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E1383 Sigma

Etoposide

synthetic, ≥98%, powder

Synonym: 4′-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin 9-(4,6-O-ethylidene-β-D-glucopyranoside), VP-16-213

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Description

Packaging

Bottomless glass bottle. Contents are inside inserted fused cone.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Etoposide is an antitumor agent that complexes with topoisomerase II and DNA to enhance double-strand and single-strand cleavage of DNA and reversibly inhibit religation. Blocks the cell cycle in in S-phase and G2-phase of the cell cycle; induces apoptosis in normal and tumor cell lines; inhibits synthesis of the oncoprotein Mdm2 and induces apoptosis in tumor lines that overexpress Mdm2.

Features and Benefits

This compound is a featured product for ADME Tox and Apoptosis research. Discover more featured ADME Tox and Apoptosis products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at sigma.com/discover-bsm.

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

This compound was developed by Teva. To browse the list of other pharma-developed compounds and Approved Drugs/Drug Candidates, click here.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.




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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
KC0190000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

ABC Transporters and Cancer Drug Resistance

Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice against many types of cancer. However, over time chemotherapeutic drugs can become less effective due to the development of resistance that involves a group of...
BioFiles 2007, 2.4, 7.
Keywords: Absorption, Cancer, Clinical, Cloning, Combinatorial synthesis, Diseases, Enzymology, Gene expression, Genetic, Immunology, Pharmaceutical, Reductions, Search, Transfection, Vectors

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for ADME/Tox

A significant number of drugs that fail in clinical trials have been associated with safety issues, including unexpected drug-drug interactions (DDI) or lack of efficacy due to poor pharmacokinetics....
Keywords: Absorption, Bioactive small molecules, Clinical, Metabolism

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Apoptosis

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is a selective process for the removal of unnecessary, infected or transformed cells in various biological systems. As it plays a role in the homeostasis of...
Keywords: Apoptosis, Bioactive small molecules, Cancer, Clinical, Diseases, Ligands, Neurodegenerative Diseases

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Cell Cycle Research

In proliferating cells, the cell cycle consists of four phases. Gap 1 (G1) is the interval between mitosis and DNA replication that is characterized by cell growth. Replication of DNA occurs during t...
Keywords: Apoptosis, Bioactive small molecules, Cancer, Cell division, Cell proliferation, DNA replication, Diseases, Genetic

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Inhibition of oligodendrocyte apoptosis by sublytic C5b-9 is associated with enhanced synthesis of bcl-2 and mediated by inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Soane L, Rus H, Niculescu F, Shin ML J. Immunol., 6132-8, (2008)

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Etoposide: four decades of development of a topoisomerase II inhibitor. Hande, K.R. Eur. J. Cancer 34, 1514-1521, (1998)

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Upregulation of CASP genes in human tumor cells undergoing etoposide-induced apoptosis. Droin, N., et al. Oncogene 16, 2885-2894, (1998)

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Topoisomerase II-etoposide interactions direct the formation of drug-induced enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes. Burden, D.A., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 29238-29244, (1996)

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Mapping of DNA topoisomerase II poisons and catalytic inhibitors to four distinct steps in the topoisomerase II catalytic cycle. Sehested, M., and Jensen, P.B. Biochem. Pharmacol. 51, 879-886, (1996)

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Different modes of cell-killing action between DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors revealed by kinetic analysis. Jpn. J. Inaba, M., et al. Cancer Res. 85, 187-193, (1994)

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Topoisomerase-specific drug sensitivity in relation to cell cycle progression. Chow, K.C., and Ross, W.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 3119-3123, (1987)

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Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. Arriola, E.L., et al. Oncogene 18, 1081-1091, (1999)

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Cell death induced by topoisomerase-targeted drugs: more questions than answers. Kaufmann, S. H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1400, 195-211, (1998)

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Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Inhibition Transforms Human Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells Mandriota, S.J., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 13092-106, (2010)

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Suppression of apoptosis in the protein kinase Cdelta null mouse in vivo. Humphries MJ, Limesand KH, Schneider JC, Nakayama KI, Anderson SM, Reyland ME J. Biol. Chem., 9728-37, (2005)

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Inhibition of human p53 basal transcription by down-regulation of protein kinase Cdelta. Abbas T, White D, Hui L, Yoshida K, Foster DA, Bargonetti J J. Biol. Chem., 9970-7, (2004)

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High Levels Of Hsp90 Cochaperone P23 Promote Tumor Progression And Poor Prognosis In Breast Cancer By Increasing Lymph Node Metastases And Drug Resistance. Simpson, N.E., et al. Cancer Res. 70, 8446-56, (2010)

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Srg3, A Mouse Homolog Of BAF155, Is A Novel P53 Target And Acts As A Tumor Suppressor By Modulating P21(WAF1/CIP1) Expression. Ahn, J., et al. Oncogene 30, 445-56, (2011)

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CAML Regulates Bim-dependent Thymocyte Death. Edgar, C.E., et al. Cell Death Differ. 17, 1566-76, (2010)

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Trichostatin A Sensitizes HBx-expressing Liver Cancer Cells To Etoposide Treatment. Zhang, C.Z., et al. Apoptosis 16, 683-95, (2011)

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Eliminates Natural Killer Cells Via Phagocytosis-induced Apoptosis. Chung, J.W., et al. PLoS Pathog. 5, e1000561, (2009)

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Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the function of primary human osteoblast-like cells derived from children. Davies JH, Evans BA, Jenney ME, Gregory JW J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 6088-97, (2003)

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Effects of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of Etoposide after oral or intravenous administration of etoposide in rats. Li X, Choi JS Anticancer Res., 1411-5, (2009)

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Evidence For A Mitochondrial Localization Of The Retinoblastoma Protein. Ferecatu, I., et al. BMC Cell Biol. 10, 50, (2009)

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Treatment of children and adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma without radiotherapy for patients in complete remission after chemotherapy: final results of the multinational trial GPOH-HD95. Dörffel W, Rühl U, Lüders H, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1562-8, (2013)

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Nordic MCL3 study: 90Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan added to BEAM/C in non-CR patients before transplant in mantle cell lymphoma. Kolstad A, Laurell A, Jerkeman M, et al. Blood 123(19), 2953-9, (2014)

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CtIP and MRN promote non-homologous end-joining of etoposide-induced DNA double-strand breaks in G1. Quennet V, Beucher A, Barton O, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 39(6), 2144-52, (2011)

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γ-Radiation promotes immunological recognition of cancer cells through increased expression of cancer-testis antigens in vitro and in vivo. Sharma A, Bode B, Wenger RH, et al. PLoS ONE 6(11), e28217, (2011)

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D(T)PACE as salvage therapy for aggressive or refractory multiple myeloma. Gerrie AS, Mikhael JR, Cheng L, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 161(6), 802-10, (2013)

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Secondary leukemia associated with the anti-cancer agent, etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor. Ezoe S Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9(7), 2444-53, (2012)

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Dose-adjusted EPOCH-rituximab therapy in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Dunleavy K, Pittaluga S, Maeda LS, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 368(15), 1408-16, (2013)

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Interaction of Leukocyte Elastase Inhibitor/L-DNase II with BCL-2 and BAX. Jaadane I, Nagbou A, Behar-Cohen F, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1843(12), 2807-15, (2014)

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Numerical analysis of etoposide induced DNA breaks. Muslimović A PLoS ONE 4(6), e5859, (2009)

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[Necrotizing gastritis in a patient in severe neutropenia]. Pielaciński K, Lech-Marańda E, Warzocha K, et al. Pol. Merkur. Lekarski 37(222), 344-7, (2014)

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NK/T cell lymphoma associated with peripheral eosinophilia. Yap E, Wan Jamaluddin WF, Tumian NR, et al. Malays. J. Pathol. 36(3), 201-5, (2014)

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Degradation of the cytostatic etoposide in chlorinated water by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: identification and quantification of by-products in real water samples. Negreira N, López de Alda M, and Barceló D Sci. Total Environ. 506-507, 36-45, (2015)

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Outcome of 3-day bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapeutic regimen for patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours: a Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Chen CA, Lin H, Weng CS, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(18), 3161-7, (2014)

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Personalised chemotherapy based on tumour marker decline in poor prognosis germ-cell tumours (GETUG 13): a phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial. Fizazi K, Pagliaro L, Laplanche A, et al. Lancet Oncol. 15(13), 1442-50, (2014)

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High-dose chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian germ cell tumors. Reddy Ammakkanavar N, Matei D, Abonour R, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 33(2), 226-7, (2015)

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Salvage therapy with mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine in relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Liedtke M, Dunn T, Dinner S, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(12), 1441-5, (2014)

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Minimal residual disease as biomarker for optimal biologic dosing of ARA-C in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Maurillo L, Buccisano F, Piciocchi A, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 90(2), 125-31, (2015)

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Improved outcome of adult Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia with rituximab and chemotherapy: report of a large prospective multicenter trial. Hoelzer D, Walewski J, Döhner H, et al. Blood 124(26), 3870-9, (2014)

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A Phase II/III study comparing carboplatin and irinotecan with carboplatin and etoposide for the treatment of elderly patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (JCOG1201). Eba J, Shimokawa T, Nakamura K, et al. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 45(1), 115-8, (2015)

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Specific expression of OATPs in primary small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells as novel biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. Brenner S, Klameth L, Riha J, et al. Cancer Lett. 356(2 Pt B), 517-24, (2015)

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Etoposide and carbo-or cisplatin combination therapy in refractory or relapsed Ewing sarcoma: a large retrospective study. van Maldegem AM, Benson C, Rutkowski P, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 62(1), 40-4, (2015)

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Outcomes of immediate perforator flap reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Narui K, Ishikawa T, Satake T, et al. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 41(1), 94-9, (2015)

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Effects of combined treatment of α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, selenium and zinc on bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin-induced alterations in testosterone synthesis pathway in rats. Kilarkaje N Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 74(6), 1175-89, (2014)

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Phase II, multicenter, randomized trial of CPX-351 (cytarabine:daunorubicin) liposome injection versus intensive salvage therapy in adults with first relapse AML. Cortes JE, Goldberg SL, Feldman EJ, et al. Cancer 121(2), 234-42, (2015)

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Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults. Gbabe OF, Okwundu CI, Dedicoat M, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8, CD003256, (2014)

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Sorafenib overcomes the chemoresistance in HBx-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HBx protein stability and suppresses HBV gene expression. Kim HY, Jung HU, Yoo SH, et al. Cancer Lett. 355(1), 61-9, (2014)

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Tumor lysis syndrome in a nonsmall cell lung cancer. Noyes AM, Lonial K, and Siegel RD Conn. Med. 78(7), 421-3, (2014)

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Clinical efficacy of mitoxantrone and Ara-C with or without etoposide salvage chemotherapy in adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: retrospective multicenter study of the Korean Adult ALL Working Party. Ahn JS, Yang DH, Jung SH, et al. Acta Haematol. 133(1), 91-7, (2015)

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Prognostic factors of early death in a cohort of 162 adult haemophagocytic syndrome: impact of triggering disease and early treatment with etoposide. Arca M, Fardet L, Galicier L, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 168(1), 63-8, (2015)

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A randomized trial of prophylactic palifermin on gastrointestinal toxicity after intensive induction therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. Bradstock KF, Link E, Collins M, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 167(5), 618-25, (2014)

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Induction treatment with SMILE and consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed stage IV extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma patients. Kim SJ, Park S, Kang ES, et al. Ann. Hematol. 94(1), 71-8, (2015)

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First line and salvage therapy with total therapy 3-based treatment for multiple myeloma- an extended single center experience. Muchtar E, Ram R, Raanani P, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(12), 1401-6, (2014)

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UGT1A1 *6 polymorphism predicts outcome in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with carboplatin, dexamethasone, etoposide and irinotecan. Yamasaki S, Tanimoto K, Kohno K, et al. Ann. Hematol. 94(1), 65-9, (2015)

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Sixteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group: focus on Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Rancea M, Will A, Borchmann P, et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 106(8), doi:10.1093/jnci/dju170, (2014)

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Phase I clinical trial of ifosfamide, oxaliplatin, and etoposide (IOE) in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors. Lam CG, Furman WL, Wang C, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 37(1), e13-8, (2015)

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Clinical benefits of non-taxane chemotherapies in unselected patients with symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after docetaxel: the GETUG-P02 study. Joly F, Delva R, Mourey L, et al. BJU Int. 115(1), 65-73, (2015)

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Phosphorylation of Smac by Akt promotes the caspase-3 activation during etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Jeong CH, Chun KS, Kundu J, et al. Mol. Carcinog. 54(2), 83-92, (2015)

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[Experimental study of remaxol as a drug for supportive therapy in traditional and high-dose treatment of tumors]. Bezborodova OA, Nemtsova ER, Venediktova IuB, et al. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol. 76(5), 18-22, (2013)

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[Effectiveness and toxicity of MOPP, ABVD, BEACOPP chemotherapy in first-diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma with a poor prognosis]. Filatova LV, Plotnikova AA, Gershanovich ML, et al. Vopr. Onkol. 59(2), 59-65, (2013)

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Etoposide and temozolomide in combination for the treatment of progressive small-cell lung cancer central nervous system metastases: two cases. Lukas RV, Vigneswaran J, and Salgia R Tumori 99(2), e73-6, (2013)

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[Neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of 252 cases]. Chi YH, Jiang WC, Du F, et al. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 35(1), 67-70, (2013)

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[Analysis of drug therapy of lung cancer in Hungary]. Moldvay J, Rokszin G, Abonyi-Tóth Z, et al. Magy. Onkol. 57(1), 33-8, (2013)

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Outcomes of small cell lung cancer patients treated with cisplatin-etoposide versus carboplatin-etoposide. Karam I, Jiang SY, Khaira M, et al. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 38(1), 51-4, (2015)

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Contribution of involved-field radiotherapy to survival in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. Eroglu C, Kaynar L, Orhan O, et al. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 38(1), 68-73, (2015)

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Efficacy of rechallenge chemotherapy in patients with sensitive relapsed small cell lung cancer. Wakuda K, Kenmotsu H, Naito T, et al. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 38(1), 28-32, (2015)

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Etoposide in continuous infusion: practical recommendations for pediatric protocols. Bauters T, Vandenbroucke J, Moerloose BD, et al. J. Oncol. Pharm. Pract. 17(4), 453-5, (2011)

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Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring for etoposide after oral administration. Gerritsen-van Schieveen P and Royer B Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 25(3), 277-82, (2011)

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Formulation optimization of etoposide loaded PLGA nanoparticles by double factorial design and their evaluation. Yadav KS and Sawant KK Curr. Drug Deliv. 7(1), 51-64, (2010)

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Leaching of diethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride materials into etoposide intravenous solutions. de Lemos ML, Hamata L, and Vu T J. Oncol. Pharm. Pract. 11(4), 155-7, (2005)

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Etoposide, topoisomerase II and cancer. Baldwin EL and Osheroff N Curr. Med. Chem. Anticancer Agents 5(4), 363-72, (2005)

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[Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: contribution of hormone therapy and etoposide]. Paillocher N, Lortholary A, Abadie-Lacourtoisie S, et al. J. Gynecol. Obstet. Biol. Reprod. (Paris.) 34(1 Pt 1), 41-6, (2005)

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[Chemotherapy with mitomycin C, etoposide and cisplatin for adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Hara K and Iwasaka T Nihon Rinsho. 62 Suppl 10, 201-4, (2004)

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Reliability of estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients treated with platinum containing therapy. Lauritsen J, Gundgaard MG, Mortensen MS, et al. Int. J. Cancer 135(7), 1733-9, (2014)

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Distinct microRNA expression profiles in acute myeloid leukemia with common translocations. Li Z Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(40), 15535-40, (2008)

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Quantification of circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in NK/T-cell lymphoma treated with the SMILE protocol: diagnostic and prognostic significance. Kwong YL, Pang AW, Leung AY, et al. Leukemia 28(4), 865-70, (2014)

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PCAF is an HIF-1alpha cofactor that regulates p53 transcriptional activity in hypoxia. Xenaki G Oncogene 27(44), 5785-96, (2008)

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Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator of p53-mediated transcription and cell death. Xu R, Sen N, Paul BD, et al. Sci. Signal. 6(269), ra22, (2013)

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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation up-regulates interleukin-6 autocrine production: a biochemical and genetic study of established cancer cell lines and clinical isolated human cancer cells. Huang WL, Yeh HH, Lin CC, et al. Mol. Cancer 9, 309, (2010)

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Etoposide: discovery and medicinal chemistry. Meresse P, Dechaux E, Monneret C, et al. Curr. Med. Chem. 11(18), 2443-66, (2004)

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A phase II trial of a multi-agent oral antiangiogenic (metronomic) regimen in children with recurrent or progressive cancer. Robison NJ, Campigotto F, Chi SN, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(4), 636-42, (2014)

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Neuroblastoma mRNAs predict outcome in children with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a European HR-NBL1/SIOPEN study. Viprey VF, Gregory WM, Corrias MV, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 32(10), 1074-83, (2014)

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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus confers a survival advantage to endothelial cells. Wang L Cancer Res. 68(12), 4640-8, (2008)

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Cellular response to etoposide treatment. Montecucco A and Biamonti G Cancer Lett. 252(1), 9-18, (2007)

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Lab-on-a-Chip for anticancer drug screening using quantum dots probe based apoptosis assay. Zhao L, Caot JT, Wu ZQ, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(3), 348-56, (2013)

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Regulation of the MDR1 promoter by E2F1 and EAPP. Andorfer P and Rotheneder H FEBS Lett. 587(10), 1504-9, (2013)

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Camptothecins compared with etoposide in combination with platinum analog in extensive stage small cell lung cancer: systematic review with meta-analysis. Lima JP, dos Santos LV, Sasse EC, et al. J. Thorac. Oncol. 5(12), 1986-93, (2010)

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Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma. Ara T, Nakata R, Sheard MA, et al. Cancer Res. 73(13), 3852-64, (2013)

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The p53-induced factor Ei24 inhibits nuclear import through an importin β-binding-like domain. Lieu KG, Shim EH, Wang J, et al. J. Cell Biol. 205(3), 301-12, (2014)

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Treatment of small cell lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Jett JR, Schild SE, Kesler KA, et al. Chest 143(5 Suppl), e400S-19S, (2013)

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DNA damaging agents and p53 do not cause senescence in quiescent cells, while consecutive re-activation of mTOR is associated with conversion to senescence. Leontieva OV and Blagosklonny MV Aging (Albany. NY.) 2(12), 924-35, (2010)

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Etoposide and illegitimate DNA double-strand break repair in the generation of MLL translocations: new insights and new questions. Sung PA, Libura J, and Richardson C DNA Repair (Amst.) 5(9-10), 1109-18, (2006)

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PAC-1 activates procaspase-3 in vitro through relief of zinc-mediated inhibition. Peterson QP J. Mol. Biol. 388(1), 144-58, (2009)

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Prostate cancer stem-like cells proliferate slowly and resist etoposide-induced cytotoxicity via enhancing DNA damage response. Yan J and Tang D Exp. Cell Res. 328(1), 132-42, (2014)

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A whole-body dual-modality radionuclide optical strategy for preclinical imaging of metastasis and heterogeneous treatment response in different microenvironments. Fruhwirth GO, Diocou S, Blower PJ, et al. J. Nucl. Med. 55(4), 686-94, (2014)

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Actinomycin D, cisplatin, and etoposide regimen is associated with almost universal cure in patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Even C, Pautier P, Duvillard P, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(12), 2082-9, (2014)

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Novel small molecule XPO1/CRM1 inhibitors induce nuclear accumulation of TP53, phosphorylated MAPK and apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Yang J, Bill MA, Young GS, et al. PLoS ONE 9(7), e102983, (2014)

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Extramedullary relapse following total marrow and lymphoid irradiation in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Kim JH, Stein A, Tsai N, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(1), 75-81, (2014)

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Increased chemosensitivity via targeting testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4)-Oct4-interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) axis in prostate cancer CD133+ stem/progenitor cells to battle prostate cancer. Yang DR, Ding XF, Luo J, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(23), 16476-83, (2013)

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A Phase 2 study of bortezomib combined with either idarubicin/cytarabine or cytarabine/etoposide in children with relapsed, refractory or secondary acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Horton TM, Perentesis JP, Gamis AS, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(10), 1754-60, (2014)

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Kaposi's sarcoma in children: an open randomised trial of vincristine, oral etoposide and a combination of vincristine and bleomycin. Chagaluka G, Stanley C, Banda K, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(8), 1472-81, (2014)

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DNA damage response (DDR) via NKX3.1 expression in prostate cells. Erbaykent-Tepedelen B, Karamil S, Gonen-Korkmaz C, et al. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 141, 26-36, (2014)

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TRAF2 phosphorylation modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced gene expression and cell resistance to apoptosis. Blackwell K Mol. Cell. Biol. 29(2), 303-14, (2009)

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Strategies for relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the tail that wags the curve. Lunning MA, Moskowitz AJ, and Horwitz S J. Clin. Oncol. 31(16), 1922-7, (2013)

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p38MAPK inhibition: a new combined approach to reduce neuroblastoma resistance under etoposide treatment. Marengo B, De Ciucis CG, Ricciarelli R, et al. Cell Death Dis. 4, e589, (2013)

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Ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for neuroblastoma: a high-dose salvage regimen and review of the literature. Kushner BH, Modak S, Kramer K, et al. Cancer 119(3), 665-71, (2013)

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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor 4 targets MDM2 to deregulate the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. Hye-Ra Lee et al J. Virol. 83, 6739-47, (2009)

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Prognostic factors of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children: report of the Japan Histiocytosis Study Group. Kogawa K, Sato H, Asano T, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(7), 1257-62, (2014)

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IRF5 is a target of BCR-ABL kinase activity and reduces CML cell proliferation. Massimino M, Consoli ML, Mesuraca M, et al. Carcinogenesis 35(5), 1132-43, (2014)

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GRIM-19 is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential. Hao Lu et al Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 1893-902, (2008)

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The lymphoma-like polychemotherapy regimen "Dexa-BEAM" in advanced and extramedullary multiple myeloma. Rasche L, Strifler S, Duell J, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(7), 1207-14, (2014)

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Bid can mediate a pro-apoptotic response to etoposide and ionizing radiation without cleavage in its unstructured loop and in the absence of p53. Maas C, de Vries E, Tait SW, et al. Oncogene 30(33), 3636-47, (2011)

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Utilizing mitochondrial events as biomarkers for imaging apoptosis. Yivgi-Ohana N, Eifer M, Addadi Y, et al. Cell Death Dis. 2, e166, (2011)

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High-dose etoposide in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bruserud O, Reikvam H, Kittang AO, et al. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 70(6), 765-82, (2012)

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Evidence for involvement of cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase in the excessive resistance of Sf9 Lepidopteran insect cells against radiation-induced apoptosis. Hambarde S, Singh V, and Chandna S PLoS ONE 8(3), e58261, (2013)

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Etoposide sensitivity does not predict MLL rearrangements or risk of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. Yang J, Bogni A, Cheng C, et al. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 84(6), 691-7, (2008)

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High encapsulation efficiency of poloxamer-based injectable thermoresponsive hydrogels of etoposide. Soni G and Yadav KS Pharm. Dev. Technol. 19(6), 651-61, (2014)

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Etoposide in combination with low-dose CAG (cytarabine, aclarubicin, G-CSF) for the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia: a multicenter, randomized control trial in southwest China. Zhang X, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al. Leuk. Res. 37(6), 657-64, (2013)

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Monocyte-specific accessibility of a matrix attachment region in the tumor necrosis factor locus. Biglione S, Tsytsykova AV, and Goldfeld AE J. Biol. Chem. 286(51), 44126-33, (2011)

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The impact of R-VACOP-B and interim FDG-PET/CT on outcome in primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. Avigdor A, Sirotkin T, Kedmi M, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(8), 1297-304, (2014)

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Unusual case of recurrent extraneural metastatic medulloblastoma in a young adult: durable complete remission with Ewing sarcoma chemotherapy regimen and consolidation with autologous bone marrow transplantation and local radiation. Clement J, Varlotto J, Rybka W, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(19), e316-9, (2013)

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Myoepithelial carcinoma treatment in children: a report from the TREP project. Bisogno G, Tagarelli A, Schiavetti A, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(4), 643-6, (2014)

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Survival improvement of poor-prognosis AML/MDS patients by maintenance treatment with low-dose chemotherapy and differentiating agents. Ferrero D, Crisà E, Marmont F, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(8), 1391-400, (2014)

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Self-nanoemulsifying lipid carrier system for enhancement of oral bioavailability of etoposide by P-glycoprotein modulation: in vitro cell line and in vivo pharmacokinetic investigation. Akhtar N, Talegaonkar S, Khar RK, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(7), 1216-29, (2013)

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Mixed lineage kinase 3 negatively regulates IKK activity and enhances etoposide-induced cell death. Cole, ET Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1793(12), 1811-8, (2009)

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Therapy of HIV-associated lymphoma-recommendations of the oncology working group of the German Study Group of Physicians in Private Practice Treating HIV-Infected Patients (DAGNÄ), in cooperation with the German AIDS Society (DAIG). Hentrich M, Hoffmann C, Mosthaf F, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(6), 913-21, (2014)

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High concentrations of glucose suppress etoposide-induced cell death of B-cell lymphoma through BCL-6. Shao Y, Ling CC, and Liu XQ Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 450(1), 227-33, (2014)

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Cisplatin plus etoposide versus other platin-based regimens for patients with extensive small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. Jiang L, Yang KH, Guan QL, et al. Intern. Med. J. 42(12), 1297-309, (2012)

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Mir-34a mimics are potential therapeutic agents for p53-mutated and chemo-resistant brain tumour cells. Fan YN, Meley D, Pizer B, et al. PLoS ONE 9(9), e108514, (2014)

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Treatment outcome in children and adolescents with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma--results of the UK HD3 relapse treatment strategy. Shankar A, Hayward J, Kirkwood A, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 165(4), 534-44, (2014)

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Addition of lenalidomide to rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (RICER) in first-relapse/primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feldman T, Mato AR, Chow KF, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 166(1), 77-83, (2014)

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Fulvestrant treatment alters MDM2 protein turnover and sensitivity of human breast carcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Dolfi SC, Jäger AV, Medina DJ, et al. Cancer Lett. 350(1-2), 52-60, (2014)

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Merkel cell carcinoma expresses vasculogenic mimicry: demonstration in patients and experimental manipulation in xenografts. Lezcano C, Kleffel S, Lee N, et al. Lab. Invest. 94(10), 1092-102, (2014)

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Loss of TBL1XR1 disrupts glucocorticoid receptor recruitment to chromatin and results in glucocorticoid resistance in a B-lymphoblastic leukemia model. Jones CL, Bhatla T, Blum R, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(30), 20502-15, (2014)

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Activity of the upstream TATA-less promoter of the p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene depends on transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) in addition to TFIIA-reactive TBP-like protein. Suzuki H, Maeda R, Nakadai T, et al. FEBS J. 281(14), 3126-37, (2014)

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Primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with generalized skin involvement and involvement of one peripheral lymph node, successfully treated with low-dose oral etoposide. Yamane N, Kato N, Nishimura M, et al. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 34(5), e56-9, (2009)

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Good pregnancy outcome after prenatal exposure to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for ovarian immature teratoma: a case report and literature review. Karimi Zarchi M, Behtash N, and Modares Gilani M Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 277(1), 75-8, (2008)

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Dose-intense etoposide-cyclophosphamide without stem cell transplantation for patients with intermediate and high cytogenetic risk primary refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Trifilio S, Zhou Z, Altman J, et al. Leuk. Res. 37(8), 872-6, (2013)

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DexaBEAM versus ICE salvage regimen prior to autologous transplantation for relapsed or refractory aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma: a retrospective evaluation of parallel patient cohorts of one center. Mikesch JH, Kuhlmann M, Demant A, et al. Ann. Hematol. 92(8), 1041-8, (2013)

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Long-term survival of a patient with primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a case report. Hosokawa S, Okamura J, Takizawa Y, et al. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 71(8), e248-52, (2013)

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Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy. Gencheva M, Hare I, Kurian S, et al. Eur. J. Haematol. 90(6), 469-78, (2013)

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Histone deacetylase inhibitor prevents cell growth in Burkitt's lymphoma by regulating PI3K/Akt pathways and leads to upregulation of miR-143, miR-145, and miR-101. Ferreira AC, Robaina MC, Rezende LM, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(6), 983-93, (2014)

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Carboplatin and etoposide combined with radiotherapy for limited-stage small-cell esophageal carcinoma: three cases and review of the literature. Isoyama Y, Shioyama Y, Nomoto S, et al. Jpn. J. Radiol. 28(3), 181-7, (2010)

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The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 localizes to etoposide-exposed mitotic chromosomes: implication for a novel DNA damage response during mitosis. Saito M, Fujimitsu Y, Sasano T, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 447(1), 83-8, (2014)

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Cytotoxicity of etoposide in cancer cell lines in vitro after BCL-2 and C-RAF gene silencing with antisense oligonucleotides. Sypniewski D, Bednarek I, Gałka S, et al. Acta Pol. Pharm. 70(1), 87-97, (2013)

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A pilot study of cisplatin and etoposide with and without radiotherapy for advanced malignant thymoma. Tamiya A, Matsumura A, Tsuji T, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(4), 2023-7, (2014)

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Safety and efficacy of platinum agents plus etoposide for patients with small cell lung cancer with interstitial lung disease. Yoshida T, Yoh K, Goto K, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(3), 1175-9, (2013)

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Significant response to oral Etoposide in the treatment of an unresectable cardiac sarcoma. Collins CL, Bartz PJ, Lal DR, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 36(4), e237-40, (2014)

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Clinical outcomes of AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma: a multi-institution retrospective survey in Japan. Kojima Y, Hagiwara S, Uehira T, et al. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 44(4), 318-23, (2014)

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A Phase III trial comparing irinotecan and cisplatin with etoposide and cisplatin in adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected pulmonary high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (JCOG1205/1206). Eba J, Kenmotsu H, Tsuboi M, et al. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 44(4), 379-82, (2014)

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Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in completely resected stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. Naim Younes R, Gross JL, Abrao FG, et al. Minerva Chir. 68(2), 169-74, (2013)

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Malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors in children: a 30-year experience from a single institution. Büyükpamukçu M, Varan A, Küpeli S, et al. Tumori 99(1), 51-6, (2013)

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[Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring for etoposide after oral administration]. Schieveen PG, Hulin A, Muret P, et al. Therapie. 65(3), 207-12, (2010)

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Reticulated hyperpigmentation following chemotherapy for radiation-induced osteosarcoma. Necessary CA, Roffwarg D, and Ellis D J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(1), e23-4, (2014)

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After the treated mole. Rashidi A and Maherus EM Blood 123(18), 2757, (2014)

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Pitfalls in management of patients with germ cell tumors and slight elevation of serum α-fetoprotein. Albany C and Einhorn L J. Clin. Oncol. 32(19), 2114-5, (2014)

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Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated with adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. Nishiwaki U, Hirata Y, Yokote T, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 166(2), 155, (2014)

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Diagnosis of brainstem involvement in NK/T cell lymphoma. So JC, Chan KH, Pang AW, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(8), 1433-4, (2014)

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Cardiac lymphoma: sinus pauses disappear after chemotherapy. Haq M, Patel A, and Guglin M Ann. Hematol. 93(5), 891-2, (2014)

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[Treatment of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma]. Kreissl S and Borchmann P Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 138(23), 1212-4, (2013)

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Complete remission of Merkel cell carcinoma treated with electrochemotherapy and etoposide. Curatolo P, Rotunno R, Miraglia E, et al. G. Ital. Dermatol. Venereol. 148(3), 310-1, (2013)

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