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A9539 Sigma

Agarose

BioReagent, for molecular biology, low EEO

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Description

Analysis Note

The following is a list of properties associated with our agaroses:
Sulfate content - used as an indicator of purity, since sulfate is the major ionic group present.
Gel strength - the force that must be applied to a gel to cause it to fracture.
Gel point - the temperature at which an aqueous agarose solution forms a gel as it cools. Agarose solutions exhibit hysteresis in the liquid-to-gel transition - that is, their gel point is not the same as their melting temperature.
Electroendosmosis (EEO) - a movement of liquid through the gel. Anionic groups in an agarose gel are affixed to the matrix and cannot move, but dissociable counter cations can migrate toward the cathode in the matrix, giving rise to EEO. Since electrophoretic movement of biopolymers is usually toward the anode, EEO can disrupt separations because of internal convection.

Application

Routine use agarose is ideal for everyday analysis of nucleic acids by gel electrophoresis or blotting (Northern or Southern) and is also suitable for protein applications such as Ouchterlony and radial immunodiffusion (RID). Has low ethidium bromide and SYBR Green background staining.

General description

Agar belongs to the galactan polysaccharides, which make up the intracellular matrix in red seaweeds/marine algae belonging to class Rhodophyta. Agar is naturally slightly sulfated, and is a complex mixture of polysaccharides. Agarose is a neutral polymer component of agar. Heating of agarose gives rise to solution form which on cooling sets into gel form. Gel formation occurs due to double helical formation from molecular chains, which forms a water-immobilizing network.1

Price and Availability

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Safety & Documentation

Protocols & Articles

Protocols

Experienced User Protocol | GenElut Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit

For experienced users, an abbreviated protocol is listed below. For data, images, troubleshooting and other information, please see the full length protocol page.

GenElute Bacterial Genomic DNA Kit Protocol

Sigma's GenElute™ Bacterial Genomic DNA Kit provides a simple and convenient way to isolate pure DNA from a variety of cultured bacteria. The kit contains all of the reagents needed to isolate and pu...
Keywords: Amplification, Anticoagulants, Applications, Catalog, Cell disruption, Centrifugation, Degradations, Digestions, Evaporation, Help, Instructions, MSDS, Molecular biology, Nucleic acid denaturation, Phase transitions, Polymerase chain reaction, Precipitation, Type

GenElute Bacterial Genomic DNA Kit, Experienced User Protocol

For experienced users, an abbreviated protocol is listed below. For data, images, troubleshooting and other information.

GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit Protocol

Sigma’s GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit provides a simple and convenient way to isolate pure genomic DNA from a variety of cultured cells, tissues (including rodent tails), and fresh whol...

GenElute™ Blood Genomic DNA Kit Protocol (NA2010, NA2020)

Sigma’s GenElute™ Blood Genomic DNA Kit provides a simple and convenient way to isolate pure genomic DNA from fresh or aged (older than 24 hours) whole blood. The kit combines the advantages of silic...
Keywords: AGE, Addition reactions, Amplification, Anticoagulants, Applications, Catalog, Cell disruption, Centrifugation, Digestions, Electrophoresis, Evaporation, Gel electrophoresis, Help, Instructions, MSDS, Molecular biology, Nucleic acid denaturation, Phase transitions, Polymerase chain reaction, Precipitation, Purification, Sequencing

Related Content

Agarose Selection Guide

From our library of Related Content, Sigma-Aldrich presents Agarose Selection Guide
Keywords: Cell culture, Electrophoresis, Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, Molecular biology, Protein electrophoresis, Separation

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Distinct features of cap binding by eIF4E1b proteins. Kubacka D, Miguel RN, Minshall N, et al. J. Mol. Biol. 427(2), 387-405, (2015)

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Towards the N-terminal acetylome: an N-terminal acetylated peptide enrichment method using CNBr-activated sepharose resin. Zhang X and Højrup P Methods Mol. Biol. 981, 47-56, (2013)

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Agarose droplet microfluidics for highly parallel and efficient single molecule emulsion PCR. Leng X and Yang CJ Methods Mol. Biol. 949, 413-22, (2013)

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Tandem lectin weak affinity chromatography for glycoprotein enrichment. Ma ZY, Skorobogatko Y, and Vosseller K Methods Mol. Biol. 951, 21-31, (2013)

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[Purification and physico-chemical properties of Cryptococcus albidus 1001 alpha-L-rhamnosidase]. Mikrobiol. Z. 74(6), 16-23, (2012)

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Amino acid side chain interaction with chelate-liganded crosslinked dextran, agarose and TSK gel. A mini review of recent work. Porath J J. Mol. Recognit. 3(3), 123-7, (1990)

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The Pbx interaction motif of Hoxa1 is essential for its oncogenic activity. Delval, S., et al. PLoS ONE 6(9), e25247, (2011)

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Protein adsorption to poly(ethylenimine)-modified Sepharose FF: III. Comparison between different proteins. Hong Y, Liu N, Wei W, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1342, 30-6, (2014)

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Multifunctional three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks for smart materials. Liu J, Xie C, Dai X, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(17), 6694-9, (2013)

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Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers. Baird, NA PLoS ONE 3(10), e3376, (2008)

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Long-term imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans using nanoparticle-mediated immobilization. Kim E, Sun L, Gabel CV, et al. PLoS ONE 8(1), e53419, (2013)

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Substrate recognition and hydrolysis by a family 50 exo-β-agarase, Aga50D, from the marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans. Pluvinage B, Hehemann JH, and Boraston AB J. Biol. Chem. 288(39), 28078-88, (2013)

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Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-mediated serine phosphorylation of the human glucocorticoid receptor redirects gene expression profiles. Galliher-Beckley AJ Mol. Cell. Biol. 28(24), 7309-22, (2008)

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Combination of fibrin-agarose hydrogels and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration. Carriel V, Garrido-Gómez J, Hernández-Cortés P, et al. J. Neural Eng. 10(2), 026022, (2013)

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Dynamic integration of subplate neurons into the cortical barrel field circuitry during postnatal development in the Golli-tau-eGFP (GTE) mouse. Piñon MC J. Physiol. 587(Pt 9), 1903-15, (2009)

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Agarose overlay selectively improves macrocolony formation and radiosensitivity assessment in primary fibroblasts. Chandna S, Dagur RS, Mathur A, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 90(5), 401-6, (2014)

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Residues in the 11 A channel of histone deacetylase 1 promote catalytic activity: implications for designing isoform-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors. Weerasinghe SV J. Med. Chem. 51(18), 5542-51, (2008)

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Angiopoietin-like protein 4 inhibition of lipoprotein lipase: evidence for reversible complex formation. Lafferty MJ, Bradford KC, Erie DA, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(40), 28524-34, (2013)

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Integrated system for temperature-controlled fast protein liquid chromatography comprising improved copolymer modified beaded agarose adsorbents and a travelling cooling zone reactor arrangement. Müller TK, Cao P, Ewert S, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1285, 97-109, (2013)

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Dynamic binding capacity and specificity of 3,8-diamino-6-phenylphenanthridine-Sepharose support for purification of supercoiled plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. Caramelo-Nunes C, Bicho D, Almeida P, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1307, 91-8, (2013)

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Functional analysis of the Streptomyces coelicolor NrdR ATP-cone domain: role in nucleotide binding, oligomerization, and DNA interactions. Grinberg I J. Bacteriol. 191(4), 1169-79, (2009)

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A non-exothermic cell-embedding tissue-mimicking material for studies of ultrasound-induced hyperthermia and drug release. Mylonopoulou E, Bazán-Peregrino M, Arvanitis CD, et al. Int. J. Hyperthermia 29(2), 133-44, (2013)

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Complement consumption in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nyakoe, NK Malaria Journal 8, 7, (2009)

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Temporal effect of inertial cavitation with and without microbubbles on surface deformation of agarose S gel in the presence of 1-MHz focused ultrasound. Tomita Y, Matsuura T, and Kodama T Ultrasonics 55, 1-5, (2015)

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An overview of the visualisation and quantitation of low and high MW DNA adducts using the trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining (TARDIS) assay. Cowell IG, Tilby MJ, and Austin CA Mutagenesis 26(2), 253-60, (2011)

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Structural basis for Pan3 binding to Pan2 and its function in mRNA recruitment and deadenylation. Wolf J, Valkov E, Allen MD, et al. EMBO J. 33(14), 1514-26, (2014)

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Methods for recovering nucleic acid fragments from agarose gels. Duro G, Izzo V, and Barbieri R J. Chromatogr. A 618(1-2), 95-104, (1993)

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for MRI-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy: novel marker-flange for cervical cancer and marker catheters for prostate cancer. Schindel J, Muruganandham M, Pigge FC, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 86(2), 387-93, (2013)

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Immobilization and stabilization of cholesterol oxidase on modified sepharose particles. Chen Y, Xin Y, Yang H, et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 56, 6-13, (2013)

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Deformation gradients imprint the direction and speed of en masse fibroblast migration for fast healing. Pan Z, Ghosh K, Hung V, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(10), 2471-9, (2013)

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Cat and dog primordial follicles enclosed in ovarian cortex sustain viability after in vitro culture on agarose gel in a protein-free medium. Fujihara M, Comizzoli P, Wildt DE, et al. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 47 Suppl 6, 102-8, (2012)

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The agarose migration inhibition technique for in vitro demonstration of cell-mediated immunity in man. A review. Clausen JE Dan. Med. Bull. 22(5), 181-94, (1975)

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Expression of metallothionein and alpha-tubulin in heavy metal-tolerant Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). Mireji PO Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 73(1), 46-50, (2010)

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Functional heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant protein-D in cystic fibrosis. Kotecha S, Doull I, Davies P, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1832(12), 2391-400, (2013)

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"Flip-flop" orientation of agarose gel fibers in pulsed alternating electric fields. Stellwagen NC and Stellwagen J Electrophoresis 14(4), 355-68, (1993)

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Tailor-made cell patterning using a near-infrared-responsive composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes. Koga H, Sada T, Fujigaya T, et al. Biofabrication 5(1), 015010, (2013)

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Influence of the agarose matrix in pulsed-field electrophoresis. F.H. Kirkpatrick et al. Electrophoresis 14, 349, (1993)

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A biomimetic Protein G affinity adsorbent: an Ugi ligand for immunoglobulins and Fab fragments based on the third IgG-binding domain of Protein G. El Khoury G and Lowe CR J. Mol. Recognit. 26(4), 190-200, (2013)

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WFDC1/ps20 is a novel innate immunomodulatory signature protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-permissive CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells that promotes infection by upregulating CD54 integrin expression and is elevated in HIV type 1 infection. R. Alvarez et al J. Virol. 82, 471-86, (2008)

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Modification of agarose with carboxylation and grafting dopamine for promotion of its cell-adhesiveness. Su Y, Chu B, Gao Y, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 92(2), 2245-51, (2013)

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Metabolic regulation of CaMKII protein and caspases in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. McCoy F, Darbandi R, Chen SI, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(13), 8838-48, (2013)

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Competitive stem cell recruitment by multiple cytotactic cues. Mendelson A, Cheung Yk, Paluch K, et al. Lab Chip 13(6), 1156-64, (2013)

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In-gel expression and in situ immobilization of proteins for generation of three dimensional protein arrays in a hydrogel matrix. Byun JY, Lee KH, Lee KY, et al. Lab Chip 13(5), 886-91, (2013)

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Regeneration of viable oil palm plants from protoplasts by optimizing media components, growth regulators and cultivation procedures. Masani MY, Noll G, Parveez GK, et al. Plant Sci. 210, 118-27, (2013)

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Development of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues for 3.0-T MRI. Hattori K, Ikemoto Y, Takao W, et al. Med. Phys. 40(3), 032303, (2013)

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A conserved acidic patch in the Myb domain is required for activation of an endogenous target gene and for chromatin binding. Ko ER Mol. Cancer 7, 77, (2008)

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Co-immobilization of fungal endo-xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase in glyoxyl agarose for improved hydrolysis of arabinoxylan. Damásio AR, Pessela BC, da Silva TM, et al. J. Biochem. 154(3), 275-80, (2013)

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Conformational and thermal stability improvements for the large-scale production of yeast-derived rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus-like particles as multipurpose vaccine. Fernández E, Toledo JR, Méndez L, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e56417, (2013)

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Integrative refolding and purification of histidine-tagged protein by like-charge facilitated refolding and metal-chelate affinity adsorption. Liu H, Du WJ, Dong XY, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1344, 59-65, (2014)

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Distinct population of highly malignant cells in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line established by xenograft model. Chen CY J. Biomed. Sci. 16, 100, (2009)

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An extra peptide within the catalytic module of a β-agarase affects the agarose degradation pattern. Han WJ, Gu JY, Liu HH, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(13), 9519-31, (2013)

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Binding analysis between L-histidine immobilized and oligonucleotides by SPR and NMR. Cruz C, Santos SD, Cabrita EJ, et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 56, 175-80, (2013)

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An ectotherm homologue of human predicted gene NAT16 encodes histidine N-acetyltransferase responsible for Nα-acetylhistidine synthesis. Yamada S and Arikawa S Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1840(1), 434-42, (2014)

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Purification of human immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to tumor necrosis factor using affinity chromatography and magnetic separation. Sennikov SV, Golikova EA, Kireev FD, et al. J. Immunol. Methods 390(1-2), 92-8, (2013)

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Simple generation of neurons from human embryonic stem cells using agarose multiwell dishes. Birenboim R, Markus A, and Goldstein RS J. Neurosci. Methods 214(1), 9-14, (2013)

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Mousepox detected in a research facility: case report and failure of mouse antibody production testing to identify Ectromelia virus in contaminated mouse serum. Labelle P Comp. Med. 59(2), 180-6, (2009)

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Cesium accumulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 strain immobilized in hydrogel matrices. Takei T, Yamasaki M, and Yoshida M J. Biosci. Bioeng. 117(4), 497-500, (2014)

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Accuracy of iodine removal using dual-energy CT with or without a tin filter: an experimental phantom study. Kawai T, Takeuchi M, Hara M, et al. Acta radiol. 54(8), 954-60, (2013)

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Trypanosoma cruzi chemical proteomics using immobilized benznidazole. Trochine A, Alvarez G, Corre S, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 140, 33-8, (2014)

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Agarose gel tailored calcium carbonate nanoparticles-synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation. Biradar S, Goornavar V, Periyakaruppan A, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 4257-63, (2014)

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Determination of leakage from antibody adsorbent: composition analysis and pH effect. Zhao L, Liu Y, Wang Y, et al. Biomed. Chromatogr. 27(9), 1089-91, (2013)

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Hydrolysis of chickpea proteins with Flavourzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose gels improves functional properties. del Mar Yust M, del Carmen Millán-Linares M, Alcaide-Hidalgo JM, et al. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 19(3), 217-23, (2013)

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Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from piglets with porcine circovirus associated diseases in Colombia. Rincón Monroy MA, Ramirez-Nieto GC, Vera VJ, et al. Virol. J. 11, 143, (2014)

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3D arrays for high throughput assay of cell migration and electrotaxis. Zhao S, Gao R, Devreotes PN, et al. Cell Biol. Int. 37(9), 995-1002, (2013)

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Removable silicon insertion stiffeners for neural probes using polyethylene glycol as a biodissolvable adhesive. Felix S, Shah K, George D, et al. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2012, 871-4, (2012)

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RegBook 1 (1), 203:C

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