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C1057 Sigma

Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized powder, ≥900 units/mg protein

Synonym: Acylcholine acyl-hydrolase, Choline esterase, butyryl, Pseudocholinesterase

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Description

Analysis Note

Protein determined by biuret

Unit Definition

One unit will hydrolyze 1.0 μmole of butyrylcholine to choline and butyrate per min at pH 8.0 at 37 °C. The activity obtained using butyrylcholine as substrate is ~2.5 times that obtained using acetylcholine.

Physical form

Highly purified; contains buffer salts

Application

Selective inhibition of BChE activity can be used in the detection of organophosphates.1 Its use in the treatment of organophosphate toxicity has been explored. It has been reported that the level of BChE in human blood correlates to the degree of protection against potentially toxic nerve agents.2 Cholinesterases have also been investigated for their role in Alzheimer’s disease.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a serine hydrolase that is structurally similar to acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differs in substrate specificities and inhibitor sensitivities.BChE can, unlike AChE, efficiently hydrolyze larger esters of choline such as butyrylcholine and benzoylcholine. The enzyme is a tetrameric glycoprotein with four equal subunits (110 kDa each). The enzyme is activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. The activity is constant over the pH range of 6.0-8.0. It is inhibited by betaine, nicotine, organophosphates, and carbamate.

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Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized powder, ≥10 units/mg protein

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lyophilized powder, ≥500 units/mg protein

Butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum

lyophilized, powder, light brown, 7-16 U/mg

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Plasma Derived Proteins and Enzymes

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Determination of butyrylcholinesterase inhibition using ion transfer across the interface between two immiscible liquids Beattie PD, et al. Anal. Chem. 66(1), 52-57, (1994)

2. Tetramerization domain of human butyrylcholinesterase is at the C-terminus. Blong RM, Bedows E, and Lockridge O Biochem. J. 327 ( Pt 3), 747-57, (1997)

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Novel ghrelin assays provide evidence for independent regulation of ghrelin acylation and secretion in healthy young men. Liu, J., et al. J. Cell Physiol. 93, 1980-7, (2008)

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Voltage-gated sodium channel modulation by sigma-receptors in cardiac myocytes and heterologous systems. Johannessen, M., et al. Am. J. Pathol. 296, C1049-57, (2009)

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Design, Synthesis And Evaluation Of 2,4-disubstituted Pyrimidines As Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Mohamed, T., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 3606-9, (2010)

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Specific targeting of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase recognition sites. Rational design of novel, selective, and highly potent cholinesterase inhibitors. Savini L, Gaeta A, Fattorusso C, et al. J. Med. Chem. 46(1), 1-4, (2003)

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Indole alkaloids of Psychotria as multifunctional cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases inhibitors. Passos CS, Simões-Pires CA, Nurisso A, et al. Phytochemistry 86, 8-20, (2013)

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Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry. Casale T, Caciari T, Rosati MV, et al. Ann. Ig. 25(6), 519-27, (2013)

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[To the 80-anniversary of cholinesterase. The cholinesterase club in Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry]. Rozengart EV, Basova NE, and Moralev SN Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 48(6), 537-41, (2012)

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Preparation, characterization of Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles and their application for immunoassay of biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Zhang X, Wang H, Yang C, et al. Biosens. Bioelectron. 41, 669-74, (2013)

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Studies on cholinesterase: 4. Purification of pseudo-cholinesterase from horse serum. Strelitz F Biochem. J. 38(1), 86-8, (1944)

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Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase inhibition in Planorbarius corneus exposed to binary mixtures of azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos. Cacciatore LC, Guerrero NV, and Cochón AC Aquat. Toxicol. 128-129, 124-34, (2013)

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Immunogenic cell death biomarkers HMGB1, RAGE, and DNAse indicate response to radioembolization therapy and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Fahmueller YN, Nagel D, Hoffmann RT, et al. Int. J. Cancer 132(10), 2349-58, (2013)

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Amygdala projections to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the macaque: comparison with ventral striatal afferents. deCampo DM and Fudge JL J. Comp. Neurol. 521(14), 3191-216, (2013)

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Cholinesterases and neurotoxicity as highly sensitive biomarkers for an organophosphate insecticide in a freshwater gastropod (Chilina gibbosa) with low sensitivity carboxylesterases. Bianco K, Yusseppone MS, Otero S, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 144-145, 26-35, (2013)

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Characterization of plasma cholinesterase from the White stork (Ciconia ciconia) and its in vitro inhibition by anticholinesterase pesticides. Oropesa AL, Gravato C, Sánchez S, et al. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 97, 131-8, (2013)

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Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron). Wong DM, Li J, Chen QH, et al. PLoS ONE 7(10), e46712, (2012)

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An expedient, ionic liquid mediated multi-component synthesis of novel piperidone grafted cholinesterase enzymes inhibitors and their molecular modeling study. Basiri A, Murugaiyah V, Osman H, et al. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 67, 221-9, (2013)

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Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families. Yan L, Yang P, Jiang F, et al. BMC Genomics 13, 609, (2012)

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Environmental hazards of pesticides from pineapple crop production in the Río Jiménez watershed (Caribbean Coast, Costa Rica). Echeverría-Sáenz S, Mena F, Pinnock M, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 440, 106-14, (2012)

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The progress in the cholinesterase quantification methods. Holas O, Musilek K, Pohanka M, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Discov. 7(12), 1207-23, (2012)

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Ectoenzymes and cholinesterase activity and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with lung cancer. Zanini D, Schmatz R, Pelinson LP, et al. Mol. Cell Biochem. 374(1-2), 137-48, (2013)

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Inhibition of cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase-B activity by Tacrine-Homoisoflavonoid hybrids. Sun Y, Chen J, Chen X, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 21(23), 7406-17, (2013)

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Responses of B-esterase enzymes in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) transplanted to pesticide contaminated bays form the Ebro Delta (NE, Spain). Ochoa V, Riva C, Faria M, et al. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 66(1-2), 135-42, (2013)

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The Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog of a purported maize cholinesterase gene encodes a GDSL-lipase. Muralidharan M, Buss K, Larrimore KE, et al. Plant Mol. Biol. 81(6), 565-76, (2013)

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A four-step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition. Hertzberg RC, Pan Y, Li R, et al. Toxicology 313(2-3), 134-44, (2013)

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Effect of hypoxanthine, antioxidants and allopurinol on cholinesterase activities in rats. Wamser MN, Leite EF, Ferreira VV, et al. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. 120(9), 1359-67, (2013)

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Acute effects of Anabaena spiroides extract and paraoxon-methyl on freshwater cladocerans from tropical and temperate regions: links between the ChE activity and survival and its implications for tropical ecotoxicological studies. Freitas EC, Printes LB, and Rocha O Aquat. Toxicol. 146, 105-14, (2014)

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Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity. Pérez J, Monteiro MS, Quintaneiro C, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 144-145, 296-302, (2013)

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Temperature: a prolonged confounding factor on cholinesterase activity in the tropical reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Botté ES, Smith-Keune C, and Jerry DR Aquat. Toxicol. 140-141, 337-9, (2013)

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Regional inhibition of cholinesterase in free-ranging western pond turtles (Emys marmorata) occupying California mountain streams. Meyer E, Sparling D, and Blumenshine S Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 32(3), 692-8, (2013)

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Effects of anthropogenic metallic contamination on cholinesterases of Gambusia holbrooki. Brandão F, Correia AT, Gonçalves F, et al. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 76(1-2), 72-6, (2013)

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The significance of low substrate concentration measurements for mechanistic interpretation in cholinesterases. Stojan J Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 44-50, (2013)

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Chlorpyrifos is associated with slower serum cholinesterase recovery in acute organophosphate-poisoned patients. Chaou CH, Lin CC, Chen HY, et al. Clin. Toxicol. (Phila.) 51(5), 402-8, (2013)

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Characterization of cholinesterases in the damselfish Sergeant major (Abudefduf saxatilis). Rodríguez-Fuentes G, Soto M, and Luna-Ramírez K Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 96, 99-102, (2013)

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The Leu-Arg-Glu (LRE) adhesion motif in proteins of the neuromuscular junction with special reference to proteins of the carboxylesterase/cholinesterase family. Johnson G and Moore SW Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part D. Genomics Proteomics 8(3), 231-43, (2013)

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Reversible effect of maternal exposure to chlorpyrifos on the intermediate granule cell progenitors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. Ohishi T, Wang L, Akane H, et al. Reprod. Toxicol. 35, 125-36, (2013)

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Oxidative stress and cholinesterase inhibition in plasma, erythrocyte and brain of rats' pups following lactational exposure to malathion. Selmi S, El-Fazaa S, and Gharbi N Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 34(3), 753-60, (2012)

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Use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure used on Costa Rican banana plantations in the native tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860). Mena F, Azzopardi M, Pfennig S, et al. J. Environ Biol. 35(1), 35-42, (2014)

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Cell-specific effects on surface α7 nicotinic receptor expression revealed by over-expression and knockdown of rat RIC3 protein. Koperniak TM, Garg BK, Boltax J, et al. J. Neurochem. 124(3), 300-9, (2013)

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Novel cholinesterase modulators and their ability to interact with DNA. Janockova J, Gulasova Z, Musilek K, et al. Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 115, 364-9, (2013)

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QSAR, docking, dynamic simulation and quantum mechanics studies to explore the recognition properties of cholinesterase binding sites. Correa-Basurto J, Bello M, Rosales-Hernández MC, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 209, 1-13, (2014)

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Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective. Rozengart EV, Basova NE, Moralev SN, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 3-9, (2013)

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Cholinesterase confabs and cousins: approaching forty years. Taylor P, De Jaco A, Comoletti D, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 10-3, (2013)

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Characterization of plasma cholinesterase in rabbit and evaluation of the inhibitory potential of diazinon. Oropesa AL, Pérez-López M, and Soler F Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 100, 39-43, (2014)

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Neospora caninum: Activity of cholinesterases during the acute and chronic phases of an experimental infection in gerbils. Tonin AA, Da Silva AS, Thomé GR, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 135(4), 669-74, (2013)

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Paraoxonase activity and genetic polymorphisms in northern Han Chinese workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Zhang X, Sui H, Li H, et al. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood.) 239(2), 232-9, (2014)

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Assessment of pesticide exposure in female population living in cotton growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Tahir S and Anwar T Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 89(6), 1138-41, (2012)

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Low-dose sarin exposure produces long term changes in brain neurochemistry of mice. Oswal DP, Garrett TL, Morris M, et al. Neurochem. Res. 38(1), 108-16, (2013)

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The role of serum cholinesterase activity and S100B protein in the evaluation of organophosphate poisoning. Yardan T, Baydin A, Acar E, et al. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 32(10), 1081-8, (2013)

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Recovery of residual curarization after red blood cell transfusion. Eckle VS, Schmid E, Fehm T, et al. Med. Sci. Monit. 18(11), CS91-3, (2012)

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Plasma cholinesterase activity in the house finch, Carpodacus mexicanus, and the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, collected from pesticide-exposed agricultural land. González-Escalante L, Mercado-Hernández R, González-Rojas JI, et al. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 90(1), 9-11, (2013)

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Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica. Pinnock Branford MV, de la Cruz E, Solano K, et al. J. Environ Biol. 35(1), 29-34, (2014)

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Patient information sheet for plasma cholinesterase deficiency. Dillon D and Lee P Anaesthesia 68(10), 1085, (2013)

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This special Issue of Chemico-Biological Interactions comprises 70 manuscripts from lectures and short talks given at the 11th International Meeting on Cholinesterases. Preface. Lushchekina S, Masson P, and Rosenberry TL Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(1), 1-2, (2013)

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The enzymic hydrolysis and synthesis of acetylcholine. NACHMANSOHN D and WILSON IB Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 12, 259-339, (1951)

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Esterases in the milk and blood plasma of swine. I. Substrate specificity and electrophoresis studies. AUGUSTINSSON KB and OLSSON B Biochem. J. 71(3), 477-84, (1959)

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Cholinesterases of the tissues and sera of rabbits. KOELLE GB Biochem. J. 53(2), 217-26, (1953)

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Merck 14,2208

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