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F5881 Sigma

Freund’s Adjuvant, Complete

cell suspension

Synonym: FCA



Frequently Asked Questions

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General description

Each mL contains 1 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra, ATCC 25177), heat killed and dried, 0.85 mL paraffin oil and 0.15 mL mannide monooleate.


Antigens (preferably in saline) are typically mixed with an equal volume of the adjuvant to form an emulsion.1

Freund′s Adjuvants may be used to produce water-in-oil emulsions of immunogens. Antigens in water-in-oil emulsions stimulate high and long-lasting antibody responses which can be attributed to the slow release of antigen.

Biochem/physiol Actions

The mycobacteria in Complete Freund′s adjuvant attracts macrophages and other cells to the injection site which enhances the immune response. For this reason, Complete Freund′s Adjuvant is used for initial injections and Incomplete Freund′s Adjuvant for subsequent boosts.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 

Protocols & Articles

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Peer-Reviewed Papers


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Sensitization to Horse Serum by Means of Adjuvants. Freund, J., and McDermot, K. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. N.Y. 49, 548, (1942)


Development of fragment-specific osteopontin antibodies and ELISA for quantification in human metastatic breast cancer Plumer, A., et al. BMC Cancer 8, 38, (2008)


UNC-108/RAB-2 and its effector RIC-19 are involved in dense core vesicle maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sumakovic M J. Cell Biol. 186(6), 897-914, (2009)


Host responses to intestinal microbial antigens in gluten-sensitive mice. Jane M. Natividad et al PLoS ONE 4, e6472, (2009)


Ticks produce highly selective chemokine binding proteins with antiinflammatory activity. Maud Déruaz et al J. Exp. Med. 205, 2019-31, (2008)


The Panton-Valentine leukocidin vaccine protects mice against lung and skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus USA300. Brown EL, Dumitrescu O, Thomas D, et al. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15(2), 156-64, (2009)


Molecular imaging of glioblastoma multiforme using anti-insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 single-domain antibodies. Iqbal U, Albaghdadi H, Luo Y, et al. Br. J. Cancer 103(10), 1606-16, (2010)


Smoking and nicotine exposure delay development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Lindblad SS Arthritis. Res. Ther. 11(3), R88, (2009)


Intra-articular vs. systemic administration of etanercept in antigen-induced arthritis in the temporomandibular point. Part I: histological effects. Kristensen KD, Stoustrup P, Küseler A, et al. Pediatr. Rheumatol. Online J. 7, 5, (2009)


Nanovaccine for leishmaniasis: preparation of chitosan nanoparticles containing Leishmania superoxide dismutase and evaluation of its immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. Danesh-Bahreini MA, Shokri J, Samiei A, et al. Int. J. Nanomedicine 6, 835-42, (2011)


The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization. Chong A Infect. Immun. 77(11), 4724-39, (2009)


Immunisation with a multivalent, subunit vaccine reduces patent infection in a natural bovine model of onchocerciasis during intense field exposure. Makepeace BL PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3(11), e544, (2009)


The degree of acute descending control of spinal nociception in an area of primary hyperalgesia is dependent on the peripheral domain of afferent input. Drake RA, Hulse RP, Lumb BM, et al. J. Physiol. 592(Pt 16), 3611-24, (2014)


In vivo molecular imaging of experimental joint inflammation by combined (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography. Irmler IM, Opfermann T, Gebhardt P, et al. Arthritis. Res. Ther. 12(6), R203, (2010)


Genetic evidence for an essential role of neuronally expressed IL-6 signal transducer gp130 in the induction and maintenance of experimentally induced mechanical hypersensitivity in vivo and in vitro. Quarta S, Vogl C, Constantin CE, et al. Mol. Pain 7, 73, (2011)


Toxoplasma gondii cyclophilin 18-mediated production of nitric oxide induces Bradyzoite conversion in a CCR5-dependent manner. Ibrahim HM Infect. Immun. 77(9), 3686-95, (2009)


Leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) acts as a virulence repressor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Baek CH J. Bacteriol. 191(4), 1278-92, (2009)


Transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative bright exhibit defects in B1 B cells. Nixon JC, Ferrell S, Miner C, et al. J. Immunol. 181(10), 6913-22, (2008)


Disruption of a mitochondrial protease machinery in Plasmodium falciparum is an intrinsic signal for parasite cell death Rathore, S., et al Cell Death Dis. 2, e231, (2011)


Immunization with an immunodominant self-peptide derived from glucose-6-phosphate isomerase induces arthritis in DBA/1 mice. Bruns L Arthritis. Res. Ther. 11(4), R117, (2009)


Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads. Pallister JA, Halliday DC, Robinson AJ, et al. PLoS ONE 6(1), e14576, (2011)


Identification of ATP synthase beta subunit (ATPB) on the cell surface as a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) associated antigen. Lu ZJ, Song QF, Jiang SS, et al. BMC Cancer 9, 16, (2009)


H5N1 strain-specific hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA DR4. Yang J Vaccine 27(29), 3862-9, (2009)


Determination of the mimic epitope of the M-like protein adhesin in swine Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Hongjie Fan et al BMC Microbiol. 8, 170, (2008)


Immunotherapeutic potential of the immunodominant T-cell epitope of lipocalin allergen Bos d 2 and its analogues. Saarelainen SA Immunology 123(3), 358-66, (2008)


The interplay of StyR and IHF regulates substrate-dependent induction and carbon catabolite repression of styrene catabolism genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST. Rampioni, G BMC Microbiol. 8, 92, (2008)


Evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate vaccine. El Hakim AE J. Vet. Sci. 12(3), 243-9, (2011)


Monkeypox virus viral chemokine inhibitor (MPV vCCI), a potent inhibitor of rhesus macrophage inflammatory protein-1. Jones JM Cytokine 43(2), 220-8, (2008)


Generation of fusion protein EGFRvIII-HBcAg and its anti-tumor effect in vivo. Duan XY, Han DG, Zhang MX, et al. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res 28, 133, (2009)


Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome. Nogueira RT Virol. J. 8, 127, (2011)


Antigenic analysis of classical swine fever virus E2 glycoprotein using pig antibodies identifies residues contributing to antigenic variation of the vaccine C-strain and group 2 strains circulating in China. Chen N, Tong C, Li D, et al. Virol. J. 7, 378, (2010)


Induction of cell-cell fusion by ectromelia virus is not inhibited by its fusion inhibitory complex. Erez N Virol. J. 6, 151, (2009)


A novel protein-coding ORF72.2 gene was identified from Marek's disease virus strain CVI988. Mingxing Tian et al Virol. J. 7, 371, (2010)


Evaluation of the role of erythropoietin and methotrexate in multiple sclerosis. Dasgupta S, Mazumder B, Ramani YR, et al. Indian J. Pharmacol. 43(5), 512-5, (2011)


Mineral-oil Adjuvants and the Immunization of Laboratory Animals. Herbert, W.J., Weir, D.M. Handbook of Experimental Immunology Oxford , (1978)

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