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E7637 Sigma

Ethidium bromide

BioReagent, for molecular biology, powder

Synonym: 3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide, EtBr, Homidium bromide

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Properties

Related Categories Agarose Blends for Electrophoresis, Biochemicals and Reagents, Core Bioreagents, Ethidium Bromide, Fluorescent Probes, Labels, Particles and Stains,
grade   for molecular biology
product line   BioReagent
form   powder
mp   260-262 °C (dec.)(lit.)
suitability   suitable for gel electrophoresis

Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

Ethidium bromide intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA and acts as a frameshift mutagen. It can also be used in conjunction with acridine orange to differentiate between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells.

Packaging

1, 5, 25 g in glass bottle

Reconstitution

For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/ml with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min. Destaining is usually not needed but can be carried out in water for 15 min if decreased background is necessary. The DNA bands can then be detected on a UV light box (254 nm wavelength). Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/ml and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.

Application

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the most commonly used nucleic acid stain for PAGE or agarose gel electrophoresis. The fluorescence of EtBr increases 21-fold upon binding to double-stranded RNA and 25-fold on binding double-stranded DNA so that destaining the background is not necessary with a low stain concentration (10 μg/ml). Ethidium bromide has been used in a number of fluorimetric assays for nucleic acids.1,2,3 It has been shown to bind to single-stranded DNA (although not as strongly) and triple-stranded DNA.4 Because of its ability to bind to DNA, EtBr is an inhibitor of DNA polymerase.5

Frameshift mutagen which intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T+
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
28-36/37-45-63
RIDADR 
UN 2811PIH 6.1 / PGI
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
SF7950000

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

1. A densitometric nondestructive microassay for DNA quantitation. Moore, S.P. and Sutherland, B.M. Anal. Biochem. 144, 15-19, (1985)

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2. The fluorometric determination of nucleic acids in pea seeds by use of ethidium bromide complexes. El-Hamalawi, A.-R. A. et al. Anal. Biochem. 67, 384-391, (1975)

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3. Improvements in the ethidium bromide method for direct fluorometric estimation of DNA and RNA in cell and tissue homogenates. Karsten, U. and Wollenberger, A. Anal. Biochem. 77, 464-470, (1977)

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4. Binding of ethidium bromide to a DNA triple helix. Evidence for intercalation. Scaria, P.V. and Shafer, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5417-5423, (1991)

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5. The effects of antimicrobial agents on deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. Elliott, W.H. Biochem. J. 86, 562, (1963)

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An assay for proteinases and their inhibitors based on DNA/ethidium bromide fluorescence. Severini, A. and Morgan, A.R. Anal. Biochem. 193, 83-89, (1991)

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Interaction of closed circular DNA with intercalative dyes. II. The Free energy of superhelix formation in V40 DNA. Bauer, W. , Vinograd, J. Mol. Biol. 47, 410, (1970)

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Charcot-Marie-Tooth-linked mutant GARS is toxic to peripheral neurons independent of wild-type GARS levels. William W. Motley et al PLoS Genet. 7, e1002399, (2011)

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Overexpression of patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mark I Garvey et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55, 190-6, (2011)

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LmrS is a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily from Staphylococcus aureus. Jody L Floyd et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 5406-12, (2010)

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TLS inhibits RNA polymerase III transcription. Tan AY Mol. Cell. Biol. 30(1), 186-96, (2010)

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Fluoroquinolone efflux by the plasmid-mediated multidrug efflux pump QacB variant QacBIII in Staphylococcus aureus. Hidemasa Nakaminami et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4107-11, (2010)

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Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and analysis of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump of Enterobacter cloacae and determination of its involvement in antibiotic resistance in a clinical isolate. Astrid Pérez et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3247-53, (2007)

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Substrate competition studies using whole-cell accumulation assays with the major tripartite multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli. Christopher A Elkins et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 923-9, (2007)

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Study of benzo[a]phenazine 7,12-dioxide as selective hypoxic cytotoxin-scaffold. Identification of aerobic-antitumoral activity through DNA fragmentation. María Laura Lavaggi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 4433-40, (2010)

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Functional cloning and characterization of the multidrug efflux pumps NorM from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and YdhE from Escherichia coli. Feng Long et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3052-60, (2008)

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Piper sarmentosum inhibits ICAM-1 and Nox4 gene expression in oxidative stress-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells Ugusman, A., et al. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 11, 31, (2011)

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Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the major tripartite multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli: functional conservation in disparate animal reservoirs despite exposure to antimicrobial chemotherapy. Christopher A Elkins et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1007-15, (2010)

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Design and synthesis of a novel series of pyranonaphthoquinones as topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitors. Sandra Jiménez-Alonso et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 6761-72, (2008)

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Biologic activities of the TolC-like protein of Neisseria meningitidis as assessed by functional complementation in Escherichia coli. Nazia Kamal et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 506-8, (2010)

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Sambrook, J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor, , (1989) 6-44, 6

Gorman, A. Techniques in Apoptosis: A User’s Guide London, UK , (1996), 7

Merck 14,4731

Beil. 22,V,11,352

Aldrich MSDS 1, 864:C / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1549:B / FT-IR 1 (2), 873:B / FT-IR 2 (3), 3935:C / IR-Spectra (3), 1399:A / IR-Spectra (2), 1220:B / RegBook 1 (2), 2635:A / Sax 6, 885 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (2), 136:D / Stains and Dyes Ref, 318 / Structure Index 1, 415:E:4

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