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D2534 Sigma

cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-Docosahexaenoic acid

≥98%

Synonym: DHA

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Description

Frequently Asked Questions

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Biochem/physiol Actions

Docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbons and six double bonds, the first double bond occuring at position three from the methyl terminus (22:6 n-3). DHA is a component of lipid membranes and the myelin sheath. DHA also serves as a precursor for signaling molecules such as prostaglandins and eicosanoids.

Packaging

Sealed ampule.

Price and Availability

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Metabolomic Pathways Chart

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

RIDADR 
NA 1993 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
3
Flash Point(F) 
143.6 °F
Flash Point(C) 
62 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Lipid Induced Insulin Resistance

Obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of insulin resistance. Obesity is associated with the increased deposition of lipids in non-adipose tissue with subsequent decreases in i...
Linda Stephenson, Ph.D.
Biofiles v6 n4, 9
Keywords: Angiogenesis, Antivirals, Apoptosis, Biological processes, Cardiovascular, Catalog, Catalysis, Cell culture, Cell proliferation, Deposition, Diabetes, Events, Gene expression, Growth factors, Hormones, Inflammation, Metabolism, Metabolites, Obesity, Phosphorylations, Physiological Processes, Reductions, Transcription, Transduction, Type

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Heart Disease

The potential for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease through increased dietary intake of omega-3 (w-3) fish oils is not a recent scientific discovery. A historically important stu...
BioFiles 2007, 2.2, 14.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agents, Biochemistry, Cardiovascular, Clinical, Degradations, Esterifications, Immunology, Inflammation, Lipid Metabolism, Metabolism, Metabolites, Methods, Nutrition, Oxidations, Transcription

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production. Adarme-Vega TC, Thomas-Hall SR, and Schenk PM Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 26, 14-8, (2014)

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HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 37(Database issue), D603-10, (2009)

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Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Nguyen LN, Ma D, Shui G, et al. Nature 509(7501), 503-6, (2014)

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The human serum metabolome. Psychogios N, Hau DD, Peng J, et al. PLoS ONE 6(2), e16957, (2011)

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Is there a relation between docosahexaenoic acid concentration in mothers' milk and visual development in term infants? Jørgensen MH, Hernell O, Hughes E, et al. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 32(3), 293-6, (2001)

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Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Crawford MA, Bloom M, Broadhurst CL, et al. Lipids 34 Suppl, S39-47, (1999)

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Identification of putative metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid as potent PPARgamma agonists and antidiabetic agents. Keiko Yamamoto et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 517-22, (2005)

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Severe deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid in peroxisomal disorders: a defect of delta 4 desaturation? Martínez M Neurology 40(8), 1292-8, (1990)

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A novel lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase enzyme (LPAAT4) with a possible role for incorporating docosahexaenoic acid into brain glycerophospholipids. Eto M, Shindou H, and Shimizu T Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 443(2), 718-24, (2014)

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Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Atherosclerosis 166(1), 85-93, (2003)

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Reduction in DHA transport to the brain of mice expressing human APOE4 compared to APOE2. Vandal M, Alata W, Tremblay C, et al. J. Neurochem. 129(3), 516-26, (2014)

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Cyclooxygenase-2 induction in macrophages is modulated by docosahexaenoic acid via interactions with free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). Li X, Yu Y, and Funk CD FASEB J. 27(12), 4987-97, (2013)

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Discovery of novel brain lipoxygenase products formed from docosahexaenoic acid (22:6w3). Shingu T, Karanian JW, Kim HY, et al. Adv. Alcohol Subst. Abuse 7(3-4), 235-40, (1988)

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Fish intake and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2 large US cohorts. Varraso R, Barr RG, Willett WC, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 101(2), 354-61, (2015)

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Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury. Gill R, Lanni L, Jen KL, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 282(1), 61-7, (2015)

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Docosahexaenoic acid induces M2 macrophage polarization through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation. Chang HY, Lee HN, Kim W, et al. Life Sci. 120, 39-47, (2015)

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Multiple micronutrient supplementation transiently ameliorates environmental enteropathy in Malawian children aged 12-35 months in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Smith HE, Ryan KN, Stephenson KB, et al. J. Nutr. 144(12), 2059-65, (2014)

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The specialized proresolving mediator 17-HDHA enhances the antibody-mediated immune response against influenza virus: a new class of adjuvant? Ramon S, Baker SF, Sahler JM, et al. J. Immunol. 193(12), 6031-40, (2014)

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Intrinsic heart rate recovery after dynamic exercise is improved with an increased omega-3 index in healthy males. Macartney MJ, Hingley L, Brown MA, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 112(12), 1984-92, (2014)

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DHA-rich tuna oil effectively suppresses allergic symptoms in mice allergic to whey or peanut. van den Elsen LW, Bol-Schoenmakers M, van Esch BC, et al. J. Nutr. 144(12), 1970-6, (2014)

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Erythrocyte DHA level as a biomarker of DHA status in specific brain regions of n-3 long-chain PUFA-supplemented aged rats. Létondor A, Buaud B, Vaysse C, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 112(11), 1805-18, (2014)

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Resolvin D1 reverses reactivity and Ca2+ sensitivity induced by ET-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the human pulmonary artery. Hiram R, Rizcallah E, Sirois C, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 307(11), H1547-58, (2014)

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Neuroprotectin/protectin D1: endogenous biosynthesis and actions on diabetic macrophages in promoting wound healing and innervation impaired by diabetes. Hong S, Tian H, Lu Y, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 307(11), C1058-67, (2014)

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Fish oil (n-3 fatty acids) in drug resistant epilepsy: a randomised placebo-controlled crossover study. DeGiorgio CM, Miller PR, Harper R, et al. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 86(1), 65-70, (2015)

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Effect of diclofenac on the levels of lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1 and E1 in the post-ERCP pancreatitis. Zhao XW, Bao JJ, Hu C, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 59(12), 2992-6, (2014)

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Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids reduce the severity of radiation-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. Saada HN, Said UZ, Mahdy EM, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 90(12), 1179-83, (2014)

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Fenretinide prevents inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Kanagaratham C, Kalivodová A, Najdekr L, et al. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 51(6), 783-92, (2014)

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[Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in the prevention of preterm birth]. Ginekol. Pol. 85(4), 318-20, (2014)

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Resolvin D1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury through CXCL-12/CXCR4 pathway. Yaxin W, Shanglong Y, Huaqing S, et al. J. Surg. Res. 188(1), 213-21, (2014)

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Fish oil in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind controlled trial within algorithm-based drug use. Proudman SM, James MJ, Spargo LD, et al. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 74(1), 89-95, (2015)

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Unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in neuroinflammation. Orr SK, Palumbo S, Bosetti F, et al. J. Neurochem. 127(3), 378-93, (2013)

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Altered release of cytochrome p450 metabolites of arachidonic acid in renovascular disease. Minuz P, Jiang H, Fava C, et al. Hypertension 51(5), 1379-85, (2008)

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A new antiangiogenic C24 oxylipin from the soft coral Sinularia numerosa. Takahiro Yamashita et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 2181-4, (2009)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Angiotensins in plasma of hypertensive rats and human. Sim MK and Qui XS Regul. Pept. 111(1-3), 179-82, (2003)

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Quantitation of urinary nucleosides by high-performance liquid chromatography. Liebich HM, Di Stefano C, Wixforth A, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 763(1-2), 193-7, (1997)

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Docosahexaenoic acid alters bilayer elastic properties. Michael J Bruno et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 9638-43, (2007)

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Plasticity of leukocytic exudates in resolving acute inflammation is regulated by MicroRNA and proresolving mediators. Li Y, Dalli J, Chiang N, et al. Immunity 39(5), 885-98, (2013)

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Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma. Quehenberger O, Armando AM, Brown AH, et al. J. Lipid Res. 51(11), 3299-305, (2010)

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Down-regulation of lipid raft-associated onco-proteins via cholesterol-dependent lipid raft internalization in docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis. Lee EJ, Yun UJ, Koo KH, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(1), 190-203, (2014)

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Comprehensive analysis of the effects of ordinary nutrients on hepatitis C virus RNA replication in cell culture. Masahiko Yano et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2016-27, (2007)

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Resolvin D2 supports MCF-7 cell proliferation via activation of estrogen receptor. Al-Zaubai N, Johnstone CN, Leong MM, et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 351(1), 172-80, (2014)

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Differential modulation of the glutamate transporters GLT1, GLAST and EAAC1 by docosahexaenoic acid. Berry CB, Hayes D, Murphy A, et al. Brain Res. 1037(1-2), 123-33, (2005)

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Identification of a naturally occurring rexinoid, honokiol, that activates the retinoid X receptor. Hitoshi Kotani et al J. Nat. Prod. 73, 1332-6, (2010)

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Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue. Colas RA, Shinohara M, Dalli J, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 307(1), C39-54, (2014)

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Rapid, simple enzymatic assay of free L-fucose in serum and urine, and its use as a marker for cancer, cirrhosis, and gastric ulcers. Sakai T, Yamamoto K, Yokota H, et al. Clin. Chem. 36(3), 474-6, (1990)

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Separation and quantitation of long-chain free fatty acids in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. Kargas G, Rudy T, Spennetta T, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 526(2), 331-40, (1990)

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Synthesis of new alkylaminooxysterols with potent cell differentiating activities: identification of leads for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Philippe de Medina et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 7765-77, (2009)

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Materno-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus. Pagán A, Prieto-Sánchez MT, Blanco-Carnero JE, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 305(7), E826-33, (2013)

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Inflammasome-mediated secretion of IL-1β in human monocytes through TLR2 activation; modulation by dietary fatty acids. Snodgrass RG, Huang S, Choi IW, et al. J. Immunol. 191(8), 4337-47, (2013)

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Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, et al. Clin. Chem. 53(6), 1129-36, (2007)

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Resolvin D1 stimulates alveolar fluid clearance through alveolar epithelial sodium channel, Na,K-ATPase via ALX/cAMP/PI3K pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Wang Q, Zheng X, Cheng Y, et al. J. Immunol. 192(8), 3765-77, (2014)

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Habitual diets rich in dark-green vegetables are associated with an increased response to ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in Americans of African ancestry. O'Sullivan A, Armstrong P, Schuster GU, et al. J. Nutr. 144(2), 123-31, (2014)

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Omega-3 status and cerebrospinal fluid corticotrophin releasing hormone in perpetrators of domestic violence. Hibbeln JR, Bissette G, Umhau JC, et al. Biol. Psychiatry 56(11), 895-7, (2004)

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The role of pro-resolution lipid mediators in infectious disease. Russell CD and Schwarze J Immunology 141(2), 166-73, (2014)

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Sanders TA Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71(1 Suppl), 176S-8S, (2000)

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Epigallocatechin gallate counteracts oxidative stress in docosahexaenoxic acid-treated myocytes. Casanova E, Baselga-Escudero L, Ribas-Latre A, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1837(6), 783-91, (2014)

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Maternal plasma homocysteine, placenta status and docosahexaenoic acid concentration in erythrocyte phospholipids of the newborn. Böhles H, Arndt S, Ohlenschläger U, et al. Eur. J. Pediatr. 158(3), 243-6, (1999)

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Fish oil supplementation ameliorates fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in adult male rhesus macaques. Bremer AA, Stanhope KL, Graham JL, et al. J. Nutr. 144(1), 5-11, (2014)

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Maresin 1, a proresolving lipid mediator derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, exerts protective actions in murine models of colitis. Marcon R, Bento AF, Dutra RC, et al. J. Immunol. 191(8), 4288-98, (2013)

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Protective action of n-3 fatty acids on benzo[a]pyrene-induced apoptosis through the plasma membrane remodeling-dependent NHE1 pathway. Dendelé B, Tekpli X, Hardonnière K, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 207, 41-51, (2014)

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Reduced urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites and increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in men with essential hypertension. Surdacki A, Nowicki M, Sandmann J, et al. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 33(4), 652-8, (1999)

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Membrane lipid modifications and therapeutic effects mediated by hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid on Alzheimer's disease. Torres M, Price SL, Fiol-Deroque MA, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1838(6), 1680-92, (2014)

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ω-3 fatty acids and domain-specific cognitive aging: secondary analyses of data from WHISCA. Ammann EM, Pottala JV, Harris WS, et al. Neurology 81(17), 1484-91, (2013)

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Altered kynurenine metabolism correlates with infarct volume in stroke. Darlington LG, Mackay GM, Forrest CM, et al. Eur. J. Neurosci. 26(8), 2211-21, (2007)

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Hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine by human pancreatic phospholipase A2. Effect of bile salts. Andersson L, Sternby B, and Nilsson A Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 29(2), 182-7, (1994)

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Compared with daily, weekly n-3 PUFA intake affects the incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid into platelets and mononuclear cells in humans. Browning LM, Walker CG, Mander AP, et al. J. Nutr. 144(5), 667-72, (2014)

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Resolvin D1 protects periodontal ligament. Mustafa M, Zarrough A, Bolstad AI, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 305(6), C673-9, (2013)

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DHA-mediated enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells is associated with engagement of mitochondria and specific alterations in sphingolipid metabolism. Skender B, Hofmanová J, Slavík J, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(9), 1308-17, (2014)

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Neuroprotectin D1 reduces the severity of herpes simplex virus-induced corneal immunopathology. Rajasagi NK, Reddy PB, Mulik S, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(9), 6269-79, (2013)

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Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications. Harris WS, Dayspring TD, and Moran TJ Postgrad. Med. 125(6), 100-13, (2013)

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Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid. Czarnecka J, Cieślak M, and Michał K J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 822(1-2), 85-90, (2005)

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Functional characterization of the duck and turkey fatty acyl elongase enzymes ELOVL5 and ELOVL2. Gregory MK and James MJ J. Nutr. 144(8), 1234-9, (2014)

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Docosahexaenoic acid modulates the enterocyte Caco-2 cell expression of microRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. Gil-Zamorano J, Martin R, Daimiel L, et al. J. Nutr. 144(5), 575-85, (2014)

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Wax esters from the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus reduce diet-induced obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders in mice. Höper AC, Salma W, Sollie SJ, et al. J. Nutr. 144(2), 164-9, (2014)

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Age-related Eye Disease Study 2: perspectives, recommendations, and unanswered questions. Aronow ME and Chew EY Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 25(3), 186-90, (2014)

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Molecular mechanisms of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis enhanced by docosahexaenoic acid: implication for cancer therapy. Cui ZG, Piao JL, Kondo T, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 215, 46-53, (2014)

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Dual anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of the electrophilic cyclooxygenase-2-derived 17-oxo-DHA in lipopolysaccharide- and cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Cipollina C, Di Vincenzo S, Gerbino S, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1840(7), 2299-309, (2014)

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Interference by naturally occurring fatty acids in a noncellular enzyme-based aromatase bioassay. Marcy J Balunas et al J. Nat. Prod. 69, 700-3, (2006)

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Oleate prevents palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammatory signaling in neuronal cells. Kwon B, Lee HK, and Querfurth HW Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1843(7), 1402-13, (2014)

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Characterization of anticancer properties of 2,6-diisopropylphenol-docosahexaenoate and analogues in breast cancer cells. Kevin A Harvey et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 1866-74, (2010)

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Polyamine concentrations in pancreatic tissue, serum, and urine of patients with pancreatic cancer. Löser C, Fölsch UR, Paprotny C, et al. Pancreas 5(2), 119-27, (1990)

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Inhibitory effect of novel 5-O-acyl juglones on mammalian DNA polymerase activity, cancer cell growth and inflammatory response. Maruo S, Kuriyama I, et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 5803-5812, (2011)

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Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) brain cells biosynthesize novel docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins and protectins-Mediator lipidomic analysis. Hong S, Tjonahen E, Morgan EL, et al. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 78(1-4), 107-16, (2005)

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Urinary tetrahydroaldosterone as a screening method for primary aldosteronism: a comparative study. Abdelhamid S, Blomer R, Hommel G, et al. Am. J. Hypertens. 16(7), 522-30, (2003)

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Impact of sex on the heart's metabolic and functional responses to diabetic therapies. Lyons MR, Peterson LR, McGill JB, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 305(11), H1584-91, (2013)

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Plasma phospholipid omega-3 fatty acids and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in the OPERA trial. Wu JH, Marchioli R, Silletta MG, et al. J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2(5), e000397, (2013)

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Fish oil alleviates activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with inhibition of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways in weaned piglets after a lipopolysaccharide challenge. Liu Y, Chen F, Li Q, et al. J. Nutr. 143(11), 1799-807, (2013)

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Concurrent physical activity modifies the association between n3 long-chain fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk in midlife adults. Muldoon MF, Erickson KI, Goodpaster BH, et al. J. Nutr. 143(9), 1414-20, (2013)

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A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of cell membrane domain modifications induced by docosahexaenoic acid. Mereghetti P, Corsetto PA, Cremona A, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1840(10), 3115-22, (2014)

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The fish oil ingredient, docosahexaenoic acid, activates cytosolic phospholipase A₂ via GPR120 receptor to produce prostaglandin E₂ and plays an anti-inflammatory role in macrophages. Liu Y, Chen LY, Sokolowska M, et al. Immunology 143(1), 81-95, (2014)

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Protective effects of dietary enrichment with docosahexaenoic acid plus protein in 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal injury in the rat. Gómez de Segura IA, Valderrábano S, Vázquez I, et al. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 16(5), 479-85, (2004)

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Expression of a type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Thalassiosira pseudonana in yeast leads to incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid β-oxidation intermediates into triacylglycerol. Xu J, Kazachkov M, Jia Y, et al. FEBS J. 280(23), 6162-72, (2013)

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Low plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in patients with liver cirrhosis and its correction with a polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched soft oil capsule. Watanabe A, Saito S, Tsuchida T, et al. Nutrition 15(4), 284-8, (1999)

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High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high-oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial. Purcell R, Latham SH, Botham KM, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 100(4), 1019-28, (2014)

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Preoperative levels of plasma micronutrients are related to endometrial cancer risk. Jeong NH, Song ES, Lee JM, et al. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 88(4), 434-9, (2009)

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Validation of a short, qualitative food frequency questionnaire in French adults participating in the MONA LISA-NUT study 2005-2007. Giovannelli J, Dallongeville J, Wagner A, et al. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 114(4), 552-61, (2014)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluations of albumin-binding prodrugs of CC-1065 analog. Yuqiang Wang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 6552-9, (2008)

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Resolvins RvD1 and 17(R)-RvD1 alleviate signs of inflammation in a rat model of endometriosis. Dmitrieva N, Suess G, and Shirley R Fertil. Steril. 102(4), 1191-6, (2014)

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Immunoresolving actions of oral resolvin D1 include selective regulation of the transcription machinery in resolution-phase mouse macrophages. Recchiuti A, Codagnone M, Pierdomenico AM, et al. FASEB J. 28(7), 3090-102, (2014)

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Measurement of free fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Pilitsis JG, Coplin WM, O'Regan MH, et al. Brain Res. 985(2), 198-201, (2003)

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Oral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid modifies cardiac function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in male rats. Yamanushi TT, Kabuto H, Hirakawa E, et al. J. Nutr. 144(4), 467-74, (2014)

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Alteration of urinary profiles of endogenous steroids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in thyroid cancer. Kim KM, Jung BH, Lho DS, et al. Cancer Lett. 202(2), 173-9, (2003)

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Protective actions of aspirin-triggered (17R) resolvin D1 and its analogue, 17R-hydroxy-19-para-fluorophenoxy-resolvin D1 methyl ester, in C5a-dependent IgG immune complex-induced inflammation and lung injury. Tang H, Liu Y, Yan C, et al. J. Immunol. 193(7), 3769-78, (2014)

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Cutting edge: Parathyroid hormone facilitates macrophage efferocytosis in bone marrow via proresolving mediators resolvin D1 and resolvin D2. McCauley LK, Dalli J, Koh AJ, et al. J. Immunol. 193(1), 26-9, (2014)

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Four-year placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (DHAX trial): a randomized clinical trial. Hoffman DR, Hughbanks-Wheaton DK, Pearson NS, et al. JAMA Ophthalmol. 132(7), 866-73, (2014)

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Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Wang S, Ma A, Song S, et al. Hypertens. Res. 31(4), 623-32, (2008)

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Analysis of biogenic amines in plasma of hypertensive patients and a control group. Andrew R, Best SA, Watson DG, et al. Neurochem. Res. 18(11), 1179-82, (1993)

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Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats. Rodrigues PO, Martins SV, Lopes PA, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 112(3), 309-19, (2014)

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DHA suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages. Choi EY, Jin JY, Choi JI, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 111(7), 1221-30, (2014)

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Docosahexaenoic acid, G protein-coupled receptors, and melanoma: is G protein-coupled receptor 40 a potential therapeutic target? Nehra D, Pan AH, Le HD, et al. J. Surg. Res. 188(2), 451-8, (2014)

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Physiology: Double function at the blood-brain barrier. Betsholtz C Nature 509(7501), 432-3, (2014)

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Four-year follow-up of children born to women in a randomized trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. Makrides M, Gould JF, Gawlik NR, et al. JAMA 311(17), 1802-4, (2014)

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Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study. Freund Levi Y, Vedin I, Cederholm T, et al. J. Intern. Med. 275(4), 428-36, (2014)

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A lipid neurochemist's siren: docosahexaenoic acid and its elusive function in the central nervous system. Murphy EJ J. Neurochem. 127(3), 299-302, (2013)

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African hominin stable isotopic data do not necessarily indicate grass consumption. Fontes-Villalba M, Carrera-Bastos P, and Cordain L Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(43), E4055, (2013)

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Do omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate spinal cord injury?: Commentary on: Lim et al., Improved outcome after spinal cord compression injury in mice treated with docosahexaeonic acid. Exp. Neurol. Jan; 239:13-27. Satkunendrarajah K and Fehlings MG Exp. Neurol. 249, 104-10, (2013)

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Merck 14,3398

Beil. 2,IV,1812

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94791 SnapIT Ampule Opener, Regular, for 1-2ml, 5-10ml, 10-15ml ampoules
43917 SnapIT Ampule Opener, large, for 5-10ml, 10-15ml, 20-25ml ampoules

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