|Related Categories||Agarose Blends for Electrophoresis, Biochemicals and Reagents, Core Bioreagents, Ethidium Bromide, Fluorescent Probes, Labels, Particles and Stains,|
|grade||for molecular biology|
|mp||260-262 °C (dec.)(lit.)|
|suitability||suitable for gel electrophoresis|
Ethidium bromide intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA and acts as a frameshift mutagen. It can also be used in conjunction with acridine orange to differentiate between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells.
1, 5, 25 g in glass bottle
For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/ml with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min. Destaining is usually not needed but can be carried out in water for 15 min if decreased background is necessary. The DNA bands can then be detected on a UV light box (254 nm wavelength). Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/ml and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.
Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the most commonly used nucleic acid stain for PAGE or agarose gel electrophoresis. The fluorescence of EtBr increases 21-fold upon binding to double-stranded RNA and 25-fold on binding double-stranded DNA so that destaining the background is not necessary with a low stain concentration (10 μg/ml). Ethidium bromide has been used in a number of fluorimetric assays for nucleic acids.1,2,3 It has been shown to bind to single-stranded DNA (although not as strongly) and triple-stranded DNA.4 Because of its ability to bind to DNA, EtBr is an inhibitor of DNA polymerase.5
Frameshift mutagen which intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA.
Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
|Personal Protective Equipment||Eyeshields, Faceshields, full-face particle respirator type N100 (US), Gloves, respirator cartridge type N100 (US), type P1 (EN143) respirator filter, type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges|
|Hazard Codes (Europe)||T+|
|Risk Statements (Europe)||22-26-68|
|Safety Statements (Europe)||28-36/37-45-63|
|RIDADR||UN 2811PIH 6.1 / PGI|
Transferable resistance to aminoglycosides by methylation of G1405 in 16S rRNA and to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones by QepA-mediated efflux in Escherichia coli. Bruno Périchon et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2464-9, (2007)
Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and analysis of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump of Enterobacter cloacae and determination of its involvement in antibiotic resistance in a clinical isolate. Astrid Pérez et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3247-53, (2007)
Substrate competition studies using whole-cell accumulation assays with the major tripartite multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli. Christopher A Elkins et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 923-9, (2007)
Novel amidino-substituted thienyl- and furylvinylbenzimidazole: derivatives and their photochemical conversion into corresponding diazacyclopenta[c]fluorenes. synthesis, interactions with DNA and RNA, and antitumor evaluation. 4. Marijana Hranjec et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 4899-910, (2008)
RamA confers multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica via increased expression of acrB, which is inhibited by chlorpromazine. Andrew M Bailey et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3604-11, (2008)
Study of benzo[a]phenazine 7,12-dioxide as selective hypoxic cytotoxin-scaffold. Identification of aerobic-antitumoral activity through DNA fragmentation. María Laura Lavaggi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 4433-40, (2010)
Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking studies of 2-chloropyridine derivatives possessing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potential antitumor agents. Qing-Zhong Zheng et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 7836-41, (2010)
Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the major tripartite multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli: functional conservation in disparate animal reservoirs despite exposure to antimicrobial chemotherapy. Christopher A Elkins et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1007-15, (2010)
Overexpression of patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mark I Garvey et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55, 190-6, (2011)
DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits. Sikora KM BMC Genet. 12, 4, (2011)
Interaction of closed circular DNA with intercalative dyes. II. The Free energy of superhelix formation in V40 DNA. Bauer, W. , Vinograd, J. Mol. Biol. 47, 410, (1970)
Sambrook, J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor, , (1989) 6-44, 6
Gorman, A. Techniques in Apoptosis: A User’s Guide London, UK , (1996), 7
Aldrich MSDS 1, 864:C / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1549:B / FT-IR 1 (2), 873:B / FT-IR 2 (3), 3935:C / IR-Spectra (3), 1399:A / IR-Spectra (2), 1220:B / RegBook 1 (2), 2635:A / Sax 6, 885 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (2), 136:D / Stains and Dyes Ref, 318 / Structure Index 1, 415:E:4
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