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C239 Sigma

CNQX disodium salt hydrate

≥98% (HPLC), solid

Synonym: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium salt hydrate

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Properties

Related Categories AMPA/Kainate Antagonists, Bioactive Small Molecule Alphabetical Index, Bioactive Small Molecules, CI-CZ, Cell Biology,
assay   ≥98% (HPLC)
form   solid
storage condition   protect from light
color   orange to red
solubility   DMSO: >20 mg/mL
  H2O: >5 mg/mL
Gene Information   human ... ADORA1(134), ADORA2A(135), ADORA2B(136), ADORA3(140), GRIA1(2890), GRIA2(2891), GRIA3(2892), GRIA4(2893)

Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

Potent, competitive AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Neuroscience

The nervous system, comprised of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, or CNS) and network of nerves that connects the CNS to the rest of the body (peripheral nervous system, or PNS) is ...
Keywords: Bioactive small molecules, Central Nervous System, Diseases, Metabolism, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Neuroscience, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitters

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Quinoxalinediones: Potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Honore, et al. Science 241, 701, (1988)

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Effect of 6-cyano-23-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root- NMDA- kainate- and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro. Long, et al. Br. J. Pharmacol. 100, 850-854, (1990)

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Differential effects of the excitatory amino acid antagonists, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and 3-((±)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), on spinal reflex activity in mice. Turski, et al. Neurosci. Lett. 113, 66, (1990)

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Pyramidal neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells integrate efficiently into mouse brain circuits in vivo. Espuny-Camacho I, Michelsen KA, Gall D, et al. Neuron 77(3), 440-56, (2013)

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Optogenetic identification of a rapid eye movement sleep modulatory circuit in the hypothalamus. Jego S, Glasgow SD, Herrera CG, et al. Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1637-43, (2013)

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Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex. Sachidhanandam S, Sreenivasan V, Kyriakatos A, et al. Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671-7, (2013)

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Optogenetic probing of fast glutamatergic transmission from hypocretin/orexin to histamine neurons in situ. Schöne C, Cao ZF, Apergis-Schoute J, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(36), 12437-43, (2012)

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OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Leão RN, Mikulovic S, Leão KE, et al. Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1524-30, (2012)

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Binge-like consumption of a palatable food accelerates habitual control of behavior and is dependent on activation of the dorsolateral striatum. Furlong TM, Jayaweera HK, Balleine BW, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(14), 5012-22, (2014)

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Calmodulin kinase IV-dependent CREB activation is required for neuroprotection via NMDA receptor-PSD95 disruption. Bell KF, Bent RJ, Meese-Tamuri S, et al. J. Neurochem. 126(2), 274-87, (2013)

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Layer III neurons control synchronized waves in the immature cerebral cortex. Namiki S, Norimoto H, Kobayashi C, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(3), 987-1001, (2013)

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Autism-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 impair synaptic transmission and neurexin-neuroligin-mediated transsynaptic signaling. Arons MH, Thynne CJ, Grabrucker AM, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(43), 14966-78, (2012)

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Sleep oscillations in the thalamocortical system induce long-term neuronal plasticity. Chauvette S, Seigneur J, and Timofeev I Neuron 75(6), 1105-13, (2012)

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Seipin regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in cortical neurons. Wei S, Soh SL, Qiu W, et al. J. Neurochem. 124(4), 478-89, (2013)

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Characterization of sacral interneurons that mediate activation of locomotor pattern generators by sacrocaudal afferent input. Etlin A, Finkel E, Mor Y, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(2), 734-47, (2013)

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Rapid single-step induction of functional neurons from human pluripotent stem cells. Zhang Y, Pak C, Han Y, et al. Neuron 78(5), 785-98, (2013)

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A hybrid electrical/chemical circuit in the spinal cord generates a transient embryonic motor behavior. Knogler LD, Ryan J, Saint-Amant L, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(29), 9644-55, (2014)

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Theta-gamma-modulated synaptic currents in hippocampal granule cells in vivo define a mechanism for network oscillations. Pernía-Andrade AJ and Jonas P Neuron 81(1), 140-52, (2014)

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Oxygen-sensitive reduction in Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel open probability in turtle cerebrocortex. Rodgers-Garlick CI, Hogg DW, and Buck LT Neuroscience 237, 243-54, (2013)

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Hippocampal pyramidal neurons comprise two distinct cell types that are countermodulated by metabotropic receptors. Graves AR, Moore SJ, Bloss EB, et al. Neuron 76(4), 776-89, (2012)

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Presynaptic α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increase glutamate release and serotonin neuron excitability in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Garduño J, Galindo-Charles L, Jiménez-Rodríguez J, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(43), 15148-57, (2012)

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Age-dependent regulation of synaptic connections by dopamine D2 receptors. Jia JM, Zhao J, Hu Z, et al. Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1627-36, (2013)

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Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics. Taylor AM, Wu J, Tai HC, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(13), 5584-9, (2013)

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Enhanced excitability in the infralimbic cortex produces anxiety-like behaviors. Bi LL, Wang J, Luo ZY, et al. Neuropharmacology 72, 148-56, (2013)

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Protease-activated receptor-1 modulates hippocampal memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Almonte AG, Qadri LH, Sultan FA, et al. J. Neurochem. 124(1), 109-22, (2013)

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Modulation of mGluR-dependent MAP1B translation and AMPA receptor endocytosis by microRNA miR-146a-5p. Chen YL and Shen CK J. Neurosci. 33(21), 9013-20, (2013)

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Dark exposure extends the integration window for spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Guo Y, Huang S, de Pasquale R, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(43), 15027-35, (2012)

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Distal connectivity causes summation and division across mouse visual cortex. Sato TK, Häusser M, and Carandini M Nat. Neurosci. 17(1), 30-2, (2014)

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The balance of striatal feedback transmission is disrupted in a model of parkinsonism. López-Huerta VG, Carrillo-Reid L, Galarraga E, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(11), 4964-75, (2013)

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Electrophysiological characterization of spino-sciatic and cortico-sciatic associative plasticity: modulation by trans-spinal direct current and effects on recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. Ahmed Z J. Neurosci. 33(11), 4935-46, (2013)

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NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity depends on the coactivation of synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. Zhou X, Hollern D, Liao J, et al. Cell Death Dis. 4, e560, (2013)

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Mu-opioid stimulation in rat prefrontal cortex engages hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin-containing neurons, and reveals dissociable roles of nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus in cortically driven feeding. Mena JD, Selleck RA, and Baldo BA J. Neurosci. 33(47), 18540-52, (2013)

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Sound localization ability and glycinergic innervation of the superior olivary complex persist after genetic deletion of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Jalabi W, Kopp-Scheinpflug C, Allen PD, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(38), 15044-9, (2013)

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Presynaptic serotonergic gating of the subthalamonigral glutamatergic projection. Ding S, Li L, and Zhou FM J. Neurosci. 33(11), 4875-85, (2013)

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Persistent receptor activity underlies group I mGluR-mediated cellular plasticity in CA3 neuron. Young SR, Chuang SC, Zhao W, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(6), 2526-40, (2013)

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Role of glutamate receptors and nitric oxide on the effects of glufosinate ammonium, an organophosphate pesticide, on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum. Faro LR, Ferreira Nunes BV, Alfonso M, et al. Toxicology 311(3), 154-61, (2013)

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Neuroprotection of rat retinal ganglion cells mediated through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Iwamoto K, Mata D, Linn DM, et al. Neuroscience 237, 184-98, (2013)

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Cross-sensitization between cocaine and acute restraint stress is associated with sensitized dopamine but not glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. Garcia-Keller C, Martinez SA, Esparza MA, et al. Eur. J. Neurosci. 37(6), 982-95, (2013)

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The postsubiculum and spatial learning: the role of postsubicular synaptic activity and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal place cell, object, and object-location memory. Bett D, Stevenson CH, Shires KL, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(16), 6928-43, (2013)

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Contribution of retinal ganglion cells to the mouse electroretinogram. Smith BJ, Wang X, Chauhan BC, et al. Doc. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 155-68, (2014)

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AMPA receptor mediated behavioral plasticity in the isolated rat spinal cord. Hoy KC, Huie JR, and Grau JW Behav. Brain Res. 236(1), 319-26, (2013)

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Synaptic activation of bulbospongiosus motoneurons via dorsal gray commissural inputs. Best TK, Marson L, Thor KB, et al. J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 58-67, (2013)

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