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Difloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and the topoisomerase II enzyme, which inhibits DNA replication and transcription
Fluoroquinolone antibacterial compound. Structurally related to norfloxacin.
Pefloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone that functions an antibacterial agent. It is an analog of norfloxacin.
Mode of Action: A ds-DNA binding DNA gyrase inhibitor to dysrupt DNA synthesis. Use to study the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans and collagen in organ cultures of articular cartilage.
Antimicrobial spectrum: Pefloxacin is highly active against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, other enterobacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.1 Active against gram-positive bacteria and excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria.2
Difloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is a potential treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis infections1 and chronic Q fever in humans2. It has been used to study how potential supplementation (magnesium) may reduce quinolone-induced damage in the horse and dog models3.
3. In Vitro Evidence for Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Quinolone-treated Horse and Dog Chondrocytes M. Egerbacher, B. Wolfesberger, et al. Vet. Pathol. 29, 230-238, (2001)
Aryl-fluoroquinolone derivatives A-56619 (difloxacin) and A-56620 inhibit mitogen-induced human mononuclear cell proliferation. Gollapudi, S.V. et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30, 390-394, (1986)
Development of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of fluoroquinolones in chicken liver by high performance liquid chromatography. Moema D, Nindi MM, and Dube S Anal. Chim. Acta 730, 80-6, (2012)
Mutant prevention concentration and phenotypic and molecular basis of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates and in vitro-selected mutants of Escherichia coli from dogs. Gebru E, Damte D, Choi MJ, et al. Vet. Microbiol. 154(3-4), 384-94, (2012)
Short term effects of copper, sulfadiazine and difloxacin on the anaerobic digestion of pig manure at low organic loading rates. Guo J, Ostermann A, Siemens J, et al. Waste Manag. 32(1), 131-6, (2012)
Effects of cytochrome P450 1A substrate (difloxacin) on enzyme gene expression and pharmacokinetics in crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp). Fu GH, Yang XL, Zhang HX, et al. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 31(2), 307-13, (2011)
Plasma disposition and tissue depletion of difloxacin and its metabolite sarafloxacin in the food producing animals, chickens for fattening. Anadón A, Suárez FH, Martínez MA, et al. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49(2), 441-9, (2011)
Pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of difloxacin after a long-acting formulation for subcutaneous administration to lactating goats. Marín P, Escudero E, Fernández-Varón E, et al. J. Dairy Sci. 93(7), 3056-64, (2010)
Simultaneous determination of quinolones for veterinary use by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Rodríguez Cáceres MI, Guiberteau Cabanillas A, Galeano Díaz T, et al. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(3-4), 398-402, (2010)
Quantification of danofloxacin and difloxacin in chicken tissues in the presence of sarafloxacin as interference. Rodríguez Cáceres MI, Guiberteau Cabanillas A, Bohoyo Gil D, et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57(17), 7627-33, (2009)
In vitro residual anti-bacterial activity of difloxacin, sarafloxacin and their photoproducts after photolysis in water. Kusari S, Prabhakaran D, Lamshöft M, et al. Environ. Pollut. 157(10), 2722-30, (2009)
Are liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem quadrupole fragmentation ratios unequivocal confirmation criteria? Kaufmann A, Butcher P, Maden K, et al. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(7), 985-98, (2009)
Metabolism and excretion kinetics of 14C-labeled and non-labeled difloxacin in pigs after oral administration, and antimicrobial activity of manure containing difloxacin and its metabolites. Sukul P, Lamshöft M, Kusari S, et al. Environ. Res. 109(3), 225-31, (2009)
Disposition kinetics and pharmacokinetics--pharmacodynamic integration of difloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbits. Fernández-varón E, Cárceles CM, Marín P, et al. Res. Vet. Sci. 84(1), 90-4, (2008)
Simultaneous multiresidue determination of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in catfish muscle using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Schneider MJ, Darwish AM, and Freeman DW Anal. Chim. Acta 586(1-2), 269-74, (2007)
Pharmacokinetic and milk penetration of a difloxacin long-acting poloxamer gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose in lactating goats. Escudero E, Marín P, Cárceles CM, et al. Vet. J. 188(1), 92-5, (2011)
In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys. Gerchman I, Lysnyansky I, Perk S, et al. Vet. Microbiol. 131(3-4), 266-76, (2008)
Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in pigs and broilers following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral single-dose applications. Ding HZ, Yang GX, Huang XH, et al. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 31(3), 200-4, (2008)
[Determination of 16 quinolone residues in animal tissues using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry]. Yue Z, Lin X, Tang S, et al. Se Pu 25(4), 491-5, (2007)
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