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A8001 Sigma

Aconitine

≥95% (HPLC), crystalline

Synonym: Acetylbenzoylaconine

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Properties

Related Categories A-AM, Amiloride and Derivatives, Bioactive Small Molecule Alphabetical Index, Bioactive Small Molecules, Cell Biology,
assay   ≥95% (HPLC)
form   crystalline
color   white
solubility   H2O: soluble0.3 mg/mL
  ethanol: soluble35 mg/mL

Description

Packaging

5, 25, 100, 250 mg in glass bottle

Application

Aconitine is a neurotoxin which activates tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, inducing presynaptic depolarization and blocking the release of neurotransmitters. Aconitine also blocks norepinephrine reuptake. In the heart, aconitine induces ventricular tachycardia after intracoronary injection.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Neurotoxin. Activates tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, inducing presynaptic depolarization, thus blocking the nerve action potential which, in turn, blocks the release of neurotransmitters and decreases the end plate potential at the neuromuscular junction. Aconitine also blocks norepinephrine reuptake. In the heart, aconitine induces ventricular tachycardia after intracoronary injection. In cultured ventricular myocytes, aconitine increases the duration of the action potential and induces the appearance of early after depolarization.

Features and Benefits

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS06  GHS06
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T+
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
24-45
RIDADR 
UN 1544PSN1 6.1 / PGI
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
AR5960000

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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The effects of Aconitum alkaloids on the central nervous system. Ameri, A. Prog. Neurobiol. 56, 211-235, (1998)

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3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine induces in vivo regional up-regulation of central nicotinic receptors in rats and potentiates the regulatory effects of nicotine on these receptors. Pubill D, Garcia-Ratés S, Camarasa J, et al. Neurotoxicology 35, 41-9, (2013)

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Aconitine poisoning due to Chinese herbal medicines: a review. Chan TY, Tomlinson B, Tse LK, et al. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 36(5), 452-5, (1994)

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Effects of arrhythmic agents and Mg2+ on aconitine-induced arrhythmias. Sawanobori, T. Jpn. Heart J. 5, 709, (1996)

[Veratrine, aconitine and excitation enhancement]. Hiraoka M Nihon Rinsho. 37(7), 2820-5, (1979)

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Effects of antiarrhythmic agents and Mg2+ on aconitine-induced arrhythmias. Sawanobori T, Adaniya H, Hirano Y, et al. Jpn. Heart J. 37(5), 709-18, (1996)

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Varenicline aggravates plaque formation through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in ApoE KO mice. Koga M, Kanaoka Y, Ohkido Y, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 455(3-4), 194-7, (2014)

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Covalent trapping of methyllycaconitine at the α4-α4 interface of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: antagonist binding site and mode of receptor inhibition revealed. Absalom NL, Quek G, Lewis TM, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(37), 26521-32, (2013)

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[Practical analysis of toxic substances useful for clinical toxicology (2). aconitine alkoloids]. Fujita Y, Tominaga A, Nozawa M, et al. Chudoku. Kenkyu. 26(2), 121-6, (2013)

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[Comparison of content of total alkaloids and aconitine in Aconitum szechenyianum from different producing areas on basis of macroporous adsorption resin purification technology]. Lin L, Wei XM, Wang YH, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(7), 995-9, (2013)

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[To the mechanisms of antiarrhythmic action of Allapinine]. Vakhitova IuV, Farafontova EI, Khisamutdinova RIu, et al. Bioorg. Khim. 39(1), 105-16, (2013)

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In vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of aconitine on melanoma cell line B16. Du J, Lu X, Long Z, et al. Molecules 18(1), 757-67, (2013)

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[Antiarrhythmic therapy of paroxysmal tachycardias and extrasystoles in patients with sinus node dysfunction]. Kotliarov AA, Mosina LM, Chibisov SM, et al. Klin. Med. (Mosk.) 90(9), 57-9, (2012)

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Mechanisms of regeneratory effects of baikal aconite diterpene alkaloids. Zyuz'kov GN, Krapivin AV, Nesterova YV, et al. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 153(6), 846-50, (2012)

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[Evaluation and verification of the effectiveness of analytical apparatus after use by emergency centers]. Tsuda N Chudoku. Kenkyu. 25(3), 227-30, (2012)

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[A case of aconitine poisoning accompanied by bidirectional ventricular tachycardia treated with lidocaine]. Tsukada K, Akizuki S, Matsuoka Y, et al. Kokyu To Junkan. 40(10), 1003-6, (1992)

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Development and assessment of a complete-detoxication strategy for Fuzi (lateral root of Aconitum carmichaeli) and its application in rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Tong P, Wu C, Wang X, et al. J. Ethnopharmacol. 146(2), 562-71, (2013)

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Aconitine poisoning: a global perspective. Chan TY Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 36(4), 326-8, (1994)

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The role of efflux transporters on the transport of highly toxic aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and their hydrolysates, as determined in cultured Caco-2 and transfected MDCKII cells. Ye L, Yang X, Yang Z, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 216(2-3), 86-99, (2013)

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Fingerprint analysis of Radix Aconiti using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS n) combined with stoichiometry. Zhu H, Wang C, Qi Y, et al. Talanta 103, 56-65, (2013)

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Different effects on [3H]noradrenaline uptake of the Aconitum alkaloids aconitine, 3-acetylaconitine, lappaconitine, and N-desacetyllappaconitine in rat hippocampus. Seitz, U., and Ameri, A Biochem. Pharmacol. 55, 883-888, (1998)

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Presynaptic α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increase glutamate release and serotonin neuron excitability in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Garduño J, Galindo-Charles L, Jiménez-Rodríguez J, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(43), 15148-57, (2012)

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Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice. Welch KD, Pfister JA, Lima FG, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 266(3), 366-74, (2013)

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Preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticle enclosure hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the determination of aconitines in human serum samples Zhang, H.F. and Shi, Y.P. Anal. Chim. Acta 724, 54-60, (2012)

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Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. Zhu H, Wang C, Qi Y, et al. Anal. Chim. Acta 752, 69-77, (2012)

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Antagonism of the aconitine-induced inexcitability by the structurally related aconitum alkaloids, lappaconitine and ajacine. Ameri, A. and Simmet, T Brain Res. 842, 332-341, (1999)

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Cladosporium cladosporioides XJ-AC03, an aconitine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Aconitum leucostomum. Yang K, Liang J, Li Q, et al. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 29(5), 933-8, (2013)

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PHA-543613 preserves blood-brain barrier integrity after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Krafft PR, Caner B, Klebe D, et al. Stroke 44(6), 1743-7, (2013)

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Effects of aconitine on neurotransmitter release in the rat neuromuscular junction. Onur, R., et al. Neuropharmacology 34, 1139-1145, (1995)

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In hippocampal oriens interneurons anti-Hebbian long-term potentiation requires cholinergic signaling via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Griguoli M, Cellot G, and Cherubini E J. Neurosci. 33(3), 1044-9, (2013)

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P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: in vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies. Yang C, Zhang T, Li Z, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 273(3), 561-8, (2013)

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The exposure of highly toxic aconitine does not significantly impact the activity and expression of cytochrome P450 3A in rats determined by a novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method of a specific probe buspirone. Zhu L, Yang X, Zhou J, et al. Food Chem. Toxicol. 51, 396-403, (2013)

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The role of the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllycaconitine and anabasine. Welch KD, Pfister JA, Gardner DR, et al. J. Appl. Toxicol. 33(9), 1017-26, (2013)

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The role of the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice. Welch KD, Green BT, Panter KE, et al. J. Appl. Toxicol. 33(9), 1011-6, (2013)

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Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of bulleyaconitine A in rats. Xu HR, Ji GX, Wang Q, et al. Pharmazie 68(3), 170-2, (2013)

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Observation on effects of aconitine via acupoint injection in rabbits. Ni F, Lin JY, Guo D, et al. Chin. J. Integr. Med. 19(1), 36-41, (2013)

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Effects of acute administration of ethanol on experimental arrhythmia. Gao Y, Li P, Ma LX, et al. Chin. J. Physiol. 55(5), 307-13, (2012)

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Effect of hypaconitine combined with liquiritin on the expression of calmodulin and connexin43 in rat cardiac muscle in vivo. Yi M, Peng W, Chen X, et al. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 64(11), 1654-8, (2012)

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Relative quantification of the metabolite of aconitine in rat urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics. He H and Yan F Anal. Sci. 28(12), 1203-5, (2012)

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Cardioprotective effect of grape-seed proanthocyanidins on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Ammar el-SM, Said SA, El-Damarawy SL, et al. Pharm. Biol. 51(3), 339-44, (2013)

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Conversional synthesis of heteratisine. Wang L, Chen QF, and Wang FP Nat. Prod. Commun. 7(12), 1583-6, (2012)

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(R,S)-Ketamine metabolites (R,S)-norketamine and (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine increase the mammalian target of rapamycin function. Paul RK, Singh NS, Khadeer M, et al. Anesthesiology 121(1), 149-59, (2014)

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Aconitine-induced Ca2+ overload causes arrhythmia and triggers apoptosis through p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rats. Sun GB, Sun H, Meng XB, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 279(1), 8-22, (2014)

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Neutral fragment filtering for rapid identification of new diester-diterpenoid alkaloids in roots of Aconitum carmichaeli by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry. Zhang J, Huang ZH, Qiu XH, et al. PLoS ONE 7(12), e52352, (2012)

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Study on the aconitine-type alkaloids of Radix Aconiti Lateralis and its processed products using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). Liu, Y., et al. Drug Test. Anal., doi: 10.1002/dta.416., (2012)

Intestinal Transport of Pure Diester-type Alkaloids from an Aconite Extract across the Caco-2 Cell Monolayer Model Li, N., et al. Planta Med. 78(7), 692-7, (2012)

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Merck 14,118

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