C3646 Sigma


from shrimp shells, ≥75% (deacetylated)

Synonym: Deacetylated chitin, Poly(D-glucosamine)



Related Categories Activity, Activity Other, Biochemicals and Reagents, Carbohydrate adjuvants, Carbohydrates,
biological source   from shrimp shells
assay   ≥75% (deacetylated)
form   powder or flakes
solubility   acetic acid: water: soluble10 mg/mL, hazy (with extensive sonication)
  H2O: insoluble
  organic solvents: insoluble
bulk density   0.15-0.3 g/cm3


Frequently Asked Questions

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Analysis Note

The degree of acetylation may be determined by dye binding7 or titration methods8.


10, 25, 100, 500 g in poly bottle

Preparation Note

Prepared by the alkaline deacetylation of chitin obtained from the shells of shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Chitin is manufactured industrially by crushing shrimp shells, then washing the solids with acids to remove inorganic and proteinaceous material. The purified chitin is deacetylated to chitosan by treatment with a strong base such as sodium hydroxide. The resulting chitosan may be further purified by preparation of solutions in acid followed by neutralization and precipitation.


May contain foreign matter.


Forms gels with multivalent anions. Gives clear solutions that dry to strong, clear films.

Shrimp shell derived chitosan, deacetylated chitin (poly β-1,4-D-glucosamine), may be used as a biocompatible, antibacterial and environmentally friendly polyelectrolyte biomaterial with a variety of applications including uses in water treatment, chromatography, additives for cosmetics, textile treatment for antimicrobial activity, novel fibers for textiles, photographic papers, biodegradable films, biomedical devices, and microcapsule implants for controlled release in drug delivery. It may be derivatized to further expand its uses.

Features and Benefits

Biocompatible, antibacterial and environmentally friendly polyelectrolyte with a variety of applications1 including water treatment, chromatography, additives for cosmetics, textile treatment for antimicrobial activity,2 novel fibers for textiles, photographic papers, biodegradable films,3 biomedical devices, and microcapsule implants for controlled release in drug delivery.4,5,6

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
Protocols & Articles


Enzymatic Assay of Chitosanase from Streptomyces Species

1. OBJECTIVE To standardize a procedure for determining the enzymatic activity of Chitosanase.
Keywords: Biochemistry, Enzyme activity, Microbiology

Related Content

Chitosan Microparticles

Microparticles with controlled size and morphology are of significant interest in the fields of drug delivery and biopharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of processin...
Keywords: Acetylations, Microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy

Peer-Reviewed Papers


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1. Kobayashi, S. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 13113, (1996)

2. Shin, Y. et al. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. Symp. 74, 2911, (1999)

3. Hirano, S. et al. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 19, 379, (1991)

4. Release characteristics of chitosan treated alginate beads: II. Sustained release of a low molecular drug from chitosan treated alginate beads. Sezer, A.D.; Akbuga, J.J. Microencapsulation 16, 687, (1999)


5. Bartkowiak, A.; Hunkeler, D. Chem. Mater. 11, 2486, (1999)

6. Further biocompatibility testing of silica-chitosan complex membrane in the production of tissue plasminogen activator by epithelial and fibroblast cells. Suzuki, T. et al. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88, 194, (1999)


7. Colorimetric determination of chitosan. Muzzarelli, R. A. Anal. Biochem. 260, 255-257, (1998)


8. Determination of the degree of acetylation of chitin and chitosan. Davies, D. H., and Hayes, E. R. Meth. Enzymol. 161-pt. B, 442-446, (1988)

Chemical modifications of silicon surfaces for the generation of a tunable surface isoelectric point. van der Maaden K, Tomar J, Jiskoot W, et al. Langmuir 30(7), 1812-9, (2014)


Antiobese effects of capsaicin-chitosan microsphere (CCMS) in obese rats induced by high fat diet. Tan S, Gao B, Tao Y, et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62(8), 1866-74, (2014)


Chitosan: properties, preparations and application to microparticulate systems. Kas, H. S. Microencapsulation 14, 689-711, (1997)


Increased In vitroCell Proliferation by Chitosan/pGM-CSF Complexes. Salva E, Turan SO, Akbuğa J. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 73, 131-138, (2011)


Chitosan stabilizes platelet growth factors and modulates stem cell differentiation toward tissue regeneration. Busilacchi A, Gigante A, Mattioli-Belmonte M, et al. Carbohydr. Polym. 98(1), 665-76, (2013)


Chitosan-based siRNA delivery systems. Ragelle H, Vandermeulen G, and Préat V J. Control. Release 172(1), 207-18, (2013)


Thermosensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate-based hydrogel and its derivatives in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Supper S, Anton N, Seidel N, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 11(2), 249-67, (2014)


On the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan-coated polycaprolactone nanoparticles loaded with curcumin using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Mazzarino L, Coche-Guérente L, Labbé P, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 787-94, (2014)


Novel scaffold-based BST-CarGel treatment results in superior cartilage repair compared with microfracture in a randomized controlled trial. Stanish WD, McCormack R, Forriol F, et al. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 95(18), 1640-50, (2013)


Chemical modification of chitosan with pH-sensitive molecules and specific ligands for efficient DNA transfection and siRNA silencing. Singh B, Choi YJ, Park IK, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 564-76, (2014)


Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives. Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, et al. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 233, 1-43, (2015)


[The possibilities of using a chitin and chitosan in wounds treatment]. Mazurek P, Kuliński S, and Gosk J Polim. Med. 43(4), 297-302, (2013)


Synthesis of carboxymethyl chitosan and coating on wound dressing gauze for wound healing. Venkatrajah B, Malathy VV, Elayarajah B, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(22), 1438-48, (2013)


Proteomic profiling of Stemona alkaloids production response to chitosan elicitor. Dheeranupattana S, Sangthong P, Roytrakul S, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(18), 950-4, (2013)


[Removal of heavy metals from extract of Angelica sinensis by EDTA-modified chitosan magnetic adsorbent]. Ren Y, Sun MH, Peng H, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(21), 3709-12, (2013)


Chitosan/hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels in the management of burn wounds. Vasile C, Pieptu D, Dumitriu RP, et al. Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi. 117(2), 565-71, (2013)


Inhibition of Rac1 activity by controlled release of NSC23766 from chitosan microspheres effectively ameliorates osteoarthritis development in vivo. Zhu S, Lu P, Liu H, et al. Ann. Rheum. Dis., doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203901, (2013)


Augmented microfracture: is this the Holy Grail that we have been searching for in the treatment of cartilage injuries?: commentary on an article by William D. Stanish, MD, et al.: "Novel scaffold-based BST-CarGel treatment results in superior cartilage repair compared with microfracture in a randomized controlled trial". Khazzam M J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 95(18), e137, (2013)


Lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan gels enhance skin delivery of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. Wang PC, Huang YL, Hou SS, et al. J. Cosmet. Sci. 64(4), 273-86, (2013)


[Study on chitosan-modified tripterygium glycoside nanoparticles and its renal targeting property]. Chen XK, Wei YH, Yao JN, et al. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38(4), 548-52, (2013)


Developmental-like bone regeneration by human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells. Kuhn LT, Liu Y, Boyd NL, et al. Tissue Eng. Part A 20(1-2), 365-77, (2014)

Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications. Raftery R, O'Brien FJ, and Cryan SA Molecules 18(5), 5611-47, (2013)


Electrochemical biosensor applications of polysaccharides chitin and chitosan. Suginta W, Khunkaewla P, and Schulte A Chem. Rev. 113(7), 5458-79, (2013)


Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers. Zhang Y, Niu Y, Luo Y, et al. Food Chem. 142, 269-75, (2014)


Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions. Reddy DH and Lee SM Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 201-202, 68-93, (2013)


Advances in chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles. Hu L, Sun Y, and Wu Y Nanoscale 5(8), 3103-11, (2013)


Effect of incorporation of nanoscale bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in PCL/chitosan nanofibers for bone and periodontal tissue engineering. Shalumon KT, Sowmya S, Sathish D, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(3), 430-40, (2013)


Combined effect of polymeric nanocapsules and chitosan hydrogel on the increase of capsaicinoids adhesion to the skin surface. Contri RV, Katzer T, Ourique AF, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 820-30, (2014)


Bi-layer scaffold of chitosan/PCL-nanofibrous mat and PLLA-microporous disc for skin tissue engineering. Lou T, Leung M, Wang X, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 1105-13, (2014)


In vitro ALP and osteocalcin gene expression analysis and in vivo biocompatibility of N-methylene phosphonic chitosan nanofibers for bone regeneration. Datta P, Ghosh P, Ghosh K, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 870-9, (2013)


Synthesis and characterization of diopside particles and their suitability along with chitosan matrix for bone tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo. Kumar JP, Lakshmi L, Jyothsna V, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 970-81, (2014)


Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates. Aloui H, Khwaldia K, Licciardello F, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 170, 21-8, (2014)


Mucosal delivery of a double-stapled RSV peptide prevents nasopulmonary infection. Bird GH, Boyapalle S, Wong T, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(5), 2113-24, (2014)


Recent progress in chitosan bio-based soft nanomaterials. El Kadib A, Bousmina M, and Brunel D J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 308-31, (2014)


Fine tuning of reactive oxygen species homeostasis regulates primed immune responses in Arabidopsis. Pastor V, Luna E, Ton J, et al. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 26(11), 1334-44, (2013)


Polyethylenimine and chitosan carriers for the delivery of RNA interference effectors. Molinaro R, Wolfram J, Federico C, et al. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 10(12), 1653-68, (2013)


Effects of chitosan particles in periodontal pathogens and gingival fibroblasts. Arancibia R, Maturana C, Silva D, et al. J. Dent. Res. 92(8), 740-5, (2013)


Electrospun antibacterial chitosan-based fibers. Ignatova M, Manolova N, and Rashkov I Macromol. Biosci. 13(7), 860-72, (2013)


Engineering interfacial properties by anionic surfactant-chitosan complexes to improve stability of oil-in-water emulsions. Zinoviadou KG, Scholten E, et al. Food Funct. 3(3), 312-9, (2012)


Chitosan oligosaccharides promote reverse cholesterol transport and expression of scavenger receptor BI and CYP7A1 in mice. Zong C, Yu Y, Song G, Luo T, Li L, et al. Exp. Biol. Med. 237(2), 194-200, (2012)

Nanoporous multilayer poly(l-glutamic acid)/chitosan microcapsules for drug delivery. Yan S, Rao S, Zhu J, Wang Z, et al. Int. J. Pharm. 427(2), 443-51, (2012)


Iodine - Stabilized Cu Nanoparticle Chitosan Composite for Antibacterial applications. Mallick S, Sharma S, Banerjee M, et al. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1313-23, (2012)


Structure Index 1, 501:A:1

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