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C1057 Sigma

Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized powder, ≥900 units/mg protein

Synonym: Acylcholine acyl-hydrolase, Choline esterase, butyryl, Pseudocholinesterase

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Description

Analysis Note

Protein determined by biuret

Unit Definition

One unit will hydrolyze 1.0 μmole of butyrylcholine to choline and butyrate per min at pH 8.0 at 37 °C. The activity obtained using butyrylcholine as substrate is ~2.5 times that obtained using acetylcholine.

Physical form

Highly purified; contains buffer salts

Application

Selective inhibition of BChE activity can be used in the detection of organophosphates.1 Its use in the treatment of organophosphate toxicity has been explored. It has been reported that the level of BChE in human blood correlates to the degree of protection against potentially toxic nerve agents.2 Cholinesterases have also been investigated for their role in Alzheimer’s disease.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a serine hydrolase that is structurally similar to acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differs in substrate specificities and inhibitor sensitivities.BChE can, unlike AChE, efficiently hydrolyze larger esters of choline such as butyrylcholine and benzoylcholine. The enzyme is a tetrameric glycoprotein with four equal subunits (110 kDa each). The enzyme is activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. The activity is constant over the pH range of 6.0-8.0. It is inhibited by betaine, nicotine, organophosphates, and carbamate.

Price and Availability

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Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized powder, ≥10 units/mg protein

Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized powder, ≥500 units/mg protein

Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized, powder, light brown, 7-16 U/mg

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

Articles

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Determination of butyrylcholinesterase inhibition using ion transfer across the interface between two immiscible liquids Beattie PD, et al. Anal. Chem. 66(1), 52-57, (1994)

2. Tetramerization domain of human butyrylcholinesterase is at the C-terminus. Blong RM, Bedows E, and Lockridge O Biochem. J. 327 ( Pt 3), 747-57, (1997)

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Voltage-gated sodium channel modulation by sigma-receptors in cardiac myocytes and heterologous systems. Johannessen, M., et al. Am. J. Pathol. 296, C1049-57, (2009)

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A four-step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition. Hertzberg RC, Pan Y, Li R, et al. Toxicology 313(2-3), 134-44, (2013)

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Novel ghrelin assays provide evidence for independent regulation of ghrelin acylation and secretion in healthy young men. Liu, J., et al. J. Cell Physiol. 93, 1980-7, (2008)

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Indole alkaloids of Psychotria as multifunctional cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases inhibitors. Passos CS, Simões-Pires CA, Nurisso A, et al. Phytochemistry 86, 8-20, (2013)

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Characterization of plasma cholinesterase in rabbit and evaluation of the inhibitory potential of diazinon. Oropesa AL, Pérez-López M, and Soler F Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 100, 39-43, (2014)

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Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry. Casale T, Caciari T, Rosati MV, et al. Ann. Ig. 25(6), 519-27, (2013)

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Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity. Pérez J, Monteiro MS, Quintaneiro C, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 144-145, 296-302, (2013)

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Cholinesterases and neurotoxicity as highly sensitive biomarkers for an organophosphate insecticide in a freshwater gastropod (Chilina gibbosa) with low sensitivity carboxylesterases. Bianco K, Yusseppone MS, Otero S, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 144-145, 26-35, (2013)

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Temperature: a prolonged confounding factor on cholinesterase activity in the tropical reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Botté ES, Smith-Keune C, and Jerry DR Aquat. Toxicol. 140-141, 337-9, (2013)

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This special Issue of Chemico-Biological Interactions comprises 70 manuscripts from lectures and short talks given at the 11th International Meeting on Cholinesterases. Preface. Lushchekina S, Masson P, and Rosenberry TL Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 1-2, (2013)

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[To the 80-anniversary of cholinesterase. The cholinesterase club in Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry]. Rozengart EV, Basova NE, and Moralev SN Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 48(6), 537-41, (2012)

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Effect of hypoxanthine, antioxidants and allopurinol on cholinesterase activities in rats. Wamser MN, Leite EF, Ferreira VV, et al. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. 120(9), 1359-67, (2013)

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Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibition in Planorbarius corneus exposed to binary mixtures of azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos. Cacciatore LC, Guerrero NV, and Cochón AC Aquat. Toxicol. 128-129, 124-34, (2013)

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Ectoenzymes and cholinesterase activity and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with lung cancer. Zanini D, Schmatz R, Pelinson LP, et al. Mol. Cell Biochem. 374(1-2), 137-48, (2013)

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Preparation, characterization of Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles and their application for immunoassay of biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Zhang X, Wang H, Yang C, et al. Biosens. Bioelectron. 41, 669-74, (2013)

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Specific targeting of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase recognition sites. Rational design of novel, selective, and highly potent cholinesterase inhibitors. Savini L, Gaeta A, Fattorusso C, et al. J. Med. Chem. 46(1), 1-4, (2003)

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Immunogenic cell death biomarkers HMGB1, RAGE, and DNAse indicate response to radioembolization therapy and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Fahmueller YN, Nagel D, Hoffmann RT, et al. Int. J. Cancer 132(10), 2349-58, (2013)

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Environmental hazards of pesticides from pineapple crop production in the Río Jiménez watershed (Caribbean Coast, Costa Rica). Echeverría-Sáenz S, Mena F, Pinnock M, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 440, 106-14, (2012)

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Cholinesterase confabs and cousins: approaching forty years. Taylor P, De Jaco A, Comoletti D, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 10-3, (2013)

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Design, Synthesis And Evaluation Of 2,4-disubstituted Pyrimidines As Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Mohamed, T., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 3606-9, (2010)

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The Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog of a purported maize cholinesterase gene encodes a GDSL-lipase. Muralidharan M, Buss K, Larrimore KE, et al. Plant Mol. Biol. 81(6), 565-76, (2013)

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Amygdala projections to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the macaque: comparison with ventral striatal afferents. deCampo DM and Fudge JL J. Comp. Neurol. 521(14), 3191-216, (2013)

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Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families. Yan L, Yang P, Jiang F, et al. BMC Genomics 13, 609, (2012)

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Cell-specific effects on surface α7 nicotinic receptor expression revealed by over-expression and knockdown of rat RIC3 protein. Koperniak TM, Garg BK, Boltax J, et al. J. Neurochem. 124(3), 300-9, (2013)

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Recovery of residual curarization after red blood cell transfusion. Eckle VS, Schmid E, Fehm T, et al. Med. Sci. Monit. 18(11), CS91-3, (2012)

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Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron). Wong DM, Li J, Chen QH, et al. PLoS ONE 7(10), e46712, (2012)

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The progress in the cholinesterase quantification methods. Holas O, Musilek K, Pohanka M, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Discov. 7(12), 1207-23, (2012)

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Studies on cholinesterase: 4. Purification of pseudo-cholinesterase from horse serum. Strelitz F Biochem. J. 38(1), 86-8, (1944)

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Patient information sheet for plasma cholinesterase deficiency. Dillon D and Lee P Anaesthesia 68(10), 1085, (2013)

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The Leu-Arg-Glu (LRE) adhesion motif in proteins of the neuromuscular junction with special reference to proteins of the carboxylesterase/cholinesterase family. Johnson G and Moore SW Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part D. Genomics Proteomics 8(3), 231-43, (2013)

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Assessment of pesticide exposure in female population living in cotton growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Tahir S and Anwar T Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 89(6), 1138-41, (2012)

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Use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure used on Costa Rican banana plantations in the native tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860). Mena F, Azzopardi M, Pfennig S, et al. J. Environ Biol. 35(1), 35-42, (2014)

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An expedient, ionic liquid mediated multi-component synthesis of novel piperidone grafted cholinesterase enzymes inhibitors and their molecular modeling study. Basiri A, Murugaiyah V, Osman H, et al. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 67, 221-9, (2013)

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Inhibition of cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase-B activity by Tacrine-Homoisoflavonoid hybrids. Sun Y, Chen J, Chen X, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 21(23), 7406-17, (2013)

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Regional inhibition of cholinesterase in free-ranging western pond turtles (Emys marmorata) occupying California mountain streams. Meyer E, Sparling D, and Blumenshine S Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 32(3), 692-8, (2013)

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Effects of anthropogenic metallic contamination on cholinesterases of Gambusia holbrooki. Brandão F, Correia AT, Gonçalves F, et al. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 76(1-2), 72-6, (2013)

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Responses of B-esterase enzymes in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) transplanted to pesticide contaminated bays form the Ebro Delta (NE, Spain). Ochoa V, Riva C, Faria M, et al. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 66(1-2), 135-42, (2013)

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Chlorpyrifos is associated with slower serum cholinesterase recovery in acute organophosphate-poisoned patients. Chaou CH, Lin CC, Chen HY, et al. Clin. Toxicol. (Phila.) 51(5), 402-8, (2013)

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Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective. Rozengart EV, Basova NE, Moralev SN, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 3-9, (2013)

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The significance of low substrate concentration measurements for mechanistic interpretation in cholinesterases. Stojan J Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 44-50, (2013)

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Reversible effect of maternal exposure to chlorpyrifos on the intermediate granule cell progenitors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. Ohishi T, Wang L, Akane H, et al. Reprod. Toxicol. 35, 125-36, (2013)

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Characterization of plasma cholinesterase from the White stork (Ciconia ciconia) and its in vitro inhibition by anticholinesterase pesticides. Oropesa AL, Gravato C, Sánchez S, et al. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 97, 131-8, (2013)

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Characterization of cholinesterases in the damselfish Sergeant major (Abudefduf saxatilis). Rodríguez-Fuentes G, Soto M, and Luna-Ramírez K Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 96, 99-102, (2013)

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Oxidative stress and cholinesterase inhibition in plasma, erythrocyte and brain of rats' pups following lactational exposure to malathion. Selmi S, El-Fazaa S, and Gharbi N Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 34(3), 753-60, (2012)

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Novel cholinesterase modulators and their ability to interact with DNA. Janockova J, Gulasova Z, Musilek K, et al. Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 115, 364-9, (2013)

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Neospora caninum: Activity of cholinesterases during the acute and chronic phases of an experimental infection in gerbils. Tonin AA, Da Silva AS, Thomé GR, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 135(4), 669-74, (2013)

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Low-dose sarin exposure produces long term changes in brain neurochemistry of mice. Oswal DP, Garrett TL, Morris M, et al. Neurochem. Res. 38(1), 108-16, (2013)

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Plasma cholinesterase activity in the house finch, Carpodacus mexicanus, and the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, collected from pesticide-exposed agricultural land. González-Escalante L, Mercado-Hernández R, González-Rojas JI, et al. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 90(1), 9-11, (2013)

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The role of serum cholinesterase activity and S100B protein in the evaluation of organophosphate poisoning. Yardan T, Baydin A, Acar E, et al. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 32(10), 1081-8, (2013)

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Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica. Pinnock Branford MV, de la Cruz E, Solano K, et al. J. Environ Biol. 35(1), 29-34, (2014)

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Paraoxonase activity and genetic polymorphisms in northern Han Chinese workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Zhang X, Sui H, Li H, et al. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood.) 239(2), 232-9, (2014)

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QSAR, docking, dynamic simulation and quantum mechanics studies to explore the recognition properties of cholinesterase binding sites. Correa-Basurto J, Bello M, Rosales-Hernández MC, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 209, 1-13, (2014)

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Acute effects of Anabaena spiroides extract and paraoxon-methyl on freshwater cladocerans from tropical and temperate regions: links between the ChE activity and survival and its implications for tropical ecotoxicological studies. Freitas EC, Printes LB, and Rocha O Aquat. Toxicol. 146, 105-14, (2014)

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The enzymic hydrolysis and synthesis of acetylcholine. NACHMANSOHN D and WILSON IB Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 12, 259-339, (1951)

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Esterases in the milk and blood plasma of swine. I. Substrate specificity and electrophoresis studies. AUGUSTINSSON KB and OLSSON B Biochem. J. 71(3), 477-84, (1959)

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Cholinesterases of the tissues and sera of rabbits. KOELLE GB Biochem. J. 53(2), 217-26, (1953)

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Merck 14,2208

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