Synonym: Adenosine 5′-diphosphatase, Adenosine 5′-triphosphatase
|Related Categories||3.6.x.x Acting on acid anhydrides, 3.x.x.x Hydrolases, Application Index, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology,|
|secondary activity||≥50 % of base activity ADPase|
|solubility||H2O: soluble1.0 mg/mL|
|foreign activity||Acid Phosphatase ≤2% of base activity|
At least two isoenzymes are found in different varieties of S. tuberosum:4,5 one with a high ATPase/ADPase ratio (∼10) and another with a low ratio (∼1).
Reaction: ATP → ADP+Pi → AMP+2Pi.
Apyrase is used to hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. For hydrolysis of organic di and triphosphates, the optimal pH is 6, and for inorganic substrates, the optimal pH is 5.1.1 Apyrase, from Sigma, has been used in inhibition studies of platelet-aggregation 2.
This grade has a low ATPase/ADPase ratio.
Sold on the basis of ATPase units.
Derived from red potato
One unit will liberate 1.0 μmole of inorganic phosphate from ATP or ADP per min at pH 6.5 at 30 °C.
Partially purified, lyophilized powder containing potassium succinate buffer salts.
Apyrase is found in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. Apyrase, from potato, has a crucial role in regulating growth and development. Apyrase is involved in the inactivation of synaptic ATP as a neurotransmitter following nerve stimulation and in the inhibition of ADP induced platelet aggregation to prevent thrombosis 3. Divalent metal ions are required for activity and best activity is observed with calcium ion at 5 mM.
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1. Properties of Two Apyrases from Solanum tuberosum Kettlun, A. et al. Phytochemistry 21(3), 551-558, (1982)
2. Differentiation of Platelet-aggregating Effects of Human Tumor Cell Lines Based on Inhibition Studies with Apyrase, Hirudin, and Phospholipase Eva Bastida, Antonio Ordinas, et al. Cancer Res. 42, 4348-4352, (1982)
4. Kettlun, A., et al. Phytochemistry 21, 551, (1982)
High-dose erythropoietin alters platelet reactivity and bleeding time in rodents in contrast to the neuroprotective variant carbamyl-erythropoietin (CEPO). Kirkeby, A., et al. Thromb. Haemost. 99, 720-8, (2008)
A study of the imbalance in B cell-expressed nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1-induced ADP degradation in graft injury during acute antibody-mediated rejection. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Zong H, et al. Transpl. Immunol. 27(4), 175-8, (2012)
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1): localization and in vitro inhibition of promastigotes growth by polyclonal antibodies. Porcino GN, Carvalho-Campos C, Maia AC, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 132(2), 293-9, (2012)
An antigenic domain within a catalytically active Leishmania infantum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1) is a target of inhibitory antibodies. Maia AC, Porcino GN, Detoni Mde L, et al. Parasitol. Int. 62(1), 44-52, (2013)
RNA-seq analysis identifies potential modulators of gravity response in spores of Ceratopteris (Parkeriaceae): evidence for modulation by calcium pumps and apyrase activity. Bushart TJ, Cannon AE, Ul Haque A, et al. Am. J. Bot. 100(1), 161-74, (2013)
Rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses in Lotus japonicus require lectin nucleotide phosphohydrolase, which acts upstream of calcium signaling. Roberts NJ, Morieri G, Kalsi G, et al. Plant Physiol. 161(1), 556-67, (2013)
CD39 is highly involved in mediating the suppression activity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T regulatory lymphocytes. Parodi A, Battaglia F, Kalli F, et al. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 62(5), 851-62, (2013)
Extracellular UDP enhances P2X-mediated bladder smooth muscle contractility via P2Y(6) activation of the phospholipase C/inositol trisphosphate pathway. Yu W, Sun X, Robson SC, et al. FASEB J. 27(5), 1895-903, (2013)
Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding? Hohmann JD, Wang X, Krajewski S, et al. Blood 121(16), 3067-75, (2013)
Adoptive transfer of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis via suppression of Th1 and Th17 cells and enhancement of regulatory T cell differentiation. Chen M, Su W, Lin X, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 65(5), 1181-93, (2013)
CD39 modulates hematopoietic stem cell recruitment and promotes liver regeneration in mice and humans after partial hepatectomy. Schmelzle M, Duhme C, Junger W, et al. Ann. Surg. 257(4), 693-701, (2013)
Hydrolysis of extracellular ATP by ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ENTPD) establishes the set point for fibrotic activity of cardiac fibroblasts. Lu D and Insel PA J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 19040-9, (2013)
Contribution of adenosine-producing ectoenzymes to the mechanisms underlying the mitigation of maternal-fetal conflicts. Cecati M, Emanuelli M, Giannubilo SR, et al. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 27(2), 519-29, (2013)
CD39 is involved in mediating suppression by Mycobacterium bovis BCG-activated human CD8(+) CD39(+) regulatory T cells. Boer MC, van Meijgaarden KE, Bastid J, et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 43(7), 1925-32, (2013)
Expansion in CD39⁺ CD4⁺ immunoregulatory t cells and rarity of Th17 cells in HTLV-1 infected patients is associated with neurological complications. Leal FE, Ndhlovu LC, Hasenkrug AM, et al. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 7(2), e2028, (2013)
Microencapsulation of cells, including islets, within stable ultra-thin membranes of maleimide-conjugated PEG-lipid with multifunctional crosslinkers. Teramura Y, Oommen OP, Olerud J, et al. Biomaterials 34(11), 2683-93, (2013)
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