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A9525 Sigma

Angiotensin II human

≥93% (HPLC), powder

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Properties

Related Categories Angiotensins, Application Index, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology, Cell Signaling Enzymes,
biological source   synthetic
assay   ≥93% (HPLC)
form   powder
impurities   1.2-10.4% acetate
storage temp.   −20°C
Gene Information   human ... AGT(183)

Description

Amino Acid Sequence

Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe

Antibody Adsorbant

Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-OH · 2CH3COOH · H2O

Analysis Note

Peptide content not less than 75%

Biochem/physiol Actions

Angiotensin (Ang) II is important in regulating cardiovascular hemodynamics and cardiovascular structure. Most of the known effects of Ang II in adult tissues are attributable to the angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor. The AT1 and AT2 receptors have differential pharmacological and biochemical properties and appear to exert opposite effects in terms of cardiovascular hemodynamics and cell growth. In addition, the renin-angiotensin and nitric oxide-generating systems appear to interract in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Ang II stimulates angiogenesis and increases microvessel density. In nature, angiotensin II is produced by the action of angiotensin converting enzyme on angiotensinogen; the C-terminal-His-Leu is cleaved.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
BW2165000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Antihypertensive Agents

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Lipid Induced Insulin Resistance

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Plasma Derived Proteins and Enzymes

Despite their complexity, blood and plasma are abundant biological resources for the discovery of drug targets and biomarkers for human disease. It is estimated that plasma may contain as many as 40,...
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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Protein kinase CK2 links extracellular growth factor signaling with the control of p27(Kip1) stability in the heart. Hauck, L., et al. Nat. Med. 14, 315-24, (2008)

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Mechanisms of angiotensin II signaling on cytoskeleton of podocytes. Hsu, H.H., et al. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 86, 1379-94, (2008)

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Activation of MMP8 and MMP13 by angiotensin II correlates to severe intra-plaque hemorrhages and collagen breakdown in atherosclerotic lesions with a vulnerable phenotype. Cheng, C., et al. Atherosclerosis 204, 26-33, (2009)

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Absence of p55 TNF receptor reduces atherosclerosis, but has no major effect on angiotensin II induced aneurysms in LDL receptor deficient mice. Xanthoulea, S., et al. PLoS Biol. 4, e6113, (2009)

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Pharmacodynamic And Pharmacokinetic Characterization Of The Aldosterone Synthase Inhibitor FAD286 In Two Rodent Models Of Hyperaldosteronism: Comparison With The 11beta-hydroxylase Inhibitor Metyrapone. Rigel, D.F., et al. J. Nutr. 334, 232-43, (2010)

Angiotensin II induces premature senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis via a p21-dependent pathway. Takeshige, K., et al. Circulation 114, 953-960, (2006)

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β-Arrestin-mediated Signaling Regulates Protein Synthesis DeWire, S.M., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 10611 - 10620, (2008)

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Angiotnesin II-induced NADPH oxidase activation impairs insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells. Yongzhong, W., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 35137-35146, (2006)

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Angiotensin II upregulates LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) expression in the vascular wall: a new pro-atherogenic mechanism of hypertension. Sendra, J., et al. Carcinogenesis 78, 581-9, (2008)

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Angiotensin receptors: molecular biology and signaling. Inagami, T. et al. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 26, 544-549, (1999)

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Autoantibody against AT1 receptor from preeclamptic patients induces vasoconstriction through angiotensin receptor activation. Yang, X., et al. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 26, 1629-35, (2008)

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Beta-arrestins 1 and 2 differentially regulate LPS-induced signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Fan, H., et al. Mol. Immunol. 44, 3092-9, (2007)

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The renin-angiotensin system: an overview of its intracellular function. Inagami, T, et al. Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 2, 453-458, (1988)

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Systemic Candesartan Reduces Brain Angiotensin II Via Downregulation Of Brain Renin-angiotensin System. Pelisch, N., et al. Hypertens. Res. 33, 161-4, (2010)

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Nitric oxide and the renin-angiotensin system. Is there a physiological interplay between the systems? Fernandez-Alfonso, M.S., and Gonzalez, C. J. Hypertens. 17, 1355-61, (1999)

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Cross talk between angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors: cellular mechanism of angiotensin type 2 receptor-mediated cell growth inhibition. Xoriuchi, M., et al. Hypertens. Res. 22, 67-74, (1999)

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Mouse hepatic portal venoconstrictive response to vasoconstrictors is much weaker than that in rat. Zhao, Z.S., et al. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 54, 421-6, (2009)

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Neuron-specific (pro)renin receptor knockout prevents the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Li W, Peng H, Mehaffey EP, et al. Hypertension 63(2), 316-23, (2014)

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Iodixanol, constriction of medullary descending vasa recta, and risk for contrast medium-induced nephropathy. Sendeski M Radiology 251(3), 697-704, (2009)

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The 14q32 microRNA-487b targets the antiapoptotic insulin receptor substrate 1 in hypertension-induced remodeling of the aorta. Nossent AY, Eskildsen TV, Andersen LB, et al. Ann. Surg. 258(5), 743-51; discussion 752-3, (2013)

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Relative atrial natriuretic peptide deficiency and inadequate renin and angiotensin II suppression in obese hypertensive men. Asferg CL, Nielsen SJ, Andersen UB, et al. Hypertension 62(1), 147-53, (2013)

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Nitric oxide-angiotensin II interactions and renal hemodynamic function in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes. Montanari A, Pelà G, Musiari L, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 305(1), F42-51, (2013)

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Novel long noncoding RNAs are regulated by angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cells. Leung A, Trac C, Jin W, et al. Circ. Res. 113(3), 266-78, (2013)

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Activation of Src mediates PDGF-induced Smad1 phosphorylation and contributes to the progression of glomerulosclerosis in glomerulonephritis. Mima A, Abe H, Nagai K, et al. PLoS ONE 6(3), e17929, (2011)

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Statins exert the pleiotropic effects through small GTP-binding protein dissociation stimulator upregulation with a resultant Rac1 degradation. Tanaka S, Fukumoto Y, Nochioka K, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 33(7), 1591-600, (2013)

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a critical determinant of angiotensin II-induced loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and adverse vascular remodeling. Patel VB, Zhong JC, Fan D, et al. Hypertension 64(1), 157-64, (2014)

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Nox4 is a major source of superoxide production in human brain pericytes. Kuroda J, Ago T, Nishimura A, et al. J. Vasc. Res. 51(6), 429-38, (2014)

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Imaging vessel wall biology to predict outcome in abdominal aortic aneurysm. Golestani R, Razavian M, Nie L, et al. Circ. Cardiovasc. Imaging 8(1), doi:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.002471, (2015)

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Trimethylamine-N-oxide: a carnitine-derived metabolite that prolongs the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II in rats. Ufnal M, Jazwiec R, Dadlez M, et al. Can. J. Cardiol. 30(12), 1700-5, (2014)

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Angiotensin II induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and mtDNA damage in osteoblasts by inhibiting SIRT1–FoxO3a–MnSOD pathway. Li Y, Shen G, Yu C, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 455(1-2), 113-8, (2014)

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Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension. Li W, Sullivan MN, Zhang S, et al. Hypertension 65(2), 352-61, (2015)

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Smooth muscle cell deletion of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 augments angiotensin II-induced superior mesenteric arterial and ascending aortic aneurysms. Davis FM, Rateri DL, Balakrishnan A, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 35(1), 155-62, (2015)

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Renin knockout rat: control of adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone synthesis in vitro and adrenal gene expression. Raff H, Gehrand A, Bruder ED, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 308(1), R73-7, (2015)

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Inflammasome activation by mitochondrial oxidative stress in macrophages leads to the development of angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysm. Usui F, Shirasuna K, Kimura H, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 35(1), 127-36, (2015)

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Angiotensin II-induced hypertension blunts thick ascending limb NO production by reducing NO synthase 3 expression and enhancing threonine 495 phosphorylation. Ramseyer VD, Gonzalez-Vicente A, Carretero OA, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 308(2), F149-56, (2015)

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Homocysteine accelerates senescence of endothelial cells via DNA hypomethylation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Zhang D, Sun X, Liu J, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 35(1), 71-8, (2015)

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Properly timed exposure to central ANG II prevents behavioral sensitization and changes in angiotensin receptor expression. Santollo J, Whalen PE, Speth RC, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 307(12), R1396-404, (2014)

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Renin-angiotensin system within the diabetic podocyte. Márquez E, Riera M, Pascual J, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 308(1), F1-10, (2015)

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Angiotensin II in inflammation, immunity and rheumatoid arthritis. Chang Y and Wei W Clin. Exp. Immunol. 179(2), 137-45, (2015)

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Serelaxin reduces oxidative stress and asymmetric dimethylarginine in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Sasser JM, Cunningham MW, and Baylis C Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(12), F1355-62, (2014)

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Exendin-4 alleviates angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting Rac1 activation via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. Zhao L, Li AQ, Zhou TF, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 307(12), C1130-41, (2014)

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Chronic central nervous system MC3/4R blockade attenuates hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition but not by angiotensin II infusion. da Silva AA, do Carmo JM, Dubinion JH, et al. Hypertension 65(1), 171-7, (2015)

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SLC41A1 knockdown inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis by preventing Mg(2+) efflux and Ca(2+) signaling in cardiac fibroblasts. Yu N, Jiang J, Yu Y, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 564, 74-82, (2014)

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Actin dynamics is rapidly regulated by the PTEN and PIP2 signaling pathways leading to myocyte hypertrophy. Li J, Tanhehco EJ, and Russell B Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(11), H1618-25, (2014)

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Central SDF-1/CXCL12 expression and its cardiovascular and sympathetic effects: the role of angiotensin II, TNF-α, and MAP kinase signaling. Wei SG, Zhang ZH, Yu Y, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(11), H1643-54, (2014)

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Circulating tetrahydrobiopterin as a novel biomarker for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Siu KL and Cai H Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(11), H1559-64, (2014)

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IGF-1 deficiency impairs cerebral myogenic autoregulation in hypertensive mice. Toth P, Tucsek Z, Tarantini S, et al. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34(12), 1887-97, (2014)

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Angiotensin II mediates angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 internalization and degradation through an angiotensin II type I receptor-dependent mechanism. Deshotels MR, Xia H, Sriramula S, et al. Hypertension 64(6), 1368-75, (2014)

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Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases skeletal muscle atrophy induced by angiotensin II through a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism. Cisternas F, Morales MG, Meneses C, et al. Clin. Sci. 128(5), 307-19, (2015)

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Elimination of vitamin D receptor in vascular endothelial cells alters vascular function. Ni W, Watts SW, Ng M, et al. Hypertension 64(6), 1290-8, (2014)

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MSCs modified with ACE2 restore endothelial function following LPS challenge by inhibiting the activation of RAS. He HL, Liu L, Chen QH, et al. J. Cell Physiol. 230(3), 691-701, (2015)

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Tumor necrosis factor-α produced in the kidney contributes to angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Zhang J, Patel MB, Griffiths R, et al. Hypertension 64(6), 1275-81, (2014)

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Pioglitazone inhibits angiotensin II-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation via NF-κB/TGF-β1/TRIF/TRAF6 pathway. Chen XQ, Liu X, Wang QX, et al. Exp. Cell Res. 330(1), 43-55, (2015)

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Angiotensin II in paraventricular nucleus contributes to sympathoexcitation in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by AT1 receptor and oxidative stress. Seifi B, Kadkhodaee M, Bakhshi E, et al. J. Surg. Res. 193(1), 361-7, (2015)

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Renal angiotensin-converting enzyme is essential for the hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition. Giani JF, Janjulia T, Kamat N, et al. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 25(12), 2752-63, (2014)

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The reduced autophagic response by oxidative stress in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic H9C2 cells causes more apoptotic cell death. Chen CY, Hsu HC, and Chen MF Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood.) 239(12), 1688-98, (2014)

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Nestin is a marker of lung remodeling secondary to myocardial infarction and type I diabetes in the rat. Chabot A, Meus MA, Naud P, et al. J. Cell Physiol. 230(1), 170-9, (2015)

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is subject to post-transcriptional regulation by miR-421. Lambert DW, Lambert LA, Clarke NE, et al. Clin. Sci. 127(4), 243-9, (2014)

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Angiotensin II-dependent TGF-β signaling contributes to Loeys-Dietz syndrome vascular pathogenesis. Gallo EM, Loch DC, Habashi JP, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(1), 448-60, (2014)

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[Effects of sapindus saponins on inflammatory response mediated by Ang II/p38MAPK pathway and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. Chen M, Chen ZW, Long ZJ, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(7), 1030-5, (2013)

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[Inhibitory effect of Sirt3 on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by angiotensin II]. Wu X, Bu P, Liu J, et al. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 29(3), 237-41, (2013)

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Role of Hypertension in Aggravating Abeta Neuropathology of AD Type and Tau-Mediated Motor Impairment. Díaz-Ruiz C Cardiovasc. Psychiatry Neurol. 2009, 107286, (2009)

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The long noncoding RNA CHRF regulates cardiac hypertrophy by targeting miR-489. Wang K, Liu F, Zhou LY, et al. Circ. Res. 114(9), 1377-88, (2014)

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The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension. Gonzalez-Villalobos RA, Janjoulia T, Fletcher NK, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 123(5), 2011-23, (2013)

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Increased nitric oxide bioavailability in adult GRK2 hemizygous mice protects against angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Avendaño MS, Lucas E, Jurado-Pueyo M, et al. Hypertension 63(2), 369-75, (2014)

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Regulated ADAM17-dependent EGF family ligand release by substrate-selecting signaling pathways. Dang M, Armbruster N, Miller MA, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(24), 9776-81, (2013)

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Human interventions to characterize novel relationships between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and parathyroid hormone. Brown JM, Williams JS, Luther JM, et al. Hypertension 63(2), 273-80, (2014)

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Antiglaucomatous effects of the activation of intrinsic Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Foureaux G, Nogueira JC, Nogueira BS, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(6), 4296-306, (2013)

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Angiotensin-II type 1 receptor-mediated Janus kinase 2 activation induces liver fibrosis. Granzow M, Schierwagen R, Klein S, et al. Hepatology 60(1), 334-48, (2014)

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-independent action of presumed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activators: studies in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Haber PK, Ye M, Wysocki J, et al. Hypertension 63(4), 774-82, (2014)

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Prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysm by anti-microRNA-712 or anti-microRNA-205 in angiotensin II-infused mice. Kim CW, Kumar S, Son DJ, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 34(7), 1412-21, (2014)

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Mitochondrial-localized NADPH oxidase 4 is a source of superoxide in angiotensin II-stimulated neurons. Case AJ, Li S, Basu U, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 305(1), H19-28, (2013)

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Non-canonical signalling and roles of the vasoactive peptides angiotensins and kinins. Costa-Neto CM, Duarte DA, Lima V, et al. Clin. Sci. 126(11), 753-74, (2014)

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Estrogen metabolism by cytochrome P450 1B1 modulates the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II in female mice. Jennings BL, George LW, Pingili AK, et al. Hypertension 64(1), 134-40, (2014)

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Aliskiren limits abdominal aortic aneurysm, ventricular hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in an apolipoprotein-E-deficient mouse model. Seto SW, Krishna SM, Moran CS, et al. Clin. Sci. 127(2), 123-34, (2014)

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Intrinsic-mediated caspase activation is essential for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Putinski C, Abdul-Ghani M, Stiles R, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(43), E4079-87, (2013)

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Role of IκB kinase-β in the growth-promoting effects of angiotensin II in vitro and in vivo. Doyon P, van Zuylen WJ, and Servant MJ Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 33(12), 2850-7, (2013)

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Modulation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte growth: a testbed for studying human cardiac hypertrophy? Gábor Földes et al J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 50, 367-76, (2011)

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A method for noninvasive longitudinal measurements of [Ca2+] in arterioles of hypertensive optical biosensor mice. Mauban JR, Fairfax ST, Rizzo MA, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(2), H173-81, (2014)

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Modulation of the action of insulin by angiotensin-(1-7). Dominici FP, Burghi V, Muñoz MC, et al. Clin. Sci. 126(9), 613-30, (2014)

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Angiotensin II promotes thoracic aortic dissections and ruptures in Col3a1 haploinsufficient mice. Faugeroux J, Nematalla H, Li W, et al. Hypertension 62(1), 203-8, (2013)

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Elevated ecto-5'-nucleotidase-mediated increased renal adenosine signaling via A2B adenosine receptor contributes to chronic hypertension. Zhang W, Zhang Y, Wang W, et al. Circ. Res. 112(11), 1466-78, (2013)

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Angiotensin II triggers expression of the adrenal gland zona glomerulosa-specific 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme through de novo protein synthesis of the orphan nuclear receptors NGFIB and NURR1. Ota T, Doi M, Yamazaki F, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(20), 3880-94, (2014)

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Abrogation of ER stress-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells by angiotensin 1-7. Uhal BD, Nguyen H, Dang M, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 305(1), L33-41, (2013)

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Angiotensin-(1-7) modulates renal vascular resistance through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Potthoff SA, Fähling M, Clasen T, et al. Hypertension 63(2), 265-72, (2014)

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Adiponectin suppresses angiotensin II-induced inflammation and cardiac fibrosis through activation of macrophage autophagy. Qi GM, Jia LX, Li YL, et al. Endocrinology 155(6), 2254-65, (2014)

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Effects of a domain-selective ACE inhibitor in a mouse model of chronic angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Burger D, Reudelhuber TL, Mahajan A, et al. Clin. Sci. 127(1), 57-63, (2014)

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Effects of exercise training on SFO-mediated sympathoexcitation during chronic heart failure. Llewellyn TL, Sharma NM, Zheng H, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 306(1), H121-31, (2014)

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Estradiol decreases the orexigenic effect of neuropeptide Y, but not agouti-related protein, in ovariectomized rats. Jessica Santollo et al Behav. Brain Res. 191, 173-7, (2008)

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An evolving story of angiotensin-II-forming pathways in rodents and humans. Ferrario CM, Ahmad S, Nagata S, et al. Clin. Sci. 126(7), 461-9, (2014)

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The arrestin-selective angiotensin AT1 receptor agonist [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]-AngII negatively regulates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling via AT1-B2 receptor heterodimers. Wilson PC, Lee MH, Appleton KM, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 18872-84, (2013)

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Mechanisms of AT1a receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II by proximal tubule cells: a novel role of the multiligand endocytic receptor megalin. Li XC and Zhuo JL Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(2), F222-33, (2014)

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COX-2 mediates angiotensin II-induced (pro)renin receptor expression in the rat renal medulla. Wang F, Lu X, Peng K, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(1), F25-32, (2014)

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The spleen in local and systemic regulation of immunity. Bronte V and Pittet MJ Immunity 39(5), 806-18, (2013)

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Enhanced expression of Gqα and PLC-β1 proteins contributes to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in SHR: role of endogenous angiotensin II and endothelin-1. Atef ME and Anand-Srivastava MB Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 307(1), C97-106, (2014)

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5TNF-α and IL-1β neutralization ameliorates angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage in male mice. Wang Y, Li Y, Wu Y, et al. Endocrinology 155(7), 2677-87, (2014)

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Interleukin-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 signaling mediates aortic dissections induced by angiotensin II via the T-helper lymphocyte 17-interleukin 17 axis in C57BL/6 mice. Ju X, Ijaz T, Sun H, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 33(7), 1612-21, (2013)

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Role of 20-HETE, TRPC channels, and BKCa in dysregulation of pressure-induced Ca2+ signaling and myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries in aged hypertensive mice. Toth P, Csiszar A, Tucsek Z, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 305(12), H1698-708, (2013)

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Angiotensin II and canonical transient receptor potential-6 activation stimulate release of a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-activating factor from mouse podocytes. Abkhezr M and Dryer SE Mol. Pharmacol. 86(2), 150-8, (2014)

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Mechanism of erythropoietin regulation by angiotensin II. Kim YC, Mungunsukh O, McCart EA, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 85(6), 898-908, (2014)

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Monoamine oxidases are mediators of endothelial dysfunction in the mouse aorta. Sturza A, Leisegang MS, Babelova A, et al. Hypertension 62(1), 140-6, (2013)

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Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension. Su Q, Qin DN, Wang FX, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 276(2), 115-20, (2014)

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Protective axis of the renin-angiotensin system in the brain. Gironacci MM, Cerniello FM, Longo Carbajosa NA, et al. Clin. Sci. 127(5), 295-306, (2014)

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The Ang-(1-7)/Mas-1 axis attenuates the expression and signalling of TGF-β1 induced by AngII in mouse skeletal muscle. Morales MG, Abrigo J, Meneses C, et al. Clin. Sci. 127(4), 251-64, (2014)

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Smad7 inhibits AngII-mediated hypertensive nephropathy in a mouse model of hypertension. Liu GX, Li YQ, Huang XR, et al. Clin. Sci. 127(3), 195-208, (2014)

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HDAC6 contributes to pathological responses of heart and skeletal muscle to chronic angiotensin-II signaling. Demos-Davies KM, Ferguson BS, Cavasin MA, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(2), H252-8, (2014)

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White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Farhangi MA, Keshavarz SA, Eshraghian M, et al. J. Health. Popul. Nutr. 31(1), 58-64, (2013)

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The requirement of CD8+ T cells to initiate and augment acute cardiac inflammatory response to high blood pressure. Ma F, Feng J, Zhang C, et al. J. Immunol. 192(7), 3365-73, (2014)

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Selective inhibition of angiotensin receptor signaling through Erk1/2 pathway by a novel peptide. Liu J, Yosten GL, Ji H, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 306(8), R619-26, (2014)

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The orexigenic effect of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is influenced by sex and stage of the estrous cycle. Santollo, J Physiol. Behav. 93(4-5), 842-50, (2008)

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Brain angiotensin regulates iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons and microglial cells. Garrido-Gil P, Rodriguez-Pallares J, Dominguez-Meijide A, et al. Exp. Neurol. 250, 384-96, (2013)

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Deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates cardiac hypertrophy via down-regulation of cardiac fibroblasts-derived fibroblast growth factor-2. Zhang H, Wang T, Zhang K, et al. Crit. Care Med. 42(5), e345-54, (2014)

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Real-time electrochemical detection of ATP and H₂O₂ release in freshly isolated kidneys. Palygin O, Levchenko V, Ilatovskaya DV, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 305(1), F134-41, (2013)

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition and angiotensin II converting inhibition in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation. Muchir A, Wu W, Sera F, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 452(4), 958-61, (2014)

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L-type calcium channel inhibitor diltiazem prevents aneurysm formation by blood pressure-independent anti-inflammatory effects. Mieth A, Revermann M, Babelova A, et al. Hypertension 62(6), 1098-104, (2013)

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Regulation of autophagy and apoptosis in response to angiotensin II in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Wang X, Dai Y, Ding Z, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 440(4), 696-700, (2013)

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[The cortical collecting duct plays a pivotal role in the kidney's local renin-angiotensin system]. Csohány R, Prókai A, Kosik A, et al. Orv. Hetil. 154(17), 643-9, (2013)

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Upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 mediate the transcription of angiotensin II binding and inhibitory protein. Matsuda M, Tamura K, Wakui H, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(26), 19238-49, (2013)

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High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system. Mao C, Liu R, Bo L, et al. J. Endocrinol. 218(1), 61-73, (2013)

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A healthy tension in translational research. Dietz H J. Clin. Invest. 124(4), 1425-9, (2014)

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Regulatory T cells prevent angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Meng X, Yang J, Zhang K, et al. Hypertension 64(4), 875-82, (2014)

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Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension. Oguchi H, Sasamura H, Shinoda K, et al. Hypertension 64(4), 784-91, (2014)

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Intranasal angiotensin II in humans reduces blood pressure when angiotensin II type 1 receptors are blocked. Derad I, Sayk F, Lehnert H, et al. Hypertension 63(4), 762-7, (2014)

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Endothelial metabolism of angiotensin II to angiotensin III, not angiotensin (1-7), augments the vasorelaxation response in adrenal cortical arteries. Kopf PG and Campbell WB Endocrinology 154(12), 4768-76, (2013)

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The role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the organum vasculosum lateral terminalis in the control of sodium appetite in male rats. Grafe LA, Takacs AE, Yee DK, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(28), 9249-60, (2014)

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Class A scavenger receptor deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling. Qian L, Li X, Fang R, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 90(3), 254-64, (2014)

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Stimulation of ANP by angiotensin-(1-9) via the angiotensin type 2 receptor. Cha SA, Park BM, Gao S, et al. Life Sci. 93(24), 934-40, (2013)

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CXCR6 plays a critical role in angiotensin II-induced renal injury and fibrosis. Xia Y, Jin X, Yan J, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 34(7), 1422-8, (2014)

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Identification and characterization of novel inhibitors of Mammalian aspartyl aminopeptidase. Chen Y, Tang H, Seibel W, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 86(2), 231-42, (2014)

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Comparison of arterial pressure and plasma ANG II responses to three methods of subcutaneous ANG II administration. Kuroki MT, Fink GD, and Osborn JW Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(5), H670-9, (2014)

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Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) deficiency accelerates the progression of kidney fibrosis. Jang HS, Kim JI, Noh M, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1842(9), 1733-41, (2014)

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Estrogen regulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system in protection against angiotensin II-induced sensitization of hypertension. Xue B, Zhang Z, Beltz TG, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(2), H191-8, (2014)

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Novel role of aminopeptidase-A in angiotensin-(1-7) metabolism post myocardial infarction. Alghamri MS, Morris M, Meszaros JG, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 306(7), H1032-40, (2014)

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Discharge of RVLM vasomotor neurons is not increased in anesthetized angiotensin II-salt hypertensive rats. Pedrino GR, Calderon AS, Andrade MA, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 305(12), H1781-9, (2013)

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Pinocembrin inhibits angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction via suppression of the increase of [Ca2+]i and ERK1/2 activation through blocking AT(1)R in the rat aorta. Li L, Pang XB, Chen BN, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 435(1), 69-75, (2013)

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The procognitive and synaptogenic effects of angiotensin IV-derived peptides are dependent on activation of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-met system. Benoist CC, Kawas LH, Zhu M, et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 351(2), 390-402, (2014)

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Ang II-AT1R increases cell migration through PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways in breast cancer. Zhao Y, Wang H, Li X, et al. J. Cell Physiol. 229(11), 1855-62, (2014)

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Angiotensin II-induced protein kinase D activates the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and promotes StAR mRNA expression. Olala LO, Choudhary V, Johnson MH, et al. Endocrinology 155(7), 2524-33, (2014)

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Aldosterone secretagogues increase adrenal blood flow in male rats. Ansurudeen I, Kopf PG, Gauthier KM, et al. Endocrinology 155(1), 127-32, (2014)

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Effects of acid challenges on type 2 angiotensin II receptor-sensitive ammonia production by the proximal tubule. Nagami GT, Plumer AK, Beyda RM, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(1), F53-7, (2014)

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Syncytial communication in descending vasa recta includes myoendothelial coupling. Zhang Z, Payne K, and Pallone TL Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(1), F41-52, (2014)

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Increasing cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity attenuates unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Cui W, Maimaitiyiming H, Qi X, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 306(9), F996-1007, (2014)

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Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase. Cozzoli A, Liantonio A, Conte E, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 307(7), C634-47, (2014)

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Protein kinase D1 mediates class IIa histone deacetylase phosphorylation and nuclear extrusion in intestinal epithelial cells: role in mitogenic signaling. Sinnett-Smith J, Ni Y, Wang J, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 306(10), C961-71, (2014)

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ANG II modulates both slow and rapid baroreflex responses of barosensitive bulbospinal neurons in the rabbit rostral ventrolateral medulla. Saigusa T and Arita J Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 306(8), R538-51, (2014)

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Paraventricular nucleus control of blood pressure in two-kidney, one-clip rats: effects of exercise training and resting blood pressure. Rossi NF, Chen H, and Maliszewska-Scislo M Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(11), R1390-400, (2013)

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Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Hao XQ, Zhang SY, Cheng XC, et al. Poult. Sci. 92(6), 1492-7, (2013)

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Nifedipine inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis via downregulating Nox4-derived ROS generation and suppressing ERK1/2, JNK signaling pathways. Jia Y, Xu J, Yu Y, et al. Pharmazie 68(6), 435-41, (2013)

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The effect of intermedin on angiotensin II and endothelin-1 induced ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat. Liu K, Deng X, Gong L, et al. Clin. Lab. 59(5-6), 589-96, (2013)

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Inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase prevents angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis in vitro. Li Z, Bi X, Wang M, et al. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 176(3), 429-37, (2014)

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Angiotensin II inhibits ADH-stimulated cAMP: role on O2- and transport-related oxygen consumption in the loop of Henle. Silva GB, Juncos LI, Baigorria ST, et al. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 27(2), 569-78, (2013)

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From autophagy to senescence and apoptosis in Angiotensin II-treated vascular endothelial cells. Shan H, Guo D, Li X, et al. APMIS 122(10), 985-92, (2014)

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The effect of high-fructose intake on the vasopressor response to angiotensin II and adrenergic agonists in Sprague-Dawley rats. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 26(4), 727-32, (2013)

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Cardamonin inhibits angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by downregulating p38 MAPK, Akt, and ERK phosphorylation. Shen YJ, Zhu XX, Yang X, et al. J. Nat. Med. 68(3), 623-9, (2014)

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Cardiovascular responses to injections of angiotensin II or carbachol into the rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats with AV3V lesions. Vieira AA, Colombari E, De Luca LA, et al. Neurosci. Lett. 556, 32-6, (2013)

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[Angiotensin II: the risk factor for arterial thrombosis]. Kamińska M, Musiał W, and Chabielska E Kardiol. Pol. 71(4), 410-6, (2013)

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New ways to dismantle a ticking time bomb: microRNA 712/205 and abdominal aortic aneurysm development. Maegdefessel L, Spin JM, and Tsao PS Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 34(7), 1339-40, (2014)

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Importance of estrogen metabolites. Lindsey SH Hypertension 64(1), 21-2, (2014)

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Integrin-linked kinase: a new member of the kinases involved in hypertensive end-organ damage? Obama T and Eguchi S Clin. Sci. 127(1), 15-7, (2014)

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Intracellular renin-angiotensin signaling: working from the inside-out in hypothalamic neurons. Focus on "Direct evidence of intracrine angiotensin II signaling in neurons". Wondergem R Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 306(8), C721-3, (2014)

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Aortic aneurysms in Loeys-Dietz syndrome - a tale of two pathways? Davis F, Rateri DL, and Daugherty A J. Clin. Invest. 124(1), 79-81, (2014)

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Diverse contributions from the initial discovery of mechanisms of angiotensin II-induced oxidation in smooth muscle cells. Daugherty A and Lu H Circ. Res. 113(12), 1283-5, (2013)

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Solving the cardiac hypertrophy riddle: The angiotensin II-mechanical stress connection. Zablocki D and Sadoshima J Circ. Res. 113(11), 1192-5, (2013)

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Interplay between sodium and calcium regulatory hormones: a clinically relevant research field. Tomaschitz A and Pilz S Hypertension 63(2), 212-4, (2014)

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Decoding noncoding RNA: da Vinci redux? Sandberg K, Samson WK, and Ji H Circ. Res. 113(3), 240-1, (2013)

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Add another killer for interfered vascular function: natural killer cells-produced interferon-γ is a cue. Du J, Jia L, Li Y, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 33(6), 1116-7, (2013)

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Vascular lesions in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: is angiotensin II the culprit? Heagerty AM Hypertension 62(1), 8-9, (2013)

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