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D0540 Sigma

DNQX

≥98% (TLC)

Synonym: 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione

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Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

A competitive kainate, quisqualate (non-NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist.

Features and Benefits

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

This compound is featured on the Glutamate Receptors (Ion Channel Family) page of the Handbook of Receptor Classification and Signal Transduction. To browse other handbook pages, click here.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Neuroscience

The nervous system, comprised of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, or CNS) and network of nerves that connects the CNS to the rest of the body (peripheral nervous system, or PNS) is ...
Keywords: Bioactive small molecules, Central Nervous System, Diseases, Metabolism, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Neuroscience, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitters

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Enhanced AMPA receptor activity increases operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Cannady R, Fisher KR, Durant B, et al. Addict. Biol. 18(1), 54-65, (2013)

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Prefrontal cortex modulates desire and dread generated by nucleus accumbens glutamate disruption. Richard JM and Berridge KC Biol. Psychiatry 73(4), 360-70, (2013)

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Neuroligin-2 deletion selectively decreases inhibitory synaptic transmission originating from fast-spiking but not from somatostatin-positive interneurons. Gibson JR J. Neurosci. 29(44), 13883-97, (2009)

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A retinal ganglion cell that can signal irradiance continuously for 10 hours. Wong KY J. Neurosci. 32(33), 11478-85, (2012)

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Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. Hnasko TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(43), 15076-85, (2012)

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Hypothalamic neurotensin projections promote reward by enhancing glutamate transmission in the VTA. Kempadoo KA, Tourino C, Cho SL, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(18), 7618-26, (2013)

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Simultaneous monitoring of presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic receptor trafficking reveals an enhancement of presynaptic activity in metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression. Xu W, Tse YC, Dobie FA, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(13), 5867-77, (2013)

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The cooperation of sustained and phasic inhibitions increases the contrast of ITD-tuning in low-frequency neurons of the chick nucleus laminaris. Yamada R, Okuda H, Kuba H, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(9), 3927-38, (2013)

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A critical and cell-autonomous role for MeCP2 in synaptic scaling up. Blackman MP, Djukic B, Nelson SB, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(39), 13529-36, (2012)

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Optogenetic analysis of neuronal excitability during global ischemia reveals selective deficits in sensory processing following reperfusion in mouse cortex. Chen S, Mohajerani MH, Xie Y, et al. J. Neurosci. 32(39), 13510-9, (2012)

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A novel functionally distinct subtype of striatal neuropeptide Y interneuron. Ibáñez-Sandoval O, Tecuapetla F, Unal B, et al. J. Neurosci. 31(46), 16757-69, (2011)

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Layer-specific interference with cholinergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex by smoking concentrations of nicotine. Poorthuis RB, Bloem B, Verhoog MB, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(11), 4843-53, (2013)

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The effects of AMPA receptor blockade in the prelimbic cortex on systemic and ventral tegmental area opiate reward sensitivity. De Jaeger X, Bishop SF, Ahmad T, et al. Psychopharmacology 225(3), 687-95, (2013)

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Regulation of GABA and glutamate release from proopiomelanocortin neuron terminals in intact hypothalamic networks. Dicken MS, Tooker RE, and Hentges ST J. Neurosci. 32(12), 4042-8, (2012)

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Innermost desires. Dolgin E Nat. Med. 18(5), 644, (2012)

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Type 7 Adenylyl Cyclase is Involved in the Ethanol and CRF Sensitivity of GABAergic Synapses in Mouse Central Amygdala. Cruz MT, Bajo M, Maragnoli ME, et al. Front. Neurosci. 4, 207, (2011)

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Proopiomelanocortin expression in both GABA and glutamate neurons. Shane T. Hentges et al J. Neurosci. 29, 13684-90, (2009)

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CNQX and DNQX block non-NMDA synaptic transmission but not NMDA-evoked locomotion in lamprey spinal cord. Alford, S., Grillner, S. Brain Res. 506, 297, (1990)

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Dopamine-glutamate interplay in the ventral striatum modulates spatial learning in a receptor subtype-dependent manner. Coccurello R, Oliverio A, and Mele A Biol. Psychiatry 37(5), 1122-33, (2012)

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Excitatory amino acid receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Collingridge, G. L., et al. Pharmacol. Rev. 40, 143-210, (1989)

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Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage through activation of AMPA receptors and the neuroprotective effects of DNQX. Sivakumar V, Foulds WS, Luu CD, et al. Exp. Eye Res. 109, 83-97, (2013)

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The novel micro-opioid receptor antagonist, [N-allyl-Dmt(1)]endomorphin-2, attenuates the enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission by ethanol. Li Q Alcohol Alcohol. 44(1), 13-9, (2009)

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Contributions of quisqualate and NMDA receptors to the induction and expression of LTP. Muller, et al. Science 242, 1694, (1988)

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Snx14 regulates neuronal excitability, promotes synaptic transmission, and is imprinted in the brain of mice. Huang HS, Yoon BJ, Brooks S, et al. PLoS ONE 9(5), e98383, (2014)

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Prolonging the postcomplex spike pause speeds eyeblink conditioning. Maiz J, Karakossian MH, Pakaprot N, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(41), 16726-30, (2012)

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Adenosine receptor activation is responsible for prolonged depression of synaptic transmission after spreading depolarization in brain slices. Lindquist BE and Shuttleworth CW Neuroscience 223, 365-76, (2012)

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Effects fo the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist DNQX in the nucleus accumbens on drug-induced conditioned place preference. Layer, R.T., et al. Brain Res. 617, 267, (1993)

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Both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors mediate glutamate stimulation induced cofilin rod formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Chen B, Jiang M, Zhou M, et al. Brain Res. 1486, 1-13, (2012)

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Mechanisms underlying rule learning-induced enhancement of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Saar D, Reuveni I, and Barkai E J. Neurophysiol. 107(4), 1222-9, (2012)

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Encoding and retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory traces in the auditory cortex requires the entorhinal cortex. Chen X, Guo Y, Feng J, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(24), 9963-74, (2013)

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AMPA/kainate receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus mediate the effects of glutamate on estrus termination in the rat. Georgescu M, Cyr D, and Pfaus JG Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 102(1), 146-50, (2012)

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Selective activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes produces different patterns of γ-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity and glutamate release in the retina. Guimarães-Souza EM and Calaza KC J. Neurosci. Res. 90(12), 2349-61, (2012)

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Dorsal raphe serotonin neurons in mice: immature hyperexcitability transitions to adult state during first three postnatal weeks suggesting sensitive period for environmental perturbation. Rood BD, Calizo LH, Piel D, et al. J. Neurosci. 34(14), 4809-21, (2014)

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Relationship between increase in astrocytic GLT-1 glutamate transport and late-LTP. Pita-Almenar JD, Zou S, Colbert CM, et al. Learn. Mem. 19(12), 615-26, (2012)

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Salsolinol facilitates glutamatergic transmission to dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area of rats. Xie G and Ye JH PLoS ONE 7(5), e36716, (2012)

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