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A6535 Sigma

Apyrase from potatoes

ATPase ≥200 units/mg protein, lyophilized powder

Synonym: Adenosine 5′-diphosphatase, Adenosine 5′-triphosphatase

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Properties

Related Categories 3.6.x.x Acting on acid anhydrides, 3.x.x.x Hydrolases, Application Index, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology,
Quality Level   PREMIUM
type   Grade VII
form   lyophilized powder
secondary activity   ≥50 % of base activity ADPase
composition   Protein, 25-60%
solubility   H2O: soluble1.0 mg/mL
Featured Industry   Diagnostic Assay Manufacturing
foreign activity   Acid Phosphatase ≤2% of base activity
storage temp.   −20°C

Description

Application

At least two isoenzymes are found in different varieties of S. tuberosum:4,5 one with a high ATPase/ADPase ratio (∼10) and another with a low ratio (∼1).
Reaction: ATP → ADP+Pi → AMP+2Pi.

Apyrase is used to hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. For hydrolysis of organic di and triphosphates, the optimal pH is 6, and for inorganic substrates, the optimal pH is 5.1.1 Apyrase, from Sigma, has been used in inhibition studies of platelet-aggregation 2.

Other Notes

This grade has a low ATPase/ADPase ratio.

Packaging

Sold on the basis of ATPase units.

Preparation Note

Derived from red potato

Unit Definition

One unit will liberate 1.0 μmole of inorganic phosphate from ATP or ADP per min at pH 6.5 at 30 °C.

Physical form

Partially purified, lyophilized powder containing potassium succinate buffer salts.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Apyrase is found in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. Apyrase, from potato, has a crucial role in regulating growth and development. Apyrase is involved in the inactivation of synaptic ATP as a neurotransmitter following nerve stimulation and in the inhibition of ADP induced platelet aggregation to prevent thrombosis 3. Divalent metal ions are required for activity and best activity is observed with calcium ion at 5 mM.

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Mass Spectrometry Metabolite Library

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Properties of Two Apyrases from Solanum tuberosum Kettlun, A. et al. Phytochemistry 21(3), 551-558, (1982)

2. Differentiation of Platelet-aggregating Effects of Human Tumor Cell Lines Based on Inhibition Studies with Apyrase, Hirudin, and Phospholipase Eva Bastida, Antonio Ordinas, et al. Cancer Res. 42, 4348-4352, (1982)

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3. The Potato-Specific Apyrase Is Apoplastically Localized and Has Influence on Gene Expression, Growth, and Development David Riewe, Lukasz Grosman, et al. Plant Physiol. 147, 1092-1109, (2008)

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4. Kettlun, A., et al. Phytochemistry 21, 551, (1982)

5. Studies on apyrases. Molnar, J. and Lorand, L. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 93, 353, (1961)

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High-dose erythropoietin alters platelet reactivity and bleeding time in rodents in contrast to the neuroprotective variant carbamyl-erythropoietin (CEPO). Kirkeby, A., et al. Thromb. Haemost. 99, 720-8, (2008)

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The Mechanism of Hydrolysis of Adenosine Di- and Tri-phosphate Catalysed by Potato Apyrase Mildred Cohn & G. A. Meek Biochem. J. 66, 128-139, (1957)

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Influence Of Lever Structure On Myosin 5a Walking. Oke, O.A., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 2509-14, (2010)

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Blebbistatin stabilizes the helical order of myosin filaments by promoting the switch 2 closed state. Zhao, F.Q., et al. Biophys. J. 95, 3322-9, (2008)

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Fatal hepatitis mediated by tumor necrosis factor TNFalpha requires caspase-8 and involves the BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim. Kaufmann T Immunity 30(1), 56-66, (2009)

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Rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses in Lotus japonicus require lectin nucleotide phosphohydrolase, which acts upstream of calcium signaling. Roberts NJ, Morieri G, Kalsi G, et al. Plant Physiol. 161(1), 556-67, (2013)

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Helios+ and Helios- cells coexist within the natural FOXP3+ T regulatory cell subset in humans. Himmel ME, MacDonald KG, Garcia RV, et al. J. Immunol. 190(5), 2001-8, (2013)

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Insulin inhibits IL-10-mediated regulatory T cell function: implications for obesity. Han JM, Patterson SJ, Speck M, et al. J. Immunol. 192(2), 623-9, (2014)

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Microencapsulation of cells, including islets, within stable ultra-thin membranes of maleimide-conjugated PEG-lipid with multifunctional crosslinkers. Teramura Y, Oommen OP, Olerud J, et al. Biomaterials 34(11), 2683-93, (2013)

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The split personality of regulatory T cells in HIV infection. Chevalier MF and Weiss L Blood 121(1), 29-37, (2013)

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In vivo imaging demonstrates ATP release from murine keratinocytes and its involvement in cutaneous inflammation after tape stripping. Takahashi T, Kimura Y, Niwa K, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(10), 2407-15, (2013)

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Exportin 4 mediates a novel nuclear import pathway for Sox family transcription factors. Gontan C J. Cell Biol. 185(1), 27-34, (2009)

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Impaired Th1 immunity in ovarian cancer patients is mediated by TNFR2+ Tregs within the tumor microenvironment. Govindaraj C, Scalzo-Inguanti K, Madondo M, et al. Clin. Immunol. 149(1), 97-110, (2013)

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Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding? Hohmann JD, Wang X, Krajewski S, et al. Blood 121(16), 3067-75, (2013)

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The protective effects of CD39 overexpression in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Chia JS, McRae JL, Thomas HE, et al. Diabetes 62(6), 2026-35, (2013)

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CD39 is involved in mediating suppression by Mycobacterium bovis BCG-activated human CD8(+) CD39(+) regulatory T cells. Boer MC, van Meijgaarden KE, Bastid J, et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 43(7), 1925-32, (2013)

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Surface expression of CD39 identifies an enriched Treg-cell subset in the rheumatic joint, which does not suppress IL-17A secretion. Herrath J, Chemin K, Albrecht I, et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 44(10), 2979-89, (2014)

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β-amyloid and ATP-induced diffusional trapping of astrocyte and neuronal metabotropic glutamate type-5 receptors. Shrivastava AN, Kowalewski JM, Renner M, et al. Glia 61(10), 1673-86, (2013)

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A novel mechanism of B cell-mediated immune suppression through CD73 expression and adenosine production. Kaku H, Cheng KF, Al-Abed Y, et al. J. Immunol. 193(12), 5904-13, (2014)

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Th2 cytokine-primed airway smooth muscle cells induce mast cell chemotaxis via secretion of ATP. Gao YD, Cao J, Li P, et al. J. Asthma 51(10), 997-1003, (2014)

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IL-27 acts on DCs to suppress the T cell response and autoimmunity by inducing expression of the immunoregulatory molecule CD39. Mascanfroni ID, Yeste A, Vieira SM, et al. Nat. Immunol. 14(10), 1054-63, (2013)

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Modulating inflammatory monocytes with a unique microRNA gene signature ameliorates murine ALS. Butovsky O, Siddiqui S, Gabriely G, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 122(9), 3063-87, (2012)

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Interleukin-6 receptor blockade enhances CD39+ regulatory T cell development in rheumatoid arthritis and in experimental arthritis. Thiolat A, Semerano L, Pers YM, et al. Arthritis Rheumatology 66(2), 273-83, (2014)

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Pulmonary natural killer T cells play an essential role in mediating hyperoxic acute lung injury. Nowak-Machen M, Schmelzle M, Hanidziar D, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 48(5), 601-9, (2013)

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Leukotriene E4-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated by the P2Y12 receptor. Sailaja Paruchuri et al J. Exp. Med. 206, 2543-55, (2009)

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Myosin-5, kinesin-1 and myosin-17 cooperate in secretion of fungal chitin synthase. Schuster M, Treitschke S, Kilaru S, et al. EMBO J. 31(1), 214-27, (2012)

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Attenuated allergic airway inflammation in Cd39 null mice. Idzko M, K Ayata C, Müller T, et al. Allergy 68(4), 472-80, (2013)

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Adenosine production by human B cells and B cell-mediated suppression of activated T cells. Saze Z, Schuler PJ, Hong CS, et al. Blood 122(1), 9-18, (2013)

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Extracellular UDP enhances P2X-mediated bladder smooth muscle contractility via P2Y(6) activation of the phospholipase C/inositol trisphosphate pathway. Yu W, Sun X, Robson SC, et al. FASEB J. 27(5), 1895-903, (2013)

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Dysfunctional CD39(POS) regulatory T cells and aberrant control of T-helper type 17 cells in autoimmune hepatitis. Grant CR, Liberal R, Holder BS, et al. Hepatology 59(3), 1007-15, (2014)

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Expansion in CD39⁺ CD4⁺ immunoregulatory t cells and rarity of Th17 cells in HTLV-1 infected patients is associated with neurological complications. Leal FE, Ndhlovu LC, Hasenkrug AM, et al. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 7(2), e2028, (2013)

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Controversies on the role of Th17 in cancer: a TGF-β-dependent immunosuppressive activity? Martin F, Apetoh L, and Ghiringhelli F Trends Mol. Med. 18(12), 742-9, (2012)

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TLR stimulation initiates a CD39-based autoregulatory mechanism that limits macrophage inflammatory responses. Cohen HB, Briggs KT, Marino JP, et al. Blood 122(11), 1935-45, (2013)

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Adoptive transfer of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis via suppression of Th1 and Th17 cells and enhancement of regulatory T cell differentiation. Chen M, Su W, Lin X, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 65(5), 1181-93, (2013)

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Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury. Schmelzle M, Splith K, Andersen LW, et al. Transplantation 95(1), 63-9, (2013)

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CD39 expression by hepatic myeloid dendritic cells attenuates inflammation in liver transplant ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Yoshida O, Kimura S, Jackson EK, et al. Hepatology 58(6), 2163-75, (2013)

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Kindlin-2 regulates hemostasis by controlling endothelial cell-surface expression of ADP/AMP catabolic enzymes via a clathrin-dependent mechanism. Pluskota E, Ma Y, Bledzka KM, et al. Blood 122(14), 2491-9, (2013)

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The CD39-adenosinergic axis in the pathogenesis of immune and nonimmune diabetes. Chia JS, McRae JL, Cowan PJ, et al. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012, 320495, (2012)

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CD39 modulates hematopoietic stem cell recruitment and promotes liver regeneration in mice and humans after partial hepatectomy. Schmelzle M, Duhme C, Junger W, et al. Ann. Surg. 257(4), 693-701, (2013)

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Visualizing myosin-actin interaction with a genetically-encoded fluorescent strain sensor. Iwai S Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(44), 16882-7, (2008)

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Role for apyrases in polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Liu X, Wu J, Clark G, et al. Plant Physiol. 160(4), 1985-95, (2012)

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Touch induces ATP release in Arabidopsis roots that is modulated by the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Ravisha R. Weerasinghe et al FEBS Lett. 583, 2521-6, (2009)

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CD39 is highly involved in mediating the suppression activity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T regulatory lymphocytes. Parodi A, Battaglia F, Kalli F, et al. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 62(5), 851-62, (2013)

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Involvement of ATP in noxious stimulus-evoked release of glutamate in rat medullary dorsal horn: a microdialysis study. Kumar N, Cherkas PS, Chiang CY, et al. Neurochem. Int. 61(8), 1276-9, (2012)

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Intratumoral regulatory T cells upregulate immunosuppressive molecules in head and neck cancer patients. Jie HB, Gildener-Leapman N, Li J, et al. Br. J. Cancer 109(10), 2629-35, (2013)

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CD73 and adenosine generation in the creation of regulatory microenvironments. Regateiro FS, Cobbold SP, and Waldmann H Clin. Exp. Immunol. 171(1), 1-7, (2013)

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Regulation of ecto-apyrase CD39 (ENTPD1) expression by phosphodiesterase III (PDE3). Baek AE, Kanthi Y, Sutton NR, et al. FASEB J. 27(11), 4419-28, (2013)

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AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 function as Golgi-localized nucleoside diphosphatases in Arabidopsis thaliana. Chiu TY, Christiansen K, Moreno I, et al. Plant Cell Physiol. 53(11), 1913-25, (2012)

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Comparative analysis of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells in the target tissues and blood in chronic graft versus host disease. Imanguli MM, Cowen EW, Rose J, et al. Leukemia 28(10), 2016-27, (2014)

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Different properties of P2X(7) receptor in hippocampal and cortical astrocytes. Bianco F Purinergic Signal. 5(2), 233-40, (2009)

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Synergy between the ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 contributes to adenosinergic immunosuppression in human malignant gliomas. Xu S, Shao QQ, Sun JT, et al. Neuro. Oncol. 15(9), 1160-72, (2013)

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Endogenous production of extracellular adenosine by trabecular meshwork cells: potential role in outflow regulation. Wu J, Li G, Luna C, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(11), 7142-8, (2012)

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Contribution of adenosine-producing ectoenzymes to the mechanisms underlying the mitigation of maternal-fetal conflicts. Cecati M, Emanuelli M, Giannubilo SR, et al. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 27(2), 519-29, (2013)

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Decreased extracellular adenosine levels lead to loss of hypoxia-induced neuroprotection after repeated episodes of exposure to hypoxia. Cui M, Bai X, Li T, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e57065, (2013)

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Both MC5r and A2Ar are required for protective regulatory immunity in the spleen of post-experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice. Lee DJ and Taylor AW J. Immunol. 191(8), 4103-11, (2013)

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IL-7 modulates in vitro and in vivo human memory T regulatory cell functions through the CD39/ATP axis. Younas M, Hue S, Lacabaratz C, et al. J. Immunol. 191(6), 3161-8, (2013)

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CD39 and CD161 modulate Th17 responses in Crohn's disease. Bai A, Moss A, Kokkotou E, et al. J. Immunol. 193(7), 3366-77, (2014)

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Revelation of a catalytic calcium-binding site elucidates unusual metal dependence of a human apyrase. Rooklin DW, Lu M, and Zhang Y J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(37), 15595-603, (2012)

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RNA-seq analysis identifies potential modulators of gravity response in spores of Ceratopteris (Parkeriaceae): evidence for modulation by calcium pumps and apyrase activity. Bushart TJ, Cannon AE, Ul Haque A, et al. Am. J. Bot. 100(1), 161-74, (2013)

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Isolation and bioinformatic analysis of seven genes encoding potato apyrase. Bacterial overexpresssion, refolding and initial kinetic studies on some recombinant potato apyrases. Wujak M, Banach M, Porowińska D, et al. Phytochemistry 93, 8-17, (2013)

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Prospective purification of a subpopulation of human synovial mesenchymal stem cells with enhanced chondro-osteogenic potency. Gullo F and De Bari C Rheumatology (Oxford.) 52(10), 1758-68, (2013)

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New crystal forms of NTPDase1 from the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Zebisch M, Schäfer P, Lauble P, et al. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 69(Pt 3), 257-62, (2013)

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An antigenic domain within a catalytically active Leishmania infantum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1) is a target of inhibitory antibodies. Maia AC, Porcino GN, Detoni Mde L, et al. Parasitol. Int. 62(1), 44-52, (2013)

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Hydrolysis of extracellular ATP by ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ENTPD) establishes the set point for fibrotic activity of cardiac fibroblasts. Lu D and Insel PA J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 19040-9, (2013)

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Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1): localization and in vitro inhibition of promastigotes growth by polyclonal antibodies. Porcino GN, Carvalho-Campos C, Maia AC, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 132(2), 293-9, (2012)

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Hydroxycarbamide modulates components involved in the regulation of adenosine levels in blood cells from sickle-cell anemia patients. Silva-Pinto AC, Dias-Carlos C, Saldanha-Araujo F, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(9), 1457-65, (2014)

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The ENTPD5/mt-PCPH oncoprotein is a catalytically inactive member of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family. MacCarthy CM and Notario V Int. J. Oncol. 43(4), 1244-52, (2013)

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Neuroprotective effect of quercetin in ectoenzymes and acetylcholinesterase activities in cerebral cortex synaptosomes of cadmium-exposed rats. Abdalla FH, Cardoso AM, Pereira LB, et al. Mol. Cell Biochem. 381(1-2), 1-8, (2013)

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Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods. Hughes AL Gene 527(1), 123-30, (2013)

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ATP and ADP hydrolysis in cell membranes from rat myometrium. Milošević M, Petrović S, Veličković N, et al. Mol. Cell Biochem. 371(1-2), 199-208, (2012)

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A study of the imbalance in B cell-expressed nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1-induced ADP degradation in graft injury during acute antibody-mediated rejection. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Zong H, et al. Transpl. Immunol. 27(4), 175-8, (2012)

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Autoimmune hepatitis: 50 Years of (slow) progress. Gershwin ME and Krawitt EL Hepatology 59(3), 754-6, (2014)

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Contribution of CD39 to the immunosuppressive microenvironment of acute myeloid leukaemia at diagnosis. Dulphy N, Henry G, Hemon P, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 165(5), 722-5, (2014)

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CD39: a new surface marker of mouse regulatory γδ T cells. Otsuka A, Hanakawa S, Miyachi Y, et al. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 132(6), 1448-51, (2013)

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CD39 target practice. Newman DK Blood 121(16), 3061-2, (2013)

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Apyrase, pyrophosphatase and metaphosphatase of Penicillium chrysogenum. KRISHNAN PS Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 37(1), 224-34, (1952)

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[Partial purification and properties of potato apyrase]. LIEBECQ C, LALLEMAND A, and DEGUELDRE-GUILLAUME MJ Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 45, 573-94, (1963)

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Merck 14,759

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