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C3646 Sigma

Chitosan

from shrimp shells, ≥75% (deacetylated)

Synonym: Deacetylated chitin, Poly(D-glucosamine)

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Properties

Related Categories Activity, Activity Other, Biochemicals and Reagents, Carbohydrate adjuvants, Carbohydrates,
biological source   from shrimp shells
assay   ≥75% (deacetylated)
form   powder or flakes
solubility   acetic acid: water: soluble10 mg/mL, hazy (with extensive sonication)
  H2O: insoluble
  organic solvents: insoluble
bulk density   0.15-0.3 g/cm3

Description

Frequently Asked Questions

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Analysis Note

The degree of acetylation may be determined by dye binding7 or titration methods8.

Preparation Note

Prepared by the alkaline deacetylation of chitin obtained from the shells of shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Chitin is manufactured industrially by crushing shrimp shells, then washing the solids with acids to remove inorganic and proteinaceous material. The purified chitin is deacetylated to chitosan by treatment with a strong base such as sodium hydroxide. The resulting chitosan may be further purified by preparation of solutions in acid followed by neutralization and precipitation.

Quality

May contain foreign matter.

Application

Forms gels with multivalent anions. Gives clear solutions that dry to strong, clear films.

Shrimp shell derived chitosan, deacetylated chitin (poly β-1,4-D-glucosamine), may be used as a biocompatible, antibacterial and environmentally friendly polyelectrolyte biomaterial with a variety of applications including uses in water treatment, chromatography, additives for cosmetics, textile treatment for antimicrobial activity, novel fibers for textiles, photographic papers, biodegradable films, biomedical devices, and microcapsule implants for controlled release in drug delivery. It may be derivatized to further expand its uses.

Features and Benefits

Biocompatible, antibacterial and environmentally friendly polyelectrolyte with a variety of applications1 including water treatment, chromatography, additives for cosmetics, textile treatment for antimicrobial activity,2 novel fibers for textiles, photographic papers, biodegradable films,3 biomedical devices, and microcapsule implants for controlled release in drug delivery.4,5,6

Price and Availability

TruPAGE™ Pre-cast Polyacrylamide Gels


TruPAGE™ Pre-cast Polyacrylamide GelsTruPAGE Gels run true every time!

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Custom Polymer Synthesis

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
nwg

Protocols & Articles

Protocols

Enzymatic Assay of Chitosanase from Streptomyces Species

1. OBJECTIVE To standardize a procedure for determining the enzymatic activity of Chitosanase.
Keywords: Biochemistry, Enzyme activity, Microbiology

Related Content

Chitosan Microparticles

Microparticles with controlled size and morphology are of significant interest in the fields of drug delivery and biopharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of processin...
Keywords: Acetylations, Microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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2. Shin, Y. et al. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. Symp. 74, 2911, (1999)

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5. Bartkowiak, A.; Hunkeler, D. Chem. Mater. 11, 2486, (1999)

6. Further biocompatibility testing of silica-chitosan complex membrane in the production of tissue plasminogen activator by epithelial and fibroblast cells. Suzuki, T. et al. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88, 194, (1999)

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7. Colorimetric determination of chitosan. Muzzarelli, R. A. Anal. Biochem. 260, 255-257, (1998)

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8. Determination of the degree of acetylation of chitin and chitosan. Davies, D. H., and Hayes, E. R. Meth. Enzymol. 161-pt. B, 442-446, (1988)

Chemical modifications of silicon surfaces for the generation of a tunable surface isoelectric point. van der Maaden K, Tomar J, Jiskoot W, et al. Langmuir 30(7), 1812-9, (2014)

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Antiobese effects of capsaicin-chitosan microsphere (CCMS) in obese rats induced by high fat diet. Tan S, Gao B, Tao Y, et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62(8), 1866-74, (2014)

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Chitosan: properties, preparations and application to microparticulate systems. Kas, H. S. Microencapsulation 14, 689-711, (1997)

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Increased In vitroCell Proliferation by Chitosan/pGM-CSF Complexes. Salva E, Turan SO, Akbuğa J. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 73, 131-138, (2011)

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Chitosan stabilizes platelet growth factors and modulates stem cell differentiation toward tissue regeneration. Busilacchi A, Gigante A, Mattioli-Belmonte M, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 98(1), 665-76, (2013)

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Chitosan-based siRNA delivery systems. Ragelle H, Vandermeulen G, and Préat V J. Control. Release 172(1), 207-18, (2013)

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Thermosensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate-based hydrogel and its derivatives in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Supper S, Anton N, Seidel N, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(2), 249-67, (2014)

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On the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan-coated polycaprolactone nanoparticles loaded with curcumin using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Mazzarino L, Coche-Guérente L, Labbé P, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 787-94, (2014)

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Novel scaffold-based BST-CarGel treatment results in superior cartilage repair compared with microfracture in a randomized controlled trial. Stanish WD, McCormack R, Forriol F, et al. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 95(18), 1640-50, (2013)

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Chemical modification of chitosan with pH-sensitive molecules and specific ligands for efficient DNA transfection and siRNA silencing. Singh B, Choi YJ, Park IK, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 564-76, (2014)

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Chitosan oligosaccharides prevented retinal ischemia and reperfusion injury via reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Fang IM, Yang CM, and Yang CH Exp. Eye Res. 130, 38-50, (2015)

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Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives. Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, et al. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 233, 1-43, (2015)

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Hydrophobically-modified chitosan foam: description and hemostatic efficacy. Dowling MB, Smith W, Balogh P, et al. J. Surg. Res. 193(1), 316-23, (2015)

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[The possibilities of using a chitin and chitosan in wounds treatment]. Mazurek P, Kuliński S, and Gosk J Polim. Med. 43(4), 297-302, (2013)

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Synthesis of carboxymethyl chitosan and coating on wound dressing gauze for wound healing. Venkatrajah B, Malathy VV, Elayarajah B, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(22), 1438-48, (2013)

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Proteomic profiling of Stemona alkaloids production response to chitosan elicitor. Dheeranupattana S, Sangthong P, Roytrakul S, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(18), 950-4, (2013)

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[Removal of heavy metals from extract of Angelica sinensis by EDTA-modified chitosan magnetic adsorbent]. Ren Y, Sun MH, Peng H, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(21), 3709-12, (2013)

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Chitosan/hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels in the management of burn wounds. Vasile C, Pieptu D, Dumitriu RP, et al. Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi. 117(2), 565-71, (2013)

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Inhibition of Rac1 activity by controlled release of NSC23766 from chitosan microspheres effectively ameliorates osteoarthritis development in vivo. Zhu S, Lu P, Liu H, et al. Ann. Rheum. Dis., doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203901, (2013)

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Augmented microfracture: is this the Holy Grail that we have been searching for in the treatment of cartilage injuries?: commentary on an article by William D. Stanish, MD, et al.: "Novel scaffold-based BST-CarGel treatment results in superior cartilage repair compared with microfracture in a randomized controlled trial". Khazzam M J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 95(18), e137, (2013)

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Lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan gels enhance skin delivery of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. Wang PC, Huang YL, Hou SS, et al. J. Cosmet. Sci. 64(4), 273-86, (2013)

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[Study on chitosan-modified tripterygium glycoside nanoparticles and its renal targeting property]. Chen XK, Wei YH, Yao JN, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(4), 548-52, (2013)

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Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications. Raftery R, O'Brien FJ, and Cryan SA Molecules 18(5), 5611-47, (2013)

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Developmental-like bone regeneration by human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells. Kuhn LT, Liu Y, Boyd NL, et al. Tissue Eng. Part A 20(1-2), 365-77, (2014)

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Electrochemical biosensor applications of polysaccharides chitin and chitosan. Suginta W, Khunkaewla P, and Schulte A Chem. Rev. 113(7), 5458-79, (2013)

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Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers. Zhang Y, Niu Y, Luo Y, et al. Food Chem. 142, 269-75, (2014)

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Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions. Reddy DH and Lee SM Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 201-202, 68-93, (2013)

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Advances in chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles. Hu L, Sun Y, and Wu Y Nanoscale 5(8), 3103-11, (2013)

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Effect of incorporation of nanoscale bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in PCL/chitosan nanofibers for bone and periodontal tissue engineering. Shalumon KT, Sowmya S, Sathish D, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(3), 430-40, (2013)

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Combined effect of polymeric nanocapsules and chitosan hydrogel on the increase of capsaicinoids adhesion to the skin surface. Contri RV, Katzer T, Ourique AF, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 820-30, (2014)

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Bi-layer scaffold of chitosan/PCL-nanofibrous mat and PLLA-microporous disc for skin tissue engineering. Lou T, Leung M, Wang X, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 1105-13, (2014)

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In vitro ALP and osteocalcin gene expression analysis and in vivo biocompatibility of N-methylene phosphonic chitosan nanofibers for bone regeneration. Datta P, Ghosh P, Ghosh K, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 870-9, (2013)

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Synthesis and characterization of diopside particles and their suitability along with chitosan matrix for bone tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo. Kumar JP, Lakshmi L, Jyothsna V, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 970-81, (2014)

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Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates. Aloui H, Khwaldia K, Licciardello F, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 170, 21-8, (2014)

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Mucosal delivery of a double-stapled RSV peptide prevents nasopulmonary infection. Bird GH, Boyapalle S, Wong T, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(5), 2113-24, (2014)

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Recent progress in chitosan bio-based soft nanomaterials. El Kadib A, Bousmina M, and Brunel D J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 308-31, (2014)

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Fine tuning of reactive oxygen species homeostasis regulates primed immune responses in Arabidopsis. Pastor V, Luna E, Ton J, et al. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 26(11), 1334-44, (2013)

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Polyethylenimine and chitosan carriers for the delivery of RNA interference effectors. Molinaro R, Wolfram J, Federico C, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 10(12), 1653-68, (2013)

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Effects of chitosan particles in periodontal pathogens and gingival fibroblasts. Arancibia R, Maturana C, Silva D, et al. J. Dent. Res. 92(8), 740-5, (2013)

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Electrospun antibacterial chitosan-based fibers. Ignatova M, Manolova N, and Rashkov I Macromol. Biosci. 13(7), 860-72, (2013)

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Layer-by-layer immobilized catalase on electrospun nanofibrous mats protects against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Huang R, Deng H, Cai T, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 1346-58, (2014)

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Increased cortical neuronal survival during liver injury: effect of gamma aminobutyric acid and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles. Shilpa J, Anju TR, Ajayan MS, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 622-31, (2014)

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N-octyl-N-Arginine chitosan micelles as an oral delivery system of insulin. Zhang ZH, Abbad S, Pan RR, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 601-9, (2013)

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Enhanced delivery system of flutamide loaded chitosan-dextran sulphate nanoparticles for prostate cancer. Anitha A, Uthaman S, Nair SV, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(3), 335-47, (2013)

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Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing. Liu H, Cui Y, Li P, et al. Anal. Chim. Acta 776, 24-30, (2013)

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Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus. Qiu M, Wu C, Ren G, et al. Food Chem. 155, 105-11, (2014)

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Anionic carbohydrate-containing chitosan scaffolds for bone regeneration. Park H, Choi B, Nguyen J, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 587-96, (2013)

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Evaluation of chitosan nanoformulations as potent anti-HIV therapeutic systems. Ramana LN, Sharma S, Sethuraman S, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1840(1), 476-84, (2014)

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Sorption of carbamazepine from water by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers based on chitosan-Fe₃O₄. Zhang YL, Zhang J, Dai CM, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 809-16, (2013)

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Synthesis of ethylenediamine modified chitosan and evaluation for removal of divalent metal ions. Chethan PD and Vishalakshi B Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 530-6, (2013)

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Chitosan-based nanomaterials: a state-of-the-art review. Shukla SK, Mishra AK, Arotiba OA, et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 59, 46-58, (2013)

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A new stationary phase for high performance liquid chromatography: Calix[4]arene derivatized chitosan bonded silica gel. Lu J, Zhang W, Zhang Y, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1350, 61-7, (2014)

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In vitro cell culture evaluation and in vivo efficacy of amphiphilic chitosan for oral insulin delivery. Shelma R and Sharma CP J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 167-76, (2013)

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The use of chitosan-based scaffolds to enhance regeneration in the nervous system. Gnavi S, Barwig C, Freier T, et al. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 109, 1-62, (2013)

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Gadolinium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for the diagnosis of tumor. Zhang L, Liu Y, Yu D, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 863-9, (2013)

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Multiple effects of chitosan on plant systems: solid science or hype. Hadwiger LA Plant Sci. 208, 42-9, (2013)

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Osteoblast differentiation and phenotype expressions on chitosan-coated Ti-6Al-4V. Lin HY and Chen JH Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 618-26, (2013)

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Preparation and characterization of folate-chitosan-gemcitabine core-shell nanoparticles for potential tumor-targeted drug delivery. Xu S, Xu Q, Zhou J, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 129-38, (2013)

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Chitosan-zinc chelate improves intestinal structure and mucosal function and decreases apoptosis in ileal mucosal epithelial cells in weaned pigs. Han XY, Ma YF, Lv MY, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 111(8), 1405-11, (2014)

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Development and evaluation of porous chitosan nanoparticles for treatment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil infection. Khan MS and Vishakante GD J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 107-14, (2013)

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Synthesis of chitosan 3,6-diphenylcarbamate-2-urea derivatives and their applications as chiral stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. Zhang L, Shen J, Zuo W, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1365, 86-93, (2014)

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Chitin, chitosan, and glycated chitosan regulate immune responses: the novel adjuvants for cancer vaccine. Li X, Min M, Du N, et al. Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2013, 387023, (2013)

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Nanoparticles with surface antibody against CD98 and carrying CD98 small interfering RNA reduce colitis in mice. Xiao B, Laroui H, Viennois E, et al. Gastroenterology 146(5), 1289-300.e1-19, (2014)

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Self-assembled phytosterol-fructose-chitosan nanoparticles as a carrier of anticancer drug. Qiu Y, Zhu J, Wang J, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(8), 5935-41, (2013)

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Magnetite nanoparticles-chitosan composite containing carbon paste electrode for glucose biosensor application. Kavitha AL, Prabu HG, Babu SA, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(1), 98-104, (2013)

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Chitosan-containing bread made using marine shellfishery byproducts: functional, bioactive, and quality assessment of the end product. Lafarga T, Gallagher E, Walsh D, et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61(37), 8790-6, (2013)

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Calcium phosphate/octadecyl-quatemized carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles: an efficient and promising carrier for gene transfection. Sun Y, Li X, Liang X, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(8), 5260-6, (2013)

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Physicochemical, pharmaceutical and biological approaches toward designing optimized and efficient hydrophobically modified chitosan-based polymeric micelles as a nanocarrier system for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. Mahmoudzadeh M, Fassihi A, Emami J, et al. J. Drug Target. 21(8), 693-709, (2013)

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Cell-scaffold interaction within engineered tissue. Chen H, Liu Y, Jiang Z, et al. Exp. Cell Res. 323(2), 346-51, (2014)

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Gd-labeled glycol chitosan as a pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging agent for detecting acidic tumor microenvironments. Nwe K, Huang CH, and Tsourkas A J. Med. Chem. 56(20), 7862-9, (2013)

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Effects of chitosan on xenograft models of melanoma in C57BL/6 mice and hepatoma formation in SCID mice. Yeh MY, Wu MF, Shang HS, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(11), 4867-73, (2013)

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Immobilization of nitrite oxidizing bacteria using biopolymeric chitosan media. Lertsutthiwong P, Boonpuak D, Pungrasmi W, et al. J. Environ. Sci. (China) 25(2), 262-7, (2013)

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Recovery of struvite via coagulation and flocculation using natural compounds. Latifian M, Liu J, and Mattiasson B Environ. Technol. 35(17-20), 2289-95, (2014)

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Development of alginate-reinforced chitosan nanoparticles utilizing W/O nanoemulsification/internal crosslinking technique for transdermal delivery of rabeprazole. Ahmed TA and El-Say KM Life Sci. 110(1), 35-43, (2014)

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Synthesis and preliminary cellular evaluation of phosphonium chitosan derivatives as novel non-viral vector. Qian C, Xu X, Shen Y, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 676-83, (2013)

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Preparation and characterization of self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles for the sustained delivery of streptokinase: an in vivo study. Modaresi SM, Ejtemaei Mehr S, Faramarzi MA, et al. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(5), 593-7, (2014)

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The preparation and characterization of highly aligned poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/poly ethylene oxide/chitosan ultrafine fiber for the application to tissue scaffold. Nien YH, Wang JY, and Tsai YS J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(7), 4703-7, (2013)

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Development of antimicrobial coatings for improving the microbiological safety and quality of shell eggs. Jin TZ, Gurtler JB, and Li SQ J. Food Prot. 76(5), 779-85, (2013)

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Magnetically engineered smart thin films: toward lab-on-chip ultra-sensitive molecular imaging. Hassan MA, Saqib M, Shaikh H, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(3), 467-74, (2013)

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Fabrication and bioproperties of raspberry-type hybrid nanoparticles of Au-thioethyl pendant ligand@chitosan. Huang B, Tong F, Chen Y, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 115-23, (2013)

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Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Maillard reaction products from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems. Wu S, Hu J, Wei L, et al. Food Chem. 148, 196-203, (2014)

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Chitosan-hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates: preparation, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Lee DS, Woo JY, Ahn CB, et al. Food Chem. 148, 97-104, (2014)

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Antimicrobial packaging of chicken fillets based on the release of carvacrol from chitosan/cyclodextrin films. Higueras L, López-Carballo G, Hernández-Muñoz P, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 188, 53-9, (2014)

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Optimization of combinations of bactericidal and bacteriostatic treatments to control Listeria monocytogenes on cold-smoked salmon. Kang J, Stasiewicz MJ, Murray D, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 179, 1-9, (2014)

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Vascular smooth muscle cell optimization of vasculogenesis within naturally derived, biodegradable, hybrid hydrogel scaffolds. Golas AR, Perez JL, Fullerton N, et al. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 132(6), 952e-63e, (2013)

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Fabrication and characterization of gold nanoflowers formed via chitosan-tripolyphosphate template films for biomedical applications. Nhung TT, Kang IJ, and Lee SW J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(8), 5346-50, (2013)

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Morphologic characteristics and proliferation of rabbit corneal stromal cells onto complexes of collagen-chitosan-sodium hyaluronate under simulated microgravity. Li X, Yang Y, Li Q, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(10), 6877-85, (2013)

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Development of mucoadhesive floating hollow beads of acyclovir with gastroretentive properties. Svirskis D, Seyfoddin A, Chalabi S, et al. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(5), 571-6, (2014)

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Novel microstructured sildenafil dosage forms as wound healing promoters. Samy WM, Ghoneim AI, and Elgindy NA Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(10), 1525-36, (2014)

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Development and optimization of curcumin-loaded mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles using response surface methodology in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Chaubey P, Patel RR, and Mishra B Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(8), 1163-81, (2014)

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Optimization of self-nanoemulsifying systems for the enhancement of in vivo hypoglycemic efficacy of glimepiride transdermal patches. Ahmed OA, Afouna MI, El-Say KM, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(7), 1005-13, (2014)

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Preparation and characterization of EDTAD-modified magnetic-Fe3O4 chitosan composite: application of comparative adsorption of dye wastewater with magnetic chitosan. Yang H, Li Y, Ho SS, et al. Water Sci. Technol. 68(1), 209-16, (2013)

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Optimization of particle size and encapsulation efficiency of vancomycin nanoparticles by response surface methodology. Honary S, Ebrahimi P, and Hadianamrei R Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(8), 987-98, (2014)

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Structural insights into the substrate-binding mechanism for a novel chitosanase. Lyu Q, Wang S, Xu W, et al. Biochem. J. 461(2), 335-45, (2014)

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The first identification of carbohydrate binding modules specific to chitosan. Shinya S, Ohnuma T, Yamashiro R, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(42), 30042-53, (2013)

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Effect of microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum 25 into alginate/chitosan/alginate microcapsules on viability and cytokine induction. Jiang T, Kim YK, Singh B, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(8), 5291-5, (2013)

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Immunomodulation of macrophages by methylglyoxal conjugated with chitosan nanoparticles against Sarcoma-180 tumor in mice. Chakrabarti A, Talukdar D, Pal A, et al. Cell. Immunol. 287(1), 27-35, (2014)

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Development of a quaternized chitosan with enhanced antibacterial efficacy. Khaira GK, Kumariya R, Chibber M, et al. J. Water Health 11(3), 410-8, (2013)

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Interaction of sol-gel derived tiO2- and siO2-based bionanocomposites with erythrocytes and serum proteins. Banu AS, Devi SV, and Prakash T IET Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 22-7, (2013)

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Chitosan and silver nanoparticles: promising anti-toxoplasma agents. Gaafar MR, Mady RF, Diab RG, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 143, 30-8, (2014)

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Therapeutic efficacies of chitosan against Pneumocystis pneumonia of immunosuppressed rat. Liu AB, Pu Y, Zheng YQ, et al. Parasite Immunol. 36(7), 292-302, (2014)

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In-situ and ex-situ chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite: comparison of storage/release and catalytic properties. Gogoi N and Chowdhury D J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 4147-55, (2014)

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Preparation and characterization of fucoidan-chitosan nanospheres by the sonification method. Liu Y, Yao W, Wang S, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(5), 3844-9, (2014)

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Novel chitosan coated magnetic nanocarriers for the targeted Diclofenac delivery. Agotegaray M, Palma S, and Lassalle V J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(5), 3343-7, (2014)

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Physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles. Nguyen TH, Kwak HS, and Kim SM J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(8), 5296-304, (2013)

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Synthesis of cross-linked chitosan-based nanohydrogels in inverse miniemulsion. Cui Q, Dai L, Yang L, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 3832-40, (2013)

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Chromium removal with cross-linked chitosan adsorption and base-precipitation combination. Zhang H, Wang F, Jin X, et al. Water Sci. Technol. 67(12), 2768-75, (2013)

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Pterygium inversum unguis: report of an extensive case with good therapeutic response to hydroxypropyl chitosan and review of the literature. Marinho Falcão Gondim R, Bezerra da Trindade Neto P, and Baran R Journal. of. Drugs in. Dermatology. 12(3), 344-6, (2013)

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Deciphering the role of Burkholderia cenocepacia membrane proteins in antimicrobial properties of chitosan. Ibrahim M, Tao Z, Hussain A, et al. Arch. Microbiol. 196(1), 9-16, (2014)

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Design and characterization of chitosan-alginate microspheres for ocular delivery of azelastine. Shinde UA, Shete JN, Nair HA, et al. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(7), 813-23, (2014)

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Development of innovative oil-core self-organized nanovesicles prepared with chitosan and lecithin using a 2(3) full-factorial design. Haas SE, de Andrade C, Sansone PE, et al. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(7), 769-78, (2014)

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Antibacterial and synergic effects of gallic acid-grafted-chitosan with β-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Lee DS, Eom SH, Kim YM, et al. Can. J. Microbiol. 60(10), 629-38, (2014)

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Preparation and evaluation of lipid vesicles of camptothecin as targeted drug delivery system. Prabhakara P, Zenia T, Marina K, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 26(4), 779-86, (2013)

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Guided bone regeneration using chitosan-collagen membranes in dog dehiscence-type defect model. Li X, Wang X, Zhao T, et al. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(2), 304.e1-14, (2014)

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Treatment of interdigital-type tinea pedis with a 2-week regimen of wearing hygienic socks loaded with antifungal microcapsules: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Yuen CW, Yip J, Cheung HC, et al. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(3), 495-6, (2013)

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Engineering interfacial properties by anionic surfactant-chitosan complexes to improve stability of oil-in-water emulsions. Zinoviadou KG, Scholten E, et al. Food Funct. 3(3), 312-9, (2012)

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Chitosan oligosaccharides promote reverse cholesterol transport and expression of scavenger receptor BI and CYP7A1 in mice. Zong C, Yu Y, Song G, Luo T, Li L, et al. Exp. Biol. Med. 237(2), 194-200, (2012)

Nanoporous multilayer poly(l-glutamic acid)/chitosan microcapsules for drug delivery. Yan S, Rao S, Zhu J, Wang Z, et al. Int. J. Pharm. 427(2), 443-51, (2012)

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Iodine - Stabilized Cu Nanoparticle Chitosan Composite for Antibacterial applications. Mallick S, Sharma S, Banerjee M, et al. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1313-23, (2012)

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Structure Index 1, 501:A:1

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