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B0300 Sigma

Betaine solution

5 M, PCR Reagent

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Properties

Related Categories Biochemicals, Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Reagents, PCR Enhancers, PCR Reaction Components,
grade   PCR Reagent
form   liquid
packaging   vial of 1.5 mL
concentration   5 M
color   colorless
Featured Industry   Agriculture
foreign activity   DNase, RNase, none detected
storage temp.   2-8°C

Description

Application

The addition of betaine at a final concentration of 0.8-1.6M improves the amplification of DNA by reducing the formation of secondary structure in GC-rich regions. The addition of betaine has been reported to enhance the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by eliminating the base pair composition dependence of DNA melting.1

Packaging

1.5mL per vial

Price and Availability


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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

Protocols

Long and Accurate PCR Amplification of DNA D8045 Protocol

Effective denaturation is accomplished by the use of higher temperatures for shorter periods of time or by the use of co-solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide. Addition of DMSO in the reaction at a fi...

Long and Accurate PCR Amplification of DNA with RedAccuTaq D4812 Protocol

Reaction Optimization Reliable amplification of long DNA sequences requires: 1) effective denaturation of DNA template, 2) adequate extension times to produce large products and 3) protection of targ...

Low Contaminant Amplification of DNA Using MTP Taq DNA Polymerase D7442 Protocol

Every precaution should be taken to avoid contamination of reagents with unknown/unwanted DNA. This includes the following:

Quantitative Probe Based PCR for Gene Expression

In recent years Quantitative PCR has reached a level of sensitivity, accuracy, and ease to support use as a routine assay for measuring gene level expression. The field of cancer research is currentl...

Related Content

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Sigma-Aldrich’s chemistry expertise can help customers develop and optimize their entire genotyping workflow to reduce cost per data point while increasing throughput rates. In addition, our global d...
Keywords: Amplification, Polymerase chain reaction, Polymerase chain reaction - quantitative, Sequencing, Whole genome amplification

Agriculture | Plant Breeding Workflow

Sigma-Aldrich products are aligned to the discovery, development and production phases of the plant breeding workflow, allowing you to develop and produce new crop varieties faster. With materials ma...
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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Betaine can eliminate the base pair composition dependence of DNA melting. Rees, W. A., et al. Biochemistry 32, 137-144, (1993)

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An enhanced polymerase chain reaction assay to detect pre- and full mutation alleles of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene. Saluto, A., et al. J. Mol. Diagn. 7, 605, (2005)

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A rapid polymerase chain reaction-based screening method for identification of all expanded alleles of the fragile X (FMR1) gene in newborn and high-risk populations. Tassone, F., et al. J. Mol. Diagn. 10, 43, (2008)

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Betaine improves the PCR amplification of GC-rich DNA sequences. Henke, W., et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 25, 3957-3958, (1997)

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Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. Tang WH, Wang Z, Levison BS, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 368(17), 1575-84, (2013)

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DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women. Dominguez-Salas P, Moore SE, Cole D, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97(6), 1217-27, (2013)

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Homocysteine-betaine interactions in a murine model of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Schwahn BC, Chen Z, Laryea MD, et al. FASEB J. 17(3), 512-4, (2003)

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HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 37(Database issue), D603-10, (2009)

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The human serum metabolome. Psychogios N, Hau DD, Peng J, et al. PLoS ONE 6(2), e16957, (2011)

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Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Olthof MR and Verhoef P Curr. Drug Metab. 6(1), 15-22, (2005)

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Effects of amplification facilitators on diagnostic PCR in the presence of blood, feces, and meat. Abu Al-Soud W and Rådström P J. Clin. Microbiol. 38(12), 4463-70, (2000)

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Genetic variants associated with glycine metabolism and their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. Xie W, Wood AR, Lyssenko V, et al. Diabetes 62(6), 2141-50, (2013)

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Determination of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in plasma by a high-throughput method based on normal-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Holm PI, Ueland PM, Kvalheim G, et al. Clin. Chem. 49(2), 286-94, (2003)

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Liquid-chromatographic determination of guanidino compounds in plasma and erythrocyte of normal persons and uremic patients. Kikuchi T, Orita Y, Ando A, et al. Clin. Chem. 27(11), 1899-902, (1981)

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Efficacy of osmoprotectants on prevention and treatment of murine dry eye. Chen W, Zhang X, Li J, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(9), 6287-97, (2013)

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Choline and betaine in health and disease. Ueland PM J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 34(1), 3-15, (2011)

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Heparin-induced release of protein-bound solutes during hemodialysis is an in vitro artifact. De Smet R, Van Kaer J, Liebich H, et al. Clin. Chem. 47(5), 901-9, (2001)

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Betaine: a key modulator of one-carbon metabolism and homocysteine status. Ueland PM, Holm PI, and Hustad S Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 43(10), 1069-75, (2005)

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Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, et al. J. Nutr. 142(1), 14-21, (2012)

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Betaine supplement alleviates hepatic triglyceride accumulation of apolipoprotein E deficient mice via reducing methylation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha promoter. Wang L, Chen L, Tan Y, et al. Lipids Health Dis. 12, 34, (2013)

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Plasma amino acid profile on nocturnal hemodialysis. Raj DS, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, et al. Blood Purif. 18(2), 97-102, (2000)

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Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, et al. Nature 457(7231), 910-4, (2009)

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Betaine is a positive regulator of mitochondrial respiration. Lee I Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 456(2), 621-5, (2015)

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Monepantel irreversibly binds to and opens Haemonchus contortus MPTL-1 and Caenorhabditis elegans ACR-20 receptors. Baur R, Beech R, Sigel E, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 87(1), 96-102, (2015)

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Plasma choline metabolites and colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Bae S, Ulrich CM, Neuhouser ML, et al. Cancer Res. 74(24), 7442-52, (2014)

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Mallory-Denk Body (MDB) formation modulates Ufmylation expression epigenetically in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liu H, Gong M, French BA, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 97(3), 477-83, (2014)

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[Investigation of optimum concentrations of betaine for improving the resolution of sequencing G-C rich DNA with trinucleotide repeats]. Wang D, Cai H, and Yu L Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 31(2), 163-9, (2014)

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[Cryoprotection of compatible-solutes for Methanolobus psychrophilus R15]. Wu Y, Ai G, and Dong X Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(10), 1050-5, (2013)

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Use of statistical modeling to predict the effect of formulation composition on conditioning shampoo performance. Lepilleur C, Giovannitti-Jensen A, and Kyer C J. Cosmet. Sci. 64(6), 411-27, (2013)

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Sarcosine and other metabolites along the choline oxidation pathway in relation to prostate cancer--a large nested case-control study within the JANUS cohort in Norway. de Vogel S, Ulvik A, Meyer K, et al. Int. J. Cancer 134(1), 197-206, (2014)

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Recognition of betaine as an inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in activated microglial cells. Amiraslani B, Sabouni F, Abbasi S, et al. Iran. Biomed. J. 16(2), 84-9, (2012)

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Fibrates plus betaine: a winning combination? Lever M, George PM, Slow S, et al. N. Z. Med. J. 123(1324), 74-8, (2010)

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Evaluation of serum fetuin-A relationships with biochemical parameters in patients on hemodialysis. Oikawa O, Higuchi T, Yamazaki T, et al. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 11(4), 304-8, (2007)

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Accumulation of toxic products degradation of kynurenine in hemodialyzed patients. Pawlak D, Pawlak K, Malyszko J, et al. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 33(2), 399-404, (2001)

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Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption. Van Dorsten FA, Daykin CA, Mulder TP, et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(18), 6929-38, (2006)

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Betaine in human nutrition. Craig SA Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(3), 539-49, (2004)

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Low plasma vitamin B-12 is associated with a lower pregnancy-associated rise in plasma free choline in Canadian pregnant women and lower postnatal growth rates in their male infants. Wu BT, Innis SM, Mulder KA, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98(5), 1209-17, (2013)

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Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, et al. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96(9), 2711-7, (2001)

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Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects. Schwab U, Törrönen A, Toppinen L, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76(5), 961-7, (2002)

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Urinary metabolite quantification employing 2D NMR spectroscopy. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Kaspar H, et al. Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9288-97, (2008)

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Novel pH-sensitive micelles generated by star-shape copolymers containing zwitterionic sulfobetaine for efficient cellular internalization. Cao J, Zhai S, Li C, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 1847-61, (2013)

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Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium. Purohit V, Abdelmalek MF, Barve S, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 86(1), 14-24, (2007)

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Trehalose/2-sulfotrehalose biosynthesis and glycine-betaine uptake are widely spread mechanisms for osmoadaptation in the Halobacteriales. Youssef NH, Savage-Ashlock KN, McCully AL, et al. ISME J. 8(3), 636-49, (2014)

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Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, et al. Kidney Int. 59(6), 2267-72, (2001)

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Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism? Pajares MA and Pérez-Sala D Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 63(23), 2792-803, (2006)

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Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, et al. Kidney Int. 79(11), 1244-53, (2011)

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Circulating concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its de-esterified phthalic acid products following plasticizer exposure in patients receiving hemodialysis. Pollack GM, Buchanan JF, Slaughter RL, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 79(2), 257-67, (1985)

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Removal of the protein-bound solutes indican and p-cresol sulfate by peritoneal dialysis. Pham NM, Recht NS, Hostetter TH, et al. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 3(1), 85-90, (2008)

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Folate and B12 in prostate cancer. Collin SM Adv. Clin. Chem. 60, 1-63, (2013)

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Diet influences expression of autoimmune-associated genes and disease severity by epigenetic mechanisms in a transgenic mouse model of lupus. Strickland FM, Hewagama A, Wu A, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 65(7), 1872-81, (2013)

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Metabolic profiling of plasma from sows before parturition and during lactation using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach. Hedemann MS, Flummer C, Kristensen NB, et al. J. Anim. Sci. 90 Suppl 4, 200-2, (2012)

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Is cocamidopropyl betaine a contact allergen? Analysis of network data and short review of the literature. Schnuch A, Lessmann H, Geier J, et al. Contact Dermatitis 64(4), 203-11, (2011)

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Silver-zwitterion organic-inorganic nanocomposite with antimicrobial and antiadhesive capabilities. Hu R, Li G, Jiang Y, et al. Langmuir 29(11), 3773-9, (2013)

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Mouse model for deficiency of methionine synthase reductase exhibits short-term memory impairment and disturbances in brain choline metabolism. Jadavji NM, Bahous RH, Deng L, et al. Biochem. J. 461(2), 205-12, (2014)

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Homeostasis and catabolism of choline and glycine betaine: lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wargo MJ Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(7), 2112-20, (2013)

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Betaine suppresses proinflammatory signaling during aging: the involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB via nuclear factor-inducing kinase/IkappaB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Go EK, Jung KJ, Kim JY, et al. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 60(10), 1252-64, (2005)

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Osmotic regulation of hepatic betaine metabolism. Hoffmann L, Brauers G, Gehrmann T, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 304(9), G835-46, (2013)

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Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss. Vanhauteghem D, Janssens GP, Lauwaerts A, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e60328, (2013)

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Isolation of glycine betaine and proline betaine from human urine. Assessment of their role as osmoprotective agents for bacteria and the kidney. Chambers ST and Kunin CM J. Clin. Invest. 79(3), 731-7, (1987)

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Dietary choline and betaine intakes vary in an adult multiethnic population. Yonemori KM, Lim U, Koga KR, et al. J. Nutr. 143(6), 894-9, (2013)

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The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Lever M and Slow S Clin. Biochem. 43(9), 732-44, (2010)

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Maternal choline concentrations during pregnancy and choline-related genetic variants as risk factors for neural tube defects. Mills JL, Fan R, Brody LC, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 100(4), 1069-74, (2014)

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Thiamine deficiency and unexplained encephalopathy in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, et al. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 38(5), 941-7, (2001)

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Cobalamin C defect presenting with isolated pulmonary hypertension. Iodice FG, Di Chiara L, Boenzi S, et al. Pediatrics 132(1), e248-51, (2013)

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Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years. Boeke CE, Gillman MW, Hughes MD, et al. Am. J. Epidemiol. 177(12), 1338-47, (2013)

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The impact of structure on elasticity, switchability, stability and functionality of an all-in-one carboxybetaine elastomer. Cao B, Li L, Tang Q, et al. Biomaterials 34(31), 7592-600, (2013)

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Low folate status enhances pregnancy changes in plasma betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations and the association between betaine and homocysteine. Fernàndez-Roig S, Cavallé-Busquets P, Fernandez-Ballart JD, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97(6), 1252-9, (2013)

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Investigating multiple candidate genes and nutrients in the folate metabolism pathway to detect genetic and nutritional risk factors for lung cancer. Swartz MD, Peterson CB, Lupo PJ, et al. PLoS ONE 8(1), e53475, (2013)

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Betaine acts on a ligand-gated ion channel in the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans. Peden AS, Mac P, Fei YJ, et al. Nat. Neurosci. 16(12), 1794-801, (2013)

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Nicotinamide supplementation induces detrimental metabolic and epigenetic changes in developing rats. Li D, Tian YJ, Guo J, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 110(12), 2156-64, (2013)

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Plasma and urine betaine and dimethylglycine variation in healthy young male subjects. Lever M, Atkinson W, Slow S, et al. Clin. Biochem. 42(7-8), 706-12, (2009)

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Choline catabolism to glycine betaine contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa survival during murine lung infection. Wargo MJ PLoS ONE 8(2), e56850, (2013)

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Regioselectivity of the oxidative C-S bond formation in ergothioneine and ovothiol biosyntheses. Song H, Leninger M, Lee N, et al. Org. Lett. 15(18), 4854-7, (2013)

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Identification and quantification of diadenosine polyphosphate concentrations in human plasma. Jankowski J, Jankowski V, Laufer U, et al. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23(7), 1231-8, (2003)

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BetP of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a transporter with three different functions: betaine transport, osmosensing, and osmoregulation. Krämer R and Morbach S Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1658(1-2), 31-6, (2004)

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Structural evidence for functional lipid interactions in the betaine transporter BetP. Koshy C, Schweikhard ES, Gärtner RM, et al. EMBO J. 32(23), 3096-105, (2013)

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Elevated levels of plasma lipofuscins in patients with chronic renal failure. Hegedus ZL, Frank HA, Steinman TI, et al. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 96(5), 211-21, (1988)

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Characterization of the GbdR regulon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hampel KJ, LaBauve AE, Meadows JA, et al. J. Bacteriol. 196(1), 7-15, (2014)

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Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Diekman EF, de Koning TJ, Verhoeven-Duif NM, et al. JAMA Neurol. 71(2), 188-94, (2014)

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Associations between dietary intake of choline and betaine and lung cancer risk. Ying J, Rahbar MH, Hallman DM, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e54561, (2013)

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Osmotic regulation of renal betaine transport: transcription and beyond. Kempson SA and Montrose MH Pflugers Arch. 449(3), 227-34, (2004)

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Glycine betaine catabolism contributes to Pseudomonas syringae tolerance to hyperosmotic stress by relieving betaine-mediated suppression of compatible solute synthesis. Li S, Yu X, and Beattie GA J. Bacteriol. 195(10), 2415-23, (2013)

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Novel ternary vanadium-betaine-peroxido species suppresses H-ras and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by increasing reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. Petanidis S, Kioseoglou E, Hadzopoulou-Cladaras M, et al. Cancer Lett. 335(2), 387-96, (2013)

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Quantifying additive interactions of the osmolyte proline with individual functional groups of proteins: comparisons with urea and glycine betaine, interpretation of m-values. Diehl RC, Guinn EJ, Capp MW, et al. Biochemistry 52(35), 5997-6010, (2013)

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The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Lawson-Yuen A and Levy HL Mol. Genet. Metab. 88(3), 201-7, (2006)

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An open-label, 24-week pilot study of the methyl donor betaine in Alzheimer disease patients. Knopman D and Patterson M Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 15(3), 162-5, (2001)

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Plasma histamine in patients with chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. Gill DS, Fonseca VA, Barradas MA, et al. J. Clin. Pathol. 44(3), 243-5, (1991)

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Cocamidopropyl betaine. Jacob SE and Amini S Dermatitis 19(3), 157-60, (2008)

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Betaine supplementation and blood lipids: fact or artifact? Zeisel SH Nutr. Rev. 64(2 Pt 1), 77-9, (2006)

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Muscle metabolites, detected in urine by proton spectroscopy, correlate with disease damage in juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Chung YL, Rider LG, Bell JD, et al. Arthritis Rheum. 53(4), 565-70, (2005)

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Co-administration of methyl donors along with guanidinoacetic acid reduces the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia compared with guanidinoacetic acid administration alone. Ostojic SM, Niess B, Stojanovic M, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 110(5), 865-70, (2013)

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Betaine protects against high-fat-diet-induced liver injury by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 expression in rats. Zhang W, Wang LW, Wang LK, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(11), 3198-206, (2013)

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Membrane protein stability depends on the concentration of compatible solutes--a single molecule force spectroscopic study. Roychoudhury A, Bieker A, Häussinger D, et al. Biol. Chem. 394(11), 1465-74, (2013)

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Preservation and modulation of peritoneal function. A potential role of pyruvate and betaine. Gotloib L Contrib. Nephrol. 163, 74-81, (2009)

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The metabolic burden of methyl donor deficiency with focus on the betaine homocysteine methyltransferase pathway. Obeid R Nutrients 5(9), 3481-95, (2013)

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Cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity in patients with atopic dermatitis: reactivity to surfactants. Shaughnessy CN, Malajian D, and Belsito DV J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 70(4), 704-8, (2014)

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Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: clinical clues to a potentially treatable cause of adult-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia. Lossos A, Teltsh O, Milman T, et al. JAMA Neurol. 71(7), 901-4, (2014)

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Betaine 0.77-perhydrate 0.23-hydrate and common structural motifs in crystals of amino acid perhydrates. Minkov VS, Kapustin EA, and Boldyreva EV Acta Crystallogr. C 69(Pt 4), 416-20, (2013)

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Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women. Mygind VL, Evans SE, Peddie MC, et al. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 22(2), 319-24, (2013)

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Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing osmolyte glycine betaine synthesizing enzymes from halophilic methanogen promote tolerance to drought and salt stress. Lai SJ, Lai MC, Lee RJ, et al. Plant Mol. Biol. 85(4-5), 429-41, (2014)

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Osmolyte effects on the self-association of concanavalin A: testing theoretical models. Silvers TR and Myers JK Biochemistry 52(51), 9367-74, (2013)

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Effect of TMAO and betaine on the energy landscape of photosystem I. Nieder JB, Hussels M, Bittl R, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1837(6), 849-56, (2014)

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Mutation of a single threonine in the cytoplasmic NH2 terminus disrupts trafficking of renal betaine-GABA transporter 1 during hypertonic stress. Schweikhard ES, Kempson SA, Ziegler C, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(1), F107-15, (2014)

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Major factors modulating the serum oxalic acid level in hemodialysis patients. Ogawa Y, Machida N, Jahana M, et al. Front. Biosci. 9, 2901-8, (2004)

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Duplicated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) gene: transcription and methylation changes in response to dietary betaine in Landes goose liver. Yu SL, Su SY, Li QF, et al. Poult. Sci. 92(7), 1878-87, (2013)

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Dynamics of serum metabolites in patients with chronic hepatitis C receiving pegylated interferon plus ribavirin: a metabolomics analysis. Saito T, Sugimoto M, Igarashi K, et al. Metabolism 62(11), 1577-86, (2013)

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Zephgrabetaine: a new betaine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloid from Zephyranthes grandiflora. Katoch D, Kumar D, Sharma U, et al. Nat. Prod. Commun. 8(2), 161-4, (2013)

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Maternal nicotinamide supplementation causes global DNA hypomethylation, uracil hypo-incorporation and gene expression changes in fetal rats. Tian YJ, Luo N, Chen NN, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 111(9), 1594-601, (2014)

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Vitamin A and zinc status in patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Cabral PC, Diniz Ada S, and de Arruda IK Nephrology (Carlton.) 10(5), 459-63, (2005)

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System A amino acid transporter SNAT2 shows subtype-specific affinity for betaine and hyperosmotic inducibility in placental trophoblasts. Nishimura T, Yagi R, Usuda M, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1838(5), 1306-12, (2014)

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Salinity impacts photosynthetic pigmentation and cellular morphology changes by distinct mechanisms in Fremyella diplosiphon. Singh SP and Montgomery BL Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 433(1), 84-9, (2013)

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Structure and function of the betaine uptake system BetP of Corynebacterium glutamicum: strategies to sense osmotic and chill stress. Morbach S and Krämer R J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 10(2-4), 143-53, (2005)

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Quantifying the temperature dependence of glycine-betaine RNA duplex destabilization. Schwinefus JJ, Menssen RJ, Kohler JM, et al. Biochemistry 52(51), 9339-46, (2013)

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The effect of a continuous supply of betaine on the degradation of betaine in the rumen of dairy cows. Nakai T, Sato T, Teramura M, et al. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 77(3), 666-9, (2013)

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Structure determination of secondary transport proteins by electron crystallography: two-dimensional crystallization of the betaine uptake system BetP. Tsai CJ and Ziegler C J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 10(2-4), 197-207, (2005)

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Betaine and homocysteine concentrations in infant formulae and breast milk. Sakamoto A, Ono H, Mizoguchi N, et al. Pediatr. Int. 43(6), 637-40, (2001)

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Strategies to improve medication reconciliation. Jolobe OM Am. J. Med. 126(12), e49, (2013)

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Stroke in a young man. Narayanan D, Luvai A, Barski R, et al. BMJ 347, f4484, (2013)

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A mysterious case of dysphagia demystified by medication reconciliation. Ragunathan K and Chahal P Am. J. Med. 126(6), e1, (2013)

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