow et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 5570-83, (2008)

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Aerosolised 5-azacytidine suppresses tumour growth and reprogrammes the epigenome in an orthotopic lung cancer model. Reed MD, Tellez CS, Grimes MJ, et al. Br. J. Cancer 109(7), 1775-81, (2013)

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DNMT3A silencing RASSF1A promotes cardiac fibrosis through upregulation of ERK1/2. Tao H, Yang JJ, Chen ZW, et al. Toxicology 323, 42-50, (2014)

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Efficacy of the hypomethylating agents as frontline, salvage, or consolidation therapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Tawfik B, Sliesoraitis S, Lyerly S, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(1), 47-55, (2014)

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Regulation of DNA methylation by ethanol induces tissue plasminogen activator expression in astrocytes. Zhang X, Kusumo H, Sakharkar AJ, et al. J. Neurochem. 128(3), 344-9, (2014)

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A phase 2 trial of azacitidine and gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Nand S, Othus M, Godwin JE, et al. Blood 122(20), 3432-9, (2013)

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Upregulation of membrane-bound CD40L on CD4+ T cells in women with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Belkhir R, Gestermann N, Koutero M, et al. Scand. J. Immunol. 79(1), 37-42, (2014)

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Systemic mastocytosis emerging after azacitidine treatment of refractory anaemia with excess blasts type 2. Xu Z, Shier L, Sabloff M, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 167(2), 147, (2014)

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A phase 1 clinical trial of vorinostat in combination with decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Kirschbaum M, Gojo I, Goldberg SL, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 167(2), 185-93, (2014)

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Suppressed expression of NDRG2 correlates with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Yamamura A, Miura K, Karasawa H, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 441(1), 102-7, (2013)

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Induced DNA demethylation can reshape chromatin topology at the IGF2-H19 locus. Ito Y, Nativio R, and Murrell A Nucleic Acids Res. 41(10), 5290-302, (2013)

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The acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties and neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes induced by arsenite involves epigenetic silencing of let-7c via Ras/NF-κB. Jiang R, Li Y, Zhang A, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 227(2), 91-8, (2014)

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Decitabine, a new star in epigenetic therapy: the clinical application and biological mechanism in solid tumors. Nie J, Liu L, Li X, et al. Cancer Lett. 354(1), 12-20, (2014)

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Azacitidine in the treatment of therapy related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (tMDS/AML): a report on 54 patients by the Groupe Francophone Des Myelodysplasies (GFM). Bally C, Thépot S, Quesnel B, et al. Leuk. Res. 37(6), 637-40, (2013)

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Cladribine, cytarabine, filgrastim, and mitoxantrone (CLAG-M) compared to standard induction in acute myeloid leukemia from myelodysplastic syndrome after azanucleoside failure. Jaglal MV, Duong VH, Bello CM, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(4), 443-6, (2014)

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Epigenetic regulation of MDR1 gene through post-translational histone modifications in prostate cancer. Henrique R, Oliveira AI, Costa VL, et al. BMC Genomics 14, 898, (2013)

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5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine potentiates antitumour immune response induced by photodynamic therapy. Wachowska M, Gabrysiak M, Muchowicz A, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(7), 1370-81, (2014)

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Hepatitis delta virus induces specific DNA methylation processes in Huh-7 liver cancer cells. Benegiamo G, Vinciguerra M, Guarnieri V, et al. FEBS Lett. 587(9), 1424-8, (2013)

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Effect of 27nt small RNA on endothelial nitric-oxide synthase expression. Zhang MX, Zhang C, Shen YH, et al. Mol. Biol. Cell 19(9), 3997-4005, (2008)

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Cytochrome b5 reductase 2 is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Xiao X, Zhao W, Tian F, et al. Tumour Biol. 35(4), 3755-63, (2014)

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Epigenetic control of endothelin-1 axis affects invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells with bone tropism. Matteucci E, Maroni P, Bendinelli P, et al. Exp. Cell Res. 319(12), 1865-74, (2013)

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5-azacytidine and decitabine monotherapies of myelodysplastic disorders. Kuykendall JR Ann. Pharmacother. 39(10), 1700-9, (2005)

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DNA methylation profiles at precancerous stages associated with recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma. Sato T, Arai E, Kohno T, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e59444, (2013)

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How to treat patients with CMML? Germing U and Neukirchen J Leuk. Res. 37(6), 605-6, (2013)

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Merck 14,890

Aldrich MSDS 1, 139:B / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 321:D / FT-IR 2 (3), 3896:C / FT-IR 1 (2), 831:D / FT-NMR 1 (3), 418:B / IR-Spectra (2), 1191:F / IR-Spectra (3), 1367:E / RegBook 1 (2), 2603:A / Sax 6, 332 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (1), 758:C / Structure Index 1, 411:B:5

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