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C3256 Sigma

Cytochrome c from equine heart

~90% based on Mol. Wt. 12,384 basis

Synonym: Cytochrome c from horse heart

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Description

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions are available for this Product.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Cytochrome c is primarily known as an electron-carrying mitochondrial protein. The transition of cytochrome c between the ferrous and ferric states within the cell makes it an efficient biological electron-transporter and it plays a vital role in cellular oxidations in both plants and animals. It is generally regarded as a universal catalyst of respiration, forming an essential electron-bridge between the respirable substrates and oxygen

Shows a high rate of ascorbic acid oxidation and low enzymatic activity in a cytochrome oxidase system; contains inactive cytochrome polymers which can be converted back to native cytochrome.

Other Notes

This is essentially "Fraction II, pH 7" of Margoliash prepared using TCA.

View more information on cytochrome c and electron transport at www.sigma-aldrich.com/enzymeexplorer.

Application

Cytochrome c has been identified as an important mediator in apoptotic pathways. The release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm stimulates apoptosis and is commonly used as an indicator of the apoptotic process in the cell. Investigation on the effect of Paris saponin I (PS I) on human gastric carcinoma cell growth (SGC7901 cells) have shown an elevated level cytoplasmic cytochrome c. Results are an inhibition of proliferation in SGC7901 cells by inducing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through cytochrome c.

The specific sites and extent of oxidation in horse cytochrome c treated with H2O2 and UV were characterized. It was suggested that the state of these sites could be used as a biomarker for the oxidative environment in a cell.

Price and Availability


Laboratory Gloves

All labs need water
Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

RIDADR 
NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
HA5365000

Frequently Asked Questions

Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?
If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis. These documents are located on the product detail page under Useful Links & Tools. Click on the following link to search for a Certificate of Analysis. Please click the following link to see the details on our Product Dating Information.
How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?
A Certificate of Analysis is available by lot number and can be obtained through our Advanced Search Option: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/AdvancedSearchPage.do
How do I find price and availability?
There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products.  Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers. 
What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?
Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS. To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product, or search here. 
My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?
Use the option to the right to "Ask a Question" by email of a Technical Service Scientist.
I see that you list several horse heart cytochrome c products. What are the differences, and which one should I choose?
Product No. C2506 is prepared with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), whereas C7752 is prepared with the milder acetic acid. The TCA method may reduce the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD) present, but tends to cause dimerization or acid-modified structures of cytochrome c. In contrast, acetic acid preparations may have slightly higher amounts of SOD, but a lower proportion of dimeric cytochrome c. So C2506 would be recommended for enzyme activity studies that require low SOD, whereas C7752 is recommended for structural studies or binding studies, or for enzyme activity studies where possible SOD contamination is not a problem. Product No. C2867 is prepared from C2506; it is a BioUtra grade product, greater than or equal to 99% pure as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is recommended when an ultra-high purity is required.  Product No. C3256 is also prepared from C7752; it is isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. This fraction shows a high rate of ascorbic acid oxidation, but low activity in a cytochrome oxidase system.  Product No. C7150 is also prepared from C7752; it is suitable for use as a gel filtration molecular weight marker.
How do I determine how much Product C3256, Cytochrome c, is in the oxidized form, and how much is reduced?
This is determined by a spectral assay. The detailed assay procedure (operating procedure #11252) may be requested from Sigma St. Louis Technical Service (techserv@sial.com).
Is Product C3256, Cytochrome c, predominantly in the oxidized form or the reduced form?
This product is predominantly (>95%) in the oxidized form.
How should I store solutions of Product C3256, Cytochrome c?
Our general recommendations are as follows:  Store at –20 °C (freezer) for up to six months. Store at 2-8 °C (refrigerator) for up to two weeks. Store at 20-25 °C (room temperature) for up to three days. According to J. Biol. Chem, 237, 2161-2174 (1962), cytochrome c is stable to boiling, and over an unusually wide range of pH values. However, it denatures readily at extreme pH (low or high), and in high concentrations of organic solvents, such as ethanol or acetone.
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Protocols & Articles

Articles

HPLC Analysis of Cytochrome c Species Variants on Discovery® BIO PolyMA-SCX (Ion Exchange)

From our library of Articles, Sigma-Aldrich presents HPLC Analysis of Cytochrome c Species Variants on Discovery® BIO PolyMA-SCX (Ion Exchange)
Keywords: Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Separation

HPLC Analysis of Cytochrome c Species Variants on Discovery® BIO Wide Pore C18

From our library of Articles, Sigma-Aldrich presents HPLC Analysis of Cytochrome c Species Variants on Discovery® BIO Wide Pore C18
Keywords: Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography

HPLC Analysis of Proteins on Discovery® BIO PolyMA-SCX (Analyte Set #2)

From our library of Articles, Sigma-Aldrich presents HPLC Analysis of Proteins on Discovery® BIO PolyMA-SCX (Analyte Set #2)
Keywords: Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography

Peer-Reviewed Papers
15

References

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