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D1515 Sigma

Doxorubicin hydrochloride

98.0-102.0% (HPLC)

Synonym: DOX, Hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride

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Description

Frequently Asked Questions

Live Chat and Frequently Asked Questions are available for this Product.

Packaging

10 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Naturally fluorescent anthracycline antibiotic, anticancer drug. Doxorubicin is a substrate of MRP1 which was first cloned from a DOX-resistant lung cancer cell line. Fluorescent property has been exploited for the measurement of drug efflux pump activities as well as resolving the important question of intracellular localization of various multidrug resistance proteins and the role of subcellular organelles (Golgi and lysosome) in the sequestration of drugs and its implication in drug resistant phenotypes.

Protocols & Applications

Antibiotic Selector for application, solubility, solution stability, working concentration, and mode of action information

Price and Availability

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Doxorubicin hydrochloride

European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Doxorubicin hydrochloride

United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

Doxorubicin hydrochloride

suitable for fluorescence, 98.0-102.0% (HPLC)

Paclitaxel

from Taxus brevifolia, ≥95% (HPLC), powder

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
QI9295900

Protocols & Articles

Articles

ABC Transporters and Cancer Drug Resistance

Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice against many types of cancer. However, over time chemotherapeutic drugs can become less effective due to the development of resistance that involves a group of...
BioFiles 2007, 2.4, 7.
Keywords: Absorption, Cancer, Clinical, Cloning, Combinatorial synthesis, Diseases, Enzymology, Gene expression, Genetic, Immunology, Pharmaceutical, Reductions, Search, Transfection, Vectors

Applications of Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

Graphene oxide (GO, Aldrich product numbers 763705 and 777676) is a unique material that can be viewed as a single monomolecular layer of graphite with various oxygen containing functionalities such ...
Avery Luedtke, Ph.D.
Aldrich Materials Science, Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC
Keywords: Cancer, Catalysis, Materials Science, Nanomaterials, Reductions, Semiconductor, Solar cells

Determination of Water Content in Doxorubicin hydrochloride Using Karl Fischer Titration

The substance exhibited varying dissolution behavior. It only dissolved satisfactorily in methanol with formamide added as a solubilizer. Approx. 0.3 g dissolved in HYDRANAL-Solvent, larger sample qu...
Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Titrations

Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis by Antibiotics

Quinolones are a key group of antibiotics that interfere with DNA synthesis by inhibiting topoisomerase, most frequently topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase), an enzyme involved in DNA replication. DNA gyra...
BioFiles 2006, 1.4, 7.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Antitumor agents, Cancer, DNA replication

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Alternation of adriamycin penetration kinetics in MCF-7 cells from 2D to 3D culture based on P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-κB pathway. Lu M, Zhou F, Hao K, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 93(2), 210-20, (2015)

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Young patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma benefit from intensified chemotherapy with ACVBP plus rituximab compared with CHOP plus rituximab: analysis of data from the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte/lymphoma study association phase III trial LNH 03-2B. Molina TJ, Canioni D, Copie-Bergman C, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 32(35), 3996-4003, (2014)

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Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults. Gbabe OF, Okwundu CI, Dedicoat M, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8, CD003256, (2014)

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[Comparison of the chemoimmunotherapeutic effect of doxorubicin and bafilomycin-A1 in mouse neuroblastoma cells]. Inoue S, Setoyama Y, and Odaka A Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(5), 617-21, (2014)

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[Combined modality therapy for a patient with primary adrenal lymphoma]. Matsuno T, Kuroda H, Jomen W, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(4), 509-12, (2014)

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[A case of triple-negative breast cancer responding to multidisciplinary treatment containing bevacizumab]. Noma M, Ohara M, Imaoka Y, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(4), 483-6, (2014)

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CHOEP-21 chemotherapy for newly diagnosed nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. Rattarittamrong E, Norasetthada L, Tantiworawit A, et al. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 96(11), 1416-22, (2013)

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[Analysis of the safety and efficacy of percutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion after particle therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma]. Tanaka M, Fukumoto T, Kido M, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 1681-3, (2013)

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[Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix successfully treated with rituximabplus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy-a case report]. Hashimoto A, Fujimi A, Kanisawa Y, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(13), 2589-92, (2013)

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[Safety and efficacy of pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin and Carboplatin on platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer]. Nishio S, Ushijima K, Shimizu T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(13), 2539-43, (2013)

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[Intra-procedural cone-beam CT can predict response]. Bischoff M Rofo. 185(11), 1036, (2013)

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[A case of recurrent endometrial carcinoma with pleural effusion maintained long SD by pegylated liposomal doxorubicin(PLD)chemotherapy]. Miyamoto Y and Takechi K Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(7), 955-7, (2013)

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[Carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile and evaluation of approaches to pathogenetic correction of acrylate toxicity and antitumorigenic anthracycline doxorubicin toxicity during chemotherapy]. Tarskikh MM, Shumbasov MA, and Kolesnikov SI Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk (2), 63-6, (2013)

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[Effectiveness and toxicity of MOPP, ABVD, BEACOPP chemotherapy in first-diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma with a poor prognosis]. Filatova LV, Plotnikova AA, Gershanovich ML, et al. Vopr. Onkol. 59(2), 59-65, (2013)

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[Interleukin-2 (Ronkoleykin) in the first-line chemotherapy for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma]. Sachivko NV, Zhavrid ÉA, Baranov EV, et al. Vopr. Onkol. 59(2), 52-8, (2013)

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[Organ-specific antitoxic effects of N-stearoylethanolamine in male mice with Lewis carcinoma under doxorubicin intoxication]. Hudz' IeA, Hula NM, Horid'ko TM, et al. Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 85(2), 45-51, (2013)

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[Effect of free and polymer carrier encapsulated doxorubicin towards HCT116 cells of human colorectal carcinoma]. Sen'kiv IuV, Heffeter P, Riabtseva AO, et al. Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 85(2), 33-44, (2013)

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A systematic review and economic evaluation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride for ovarian cancer. Forbes C, Wilby J, Richardson G, et al. Health Technol. Assess. 6(23), 1-119, (2002)

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Young dentate granule cells mediate pattern separation, whereas old granule cells facilitate pattern completion. Nakashiba T, et al. Cell 149(1), 188-201, (2012)

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Integrin-linked kinase mediates force transduction in cardiomyocytes by modulating SERCA2a/PLN function. Traister A, Li M, Aafaqi S, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 4533, (2014)

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A series of alpha-heterocyclic carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones inhibit topoisomerase IIalpha catalytic activity. He Huang et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 3048-64, (2010)

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Brentuximab vedotin combined with ABVD or AVD for patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin's lymphoma: a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study. Younes A, Connors JM, Park SI, et al. Lancet Oncol. 14(13), 1348-56, (2013)

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Doxorubicin loaded pH-responsive micelles capable of rapid intracellular drug release for potential tumor therapy. Li S, Wu W, Xiu K, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 1480-9, (2014)

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Risk of hospitalization according to chemotherapy regimen in early-stage breast cancer. Barcenas CH, Niu J, Zhang N, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 32(19), 2010-7, (2014)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Essential role for TrpC5-containing extracellular vesicles in breast cancer with chemotherapeutic resistance. Ma X, Chen Z, Hua D, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6389-94, (2014)

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A tamoxifen derivative, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl) phenoxy] ethanamine, selectively targets P-glycoprotein-positive multidrug resistant Chinese hamster cells. Georges E, Lian J, and Laberge R Biochem. Pharmacol. 90(2), 107-14, (2014)

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Therapeutic antagonists of microRNAs deplete leukemia-initiating cell activity. Velu CS, Chaubey A, Phelan JD, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 124(1), 222-36, (2014)

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Novel dual drug-loaded block ionomer complex micelles for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments. Ramasamy T, Kim J, Choi HG, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 1304-12, (2014)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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Rare Streptomyces N-formyl amino-salicylamides inhibit oncogenic K-Ras. Salim AA, Cho KJ, Tan L, et al. Org. Lett. 16(19), 5036-9, (2014)

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Trigonosins A-F, daphnane diterpenoids from Trigonostemon thyrsoideum. Shi-Fei Li et al J. Nat. Prod. 74, 464-9, (2011)

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Adverse effects of doxorubicin and its metabolic product on cardiac RyR2 and SERCA2A. Hanna AD, Lam A, Tham S, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 86(4), 438-49, (2014)

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In vivo disposition of doxorubicin is affected by mouse Oatp1a/1b and human OATP1A/1B transporters. Durmus S, Naik J, Buil L, et al. Int. J. Cancer 135(7), 1700-10, (2014)

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Bioactive alkaloids from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus. Hui Ming Ge et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 753-5, (2009)

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p53-dependent gene repression through p21 is mediated by recruitment of E2F4 repression complexes. Benson EK, Mungamuri SK, Attie O, et al. Oncogene 33(30), 3959-69, (2014)

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Podocyte loss involves MDM2-driven mitotic catastrophe. Mulay SR, Thomasova D, Ryu M, et al. J. Pathol. 230(3), 322-35, (2013)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-diaryl isoxazoline/isoxazole linked 2,3-dihydroquinazolinone hybrids as anticancer agents. Ahmed Kamal et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 691-703, (2011)

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Effect of iontophoresis on topical delivery of doxorubicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Taveira SF, De Santana DC, Araújo LM, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 1382-90, (2014)

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CXCL12/CXCR4 axis confers adriamycin resistance to human chronic myelogenous leukemia and oroxylin A improves the sensitivity of K562/ADM cells. Wang Y, Miao H, Li W, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 90(3), 212-25, (2014)

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The cross-talk between canonical and non-canonical Wnt-dependent pathways regulates P-glycoprotein expression in human blood-brain barrier cells. Pinzón-Daza ML, Salaroglio IC, Kopecka J, et al. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34(8), 1258-69, (2014)

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Bioactive compounds from the scale insect pathogenic fungus Conoideocrella tenuis BCC 18627. Masahiko Isaka et al J. Nat. Prod. 74, 782-9, (2011)

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High-dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation as consolidation therapy in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma after previous autologous stem-cell transplantation (NCRI Myeloma X Relapse [Intensive trial]): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Cook G, Williams C, Brown JM, et al. Lancet Oncol. 15(8), 874-85, (2014)

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Augmented post-remission therapy for a minimal residual disease-defined high-risk subgroup of children and young people with clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial. Vora A, Goulden N, Mitchell C, et al. Lancet Oncol. 15(8), 809-18, (2014)

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Synthesis, topoisomerase I and II inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, and structure-activity relationship study of hydroxylated 2,4-diphenyl-6-aryl pyridines. Radha Karki et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 3066-77, (2010)

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Low expression of microRNA-146b-5p and microRNA-320d predicts poor outcome of large B-cell lymphoma treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. Wu PY, Zhang XD, Zhu J, et al. Hum. Pathol. 45(8), 1664-73, (2014)

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A developmental switch of axon targeting in the continuously regenerating mouse olfactory system. Ma L, Wu Y, Qiu Q, et al. Science 344(6180), 194-7, (2014)

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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking study of 3-(3'-heteroatom substituted-2'-hydroxy-1'-propyloxy) xanthone analogues as novel topoisomerase II? catalytic inhibitor. Kyu-Yeon Jun et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 1964-71, (2011)

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Synthesis of a new 4-aza-2,3-didehydropodophyllotoxin analogues as potent cytotoxic and antimitotic agents Kamal, A.; et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 2349, (2011)

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2-Thienyl-4-furyl-6-aryl pyridine derivatives: synthesis, topoisomerase I and II inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, and structure-activity relationship study. Pritam Thapa et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 377-86, (2010)

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Sulfonate derivatives of naphtho[2,3-b]thiophen-4(9H)-one and 9(10H)-anthracenone as highly active antimicrotubule agents. Synthesis, antiproliferative activity, and inhibition of tubulin polymerization. Anne Zuse et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 6059-66, (2007)

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Endothelial-cell FAK targeting sensitizes tumours to DNA-damaging therapy. Tavora B, Reynolds LE, Batista S, et al. Nature 514(7520), 112-6, (2014)

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A unique composite follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma with a mixed cell pattern and aggressive course. Liu Y, Li P, Guo Y, et al. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 141(5), 737-41, (2014)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,9-disubstituted ?-carbolines as potent DNA intercalating and cytotoxic agents. Zhiyong Chen et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 5127-37, (2011)

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-diaryl-isoxazoline/isoxazole-pyrrolobenzodiazepine conjugates as potential anticancer agents. Ahmed Kamal et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3924-37, (2010)

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Materials characterization of the low temperature sensitive liposome (LTSL): effects of the lipid composition (lysolipid and DSPE-PEG2000) on the thermal transition and release of doxorubicin. Needham D, Park JY, Wright AM, et al. Faraday Discuss. 161, 515-34; discussion 563-89, (2013)

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A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010)

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Merck 14,3439

Aldrich MSDS 1, 849:A / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1499:A / RegBook 1 (2), 1691:D / Sax 6, 144 / Structure Index 1, 268:B:6

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