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F6627 Sigma

5-Fluorouracil

≥99% (HPLC), powder

Synonym: 2,4-Dihydroxy-5-fluoropyrimidine, 5-FU, 5-Fluoro-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione

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Properties

Related Categories Antitumor Agents, Apoptosis and Cell Cycle, Cancer Research, Cell Biology, Cell Cycle Proteins, Antibodies and Reagents,
assay   ≥99% (HPLC)
form   powder
color   white
mp   282-286 °C (dec.)(lit.)
solubility   1 M NH4OH: soluble
  DMSO/DMF: soluble
  methanol: soluble
Gene Information   human ... TYMS(7298)

Description

Frequently Asked Questions

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Biochem/physiol Actions

A potent antitumor agent that affects pyrimidine synthesis by inhibiting thymidylate synthetase thus depleting intracellular dTTP pools. It is metabolized to ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, which can be incorporated into RNA and DNA. Treatment of cells with 5-FU leads to an accumulation of cells in S-phase and has been shown to induce p53 dependent apoptosis.

Packaging

1, 5, 10 g in glass bottle

Price and Availability

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS06  GHS06
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
RIDADR 
UN 2811 6.1 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Autophagy in Cancer Promotes Therapeutic Resistance

Autophagy is a highly regulated process by which long-lived proteins, organelles, and protein aggregates are captured within autophagosomes, which are then fused with lysosomes for degradation.1 Auto...
Keywords: Apoptosis, Autophagy, Cancer, Degradations, Metabolites, transformation

DNA Damage and Repair

Damage to cellular DNA is involved in mutagenesis and the development of cancer. The DNA in a human cell undergoes several thousand to a million damaging events per day, generated by both external (e...
BioFiles 2007, 2.4, 20.
Keywords: AGE, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Applications, Biochemistry, Cancer, Carcinogens, Catalysis, Clinical, DNA replication, Deaminations, Environmental, Error, Events, Gene expression, Metabolites, Methylations, Mutagens, Oxidations, Polymorphisms, Rearrangements, Recombination, Sequences, Substitutions, Transcription, Type

Nucleotide Synthesis in Cancer Cells

Neoplastic cells are highly dependent on the de novo synthesis of nucleotides to maintain sufficient pools to support DNA replication and the production of RNA. The metabolic pathways supporting nucl...
Keywords: Biofiles, Cancer, Catalysis, Citric Acid Cycle, DNA replication, Gene expression, Glycolysis, Metabolic Pathways, Metabolism, Metabolites, Nucleotide Synthesis, PAGE, Pentose phosphate pathway, Pyrimidine synthesis, Support

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin with or without cetuximab in patients with resected stage III colon cancer (PETACC-8): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Taieb J, Tabernero J, Mini E, et al. Lancet Oncol. 15(8), 862-73, (2014)

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Improved HSC reconstitution and protection from inflammatory stress and chemotherapy in mice lacking granzyme B. Carnevalli LS, Scognamiglio R, Cabezas-Wallscheid N, et al. J. Exp. Med. 211(5), 769-79, (2014)

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Cardiotoxicity in cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine: a systematic review of incidence, manifestations and predisposing factors. Polk A, Vaage-Nilsen M, Vistisen K, et al. Cancer Treat. Rev. 39(8), 974-84, (2013)

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Evaluation of 5-fluorouracil pharmacokinetic models and therapeutic drug monitoring in cancer patients. van Kuilenburg AB and Maring JG Pharmacogenomics 14(7), 799-811, (2013)

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Bridge-to-surgery stent placement versus emergency surgery for acute malignant colonic obstruction. van den Berg MW, Sloothaak DA, Dijkgraaf MG, et al. Br. J. Surg. 101(7), 867-73, (2014)

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Synthesis, cytostatic and anti-HIV evaluations of the new unsaturated acyclic C-5 pyrimidine nucleoside analogues. Tatjana Gazivoda et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 5624-34, (2008)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of unsaturated keto and exomethylene D-arabinopyranonucleoside analogs: novel 5-fluorouracil analogs that target thymidylate synthase. Niki Tzioumaki et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 993-1005, (2011)

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Efficient synthesis and in vitro cytostatic activity of 4-substituted triazolyl-nucleosides. Khalid El Akri et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 6656-9, (2007)

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Indolobenzazepin-7-ones and 6-, 8-, and 9-membered ring derivatives as tubulin polymerization inhibitors: synthesis and structure--activity relationship studies. Aurélien Putey et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 5916-25, (2009)

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Characterized mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced cell death: caspase-independent apoptosis with release of endonuclease-G from mitochondria and increased miR-143 expression in human colorectal cancer DLD-1 cells. Yoshihito Nakagawa et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 5620-8, (2007)

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Transdermal penetration behaviour of drugs: CART-clustering, QSPR and selection of model compounds. Bram Baert et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 6943-55, (2007)

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Novel effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the central nervous system tumorigenic progenitor cells: induction of actin disruption and tumor cell-selective toxicity. Hideaki Yamaguchi et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 2943-8, (2010)

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E,E,E-1-(4-Arylamino-4-oxo-2-butenoyl)-3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones: a topographical study of some novel potent cytotoxins. Amitabh Jha et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 5854-65, (2007)

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Investigations on cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory potency of licofelone derivatives. Wukun Liu et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 907-13, (2011)

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Trend analysis of a database of intravenous pharmacokinetic parameters in humans for 670 drug compounds. R Scott Obach et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 36, 1385-405, (2008)

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Parallel evolution under chemotherapy pressure in 29 breast cancer cell lines results in dissimilar mechanisms of resistance. Bálint Tegze et al PLoS ONE 7, e30804, (2012)

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Physicochemical determinants of human renal clearance. Manthena V S Varma et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 4844-52, (2009)

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A systematic review of salvage therapy to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated with fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan +/- targeted therapy. Nielsen DL, Palshof JA, Larsen FO, et al. Cancer Treat. Rev. 40(6), 701-15, (2014)

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Adjuvant chemoradiation plus intraoperative radiotherapy versus adjuvant chemoradiation alone in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Zhang Q, Tey J, Yang Z, et al. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 38(1), 11-6, (2015)

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[Systemic chemotherapy and surgery for recurrent metachronous liver metastases with peritoneal dissemination from triple colon cancers-a case report]. Kato T, Noda H, Watanabe F, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(13), 2615-7, (2014)

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Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine for locally advanced rectal cancer. Wang L, Li ZY, Li ZW, et al. Dis. Colon Rectum 58(2), 186-92, (2015)

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Treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinomas in an open Clagett window. Atanaskova Mesinkovska N, Conic RZ, Kiracofe EA, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 41(1), 170-2, (2015)

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The MUC1 oncomucin regulates pancreatic cancer cell biological properties and chemoresistance. Implication of p42-44 MAPK, Akt, Bcl-2 and MMP13 pathways. Tréhoux S, Duchêne B, Jonckheere N, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 456(3), 757-62, (2015)

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FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Rahman A Lancet Oncol. 15(13), e590, (2014)

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Facial adenocarcinoma treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy. Chen YY, Sheen YT, Lin CP, et al. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 72(1), e31-2, (2015)

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Adjuvant chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer. Tangjitgamol S, Katanyoo K, Laopaiboon M, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12, CD010401, (2014)

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Paclitaxel and bevacizumab with or without capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial. Lam SW, de Groot SM, Honkoop AH, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(18), 3077-88, (2014)

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Effect of adjuvant capecitabine or fluorouracil, with or without oxaliplatin, on survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer and the effect of oxaliplatin on post-relapse survival: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from four randomised controlled trials. Schmoll HJ, Twelves C, Sun W, et al. Lancet Oncol. 15(13), 1481-92, (2014)

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Fixed-dose rate gemcitabine alone or alternating with FOLFIRI.3 (irinotecan, leucovorin and fluorouracil) in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: an AGEO randomised phase II study (FIRGEM). Trouilloud I, Dupont-Gossard AC, Malka D, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(18), 3116-24, (2014)

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Bevacizumab plus capecitabine in patients with progressive advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-intestinal (GI-NETs) tract (BETTER trial)--a phase II non-randomised trial. Mitry E, Walter T, Baudin E, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(18), 3107-15, (2014)

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Bevacizumab combined with 5-FU/streptozocin in patients with progressive metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine tumours (BETTER trial)--a phase II non-randomised trial. Ducreux M, Dahan L, Smith D, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(18), 3098-106, (2014)

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Enhanced anticancer activity of a protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor on chemotherapy and radiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Zhu DW, Yuan YX, Qiao JK, et al. Cancer Lett. 356(2 Pt B), 773-80, (2015)

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Epstein-Barr virus miR-BART20-5p regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAD. Kim H, Choi H, and Lee SK Cancer Lett. 356(2 Pt B), 733-42, (2015)

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MiR-22 regulates 5-FU sensitivity by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Zhang H, Tang J, Li C, et al. Cancer Lett. 356(2 Pt B), 781-90, (2015)

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A 21-year-old patient with a HER2-positive colorectal cancer. Bensch F, van Rooijen JM, Schröder CP, et al. Gastroenterology 148(1), 20-1, (2015)

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Neoadjuvant sandwich treatment with oxaliplatin and capecitabine administered prior to, concurrently with, and following radiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a prospective phase 2 trial. Gao YH, Lin JZ, An X, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 90(5), 1153-60, (2014)

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Aspirin and COX-2 inhibitor use in patients with stage III colon cancer. Ng K, Meyerhardt JA, Chan AT, et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 107(1), 345, (2015)

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Low FOXA1 expression predicts good response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy resulting in good outcomes for luminal HER2-negative breast cancer cases. Horimoto Y, Arakawa A, Harada-Shoji N, et al. Br. J. Cancer 112(2), 345-51, (2015)

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Should the results of the new EPOC trial change practice in the management of patients with resectable metastatic colorectal cancer confined to the liver? Nordlinger B, Poston GJ, and Goldberg RM J. Clin. Oncol. 33(3), 241-3, (2015)

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DPYD variants to predict 5-FU toxicity: the ultimate proof. Innocenti F J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 106(12), doi:10.1093/jnci/dju351, (2014)

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DPYD variants as predictors of 5-fluorouracil toxicity in adjuvant colon cancer treatment (NCCTG N0147). Lee AM, Shi Q, Pavey E, et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 106(12), doi:10.1093/jnci/dju298, (2014)

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Polymorphisms in microRNA genes as predictors of clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. Pardini B, Rosa F, Naccarati A, et al. Carcinogenesis 36(1), 82-6, (2015)

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Clinical outcome with correlation to disseminated tumor cell (DTC) status after DTC-guided secondary adjuvant treatment with docetaxel in early breast cancer. Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Falk RS, et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 32(34), 3848-57, (2014)

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A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigation of Modufolin® compared to Isovorin® after single dose intravenous administration to patients with colon cancer: a randomized study. Wettergren Y, Taflin H, Odin E, et al. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 75(1), 37-47, (2015)

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IQGAP1 in rectal adenocarcinomas: localization and protein expression before and after radiochemotherapy. Holck S, Nielsen HJ, Hammer E, et al. Cancer Lett. 356(2 Pt B), 556-60, (2015)

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Overcoming 5-Fu resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer cells by the combination of 5-Fu and cisplatin through the inhibition of glucose metabolism. Zhao JG, Ren KM, and Tang J Tumour Biol. 35(12), 12305-15, (2014)

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Outcomes of immediate perforator flap reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Narui K, Ishikawa T, Satake T, et al. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 41(1), 94-9, (2015)

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Docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil combination in neoadjuvant setting in the treatment of locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: Phase II NEOTAX study. Ozdemir N, Abali H, Vural M, et al. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 74(6), 1139-47, (2014)

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Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after D2 resection in gastric cancer: a single-center observational study. Kaytan Saglam E, Yucel S, Balik E, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 141(2), 361-7, (2015)

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Correlation between expression of thymidylate synthase and clinical outcome of advanced gastric cancer treated with capecitabine alone chemotherapy. Liu XF, Zhang H, Sun JQ, et al. Tumour Biol. 35(12), 12409-14, (2014)

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Laser-induced drug release for local tumor control--a proof of concept. Lambertz A, Klink CD, Röth A, et al. J. Surg. Res. 192(2), 312-6, (2014)

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Stromal microRNA-21 levels predict response to 5-fluorouracil in patients with pancreatic cancer. Donahue TR, Nguyen AH, Moughan J, et al. J. Surg. Oncol. 110(8), 952-9, (2014)

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[A case of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in a patient with esophageal carcinoma possibly induced by cisplatin in neoadjuvant chemotherapy]. Sawano T, Kawasaki H, Wajima N, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(8), 999-1003, (2014)

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[A case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component that dedifferentiated after chemotherapy]. Nemoto H, Tate G, Umemoto T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(7), 909-12, (2014)

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[The efficacy and safety of FOLFIRI or combined FOLFIRI and bevacizumab treatment as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer patients aged 75 years and older]. Chika N, Ishibashi K, Okada N, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(7), 857-62, (2014)

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Maintenance of the nutritional prognostic index predicts survival in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Ikeya T, Shibutani M, Maeda K, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 141(2), 307-13, (2015)

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[Effective chemotherapy with bevacizumab/FOLFOX4 for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ascending colon - a case study]. Tanabe H, Takase T, Morimoto D, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(5), 661-4, (2014)

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[A case of pathological complete response of advanced rectal cancer with liver metastasis accompanied by tumor thrombus following treatment with bevacizumab/FOLFOX4 chemotherapy]. Okabe T, Nakamura M, Hoshino K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(5), 657-60, (2014)

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[A case of advanced rectal cancer that showed complete response to the addition of XELOX+bevacizumab therapy to preoperative chemoradiotherapy with S-1/CPT-11]. Takahashi T, Namiki K, Matsumoto H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(5), 653-5, (2014)

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[A case of S-1/CDDP-resistant recurrent gastric cancer responsive to capecitabine/CDDP]. Sunami T, Tauchi J, Sakashita K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(5), 649-51, (2014)

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[Risk factors for cardiotoxicity during fluorouracil and cisplatin combination chemotherapy]. Kaise M, Yoshino M, Nagai H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(5), 601-4, (2014)

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[Bevacizumab-induced reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer]. Miyamoto S Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 111(4), 743-7, (2014)

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[Effect of capecitabine therapy on the blood levels of antiepileptic drugs - report of two cases]. Tanaka H, Jotoku H, Takasaki M, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(4), 527-30, (2014)

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[A case of primary duodenal cancer recurrence successfully treated with CapeOX therapy]. Miyamoto M, Kirii Y, and Takagi H Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(4), 495-8, (2014)

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[A retrospective study of tegafur/uracil compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with node-negative, triple-negative breast cancer]. Fushimi K, Tanabe N, and Takami M Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 41(4), 449-53, (2014)

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In vitro anti cancer activity of ethanol extract fractions of Aerva lanata L. Bhanot A, Sharma R, Singh S, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(22), 1612-7, (2013)

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[Efficacy of AboundTM for hand-foot syndrome caused by capecitabine]. Fujii C, Imamura H, Fukunaga M, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2457-9, (2013)

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[A case of metastatic breast carcinoma of the cervical muscles]. Noda S, Kashiwagi S, Kawajiri H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2405-7, (2013)

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[Multidisciplinary therapy for 3 patients with lymph node recurrence after curative gastrectomy]. Kawasaki K, Iwasaki Y, Yajima K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2283-5, (2013)

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[Recurrent gastric cancer treated with fourth-line chemotherapy consisting of capecitabine and cisplatin leading to partial response]. Makari Y, Iijima S, Doi T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2265-7, (2013)

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[A case of HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer successfully treated with a combination of capecitabine, cisplatin, and trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy]. Deguchi K, Nishikawa K, Iwase K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2253-5, (2013)

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[Pathological complete response in 2 patients with cT4 esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy]. Takagawa R, Mogaki M, Endo C, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2149-51, (2013)

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[A case of primary esophageal carcinoma treated with 5-fluorouracil plus cisplatin and curatively resected after complete response]. Iwasaki K, Ogata T, Fujikawa H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2146-8, (2013)

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[A case of consciousness disorder induced by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone following cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in a patient with esophageal cancer]. Endo C, Takagawa R, Chiba T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2130-2, (2013)

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[A case of cytomegalovirus colitis during chemotherapy for esophageal cancer]. Kitahara M, Kanekiyo S, Yamamoto T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2127-9, (2013)

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[Successful treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus by combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil plus nedaplatin following tracheal stent tube placement-a case report]. Nishimura J, Kubo N, Lee T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2112-4, (2013)

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[Esophageal carcinosarcoma treated with surgery and chemoradiotherapy-a report of 4 cases]. Takemoto K, Shiozaki A, Fujiwara H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2106-8, (2013)

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[Study of decreased oral intake in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer]. Asaka S, Naitou E, Shimakawa T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2103-5, (2013)

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[A case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with submucosal tumor-like tumor due to direct invasion of the gastric wall]. Nako Y, Shiozaki A, Fujiwara H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2097-9, (2013)

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[A case of early colorectal cancer with synchronous multiple liver metastases]. Furukawa H, Fukunaga M, Munakata S, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2068-70, (2013)

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[Protocol for the administration of modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) in patients with unresectable/recurrent colorectal cancer]. Tsuneda A, Kurata T, Makita N, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2038-40, (2013)

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[A case of locally advanced colorectal cancer with abscess responding to 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab]. Kuwabara H, Watanabe S, Liu B, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2032-4, (2013)

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[Two cases of locally advanced colorectal cancer curatively resected after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin plus panitumumab]. Nakayasu Y, Yoshimatsu K, Yokomizo H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2029-31, (2013)

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[A case of rectal endocrine cell carcinoma treated by laparoscopic assisted intersphincteric resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy]. Wakatsuki K, Yoshioka S, Shiobara M, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2026-8, (2013)

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[A case of good response in a rectal cancer patient with decreased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity because of strict control of the 5-fluorouracil dose]. Tsukiyama G, Hasegawa M, Yabuki S, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2023-5, (2013)

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[Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin for the treatment of locally advanced lower rectal cancer]. Murata K, Okamura S, Okubo H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2020-2, (2013)

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[A case of a recurrent hepatic metastasis occurred after curative resection of ascending colon cancer and a hepatic metastasis responding completely to capecitabine plus bevacizumab]. Murayama M, Kohno T, Miyazawa M, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2014-6, (2013)

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[A case in which XELOX plus bevacizumab chemotherapy was effective in an elderly patient with heart failure and multiple liver metastases after sigmoidectomy]. Yoshida T, Matsui T, Aoyagi H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2011-3, (2013)

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[A case of recurrent rectal cancer successfully treated for a long period with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin and bevacizumab therapy]. Iwata N, Ishikawa T, Takahashi H, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(12), 2008-10, (2013)

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[Successful treatment of a patient using mFOLFOX6 after laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer with peritoneal dissemination]. Hamano G, Ikebe T, Mayumi K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(7), 951-4, (2013)

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[A case of HER2-positive gastric cancer successfully treated with trastuzumab plus capecitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy as third-line treatment]. Murata Y, Matsuura T, Kanoshima K, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(7), 933-6, (2013)

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[Combined therapy of lapatinib and capecitabine effective against local recurrence of breast cancer]. Nozoe T, Nozoe E, Iguchi T, et al. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 40(7), 907-8, (2013)

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Selective bone targeting 5-fluorouracil prodrugs: synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation. Liang Ouyang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 3750-6, (2011)

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Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel 3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carbohydrazide derivatives. Datong Zhang et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 5868-77, (2011)

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Synthesis, antitumor and antimicrobial activities of 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-2-(?-O-glycosyloxy)-6-(thien-2-yl)-nicotinonitrile. Hassan A El-Sayed et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 2948-54, (2011)

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Novel imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and triaza-benzo[c]fluorene derivatives: synthesis, antiproliferative activity and DNA binding studies. Marijana Hranjec et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 2748-58, (2011)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity of ureas containing pyrimidinyl group. Chuanfei Jin et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 429-32, (2011)

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5-Alkynyl-2'-deoxyuridines: chromatography-free synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation against human breast cancer cells. Srinivasarao Meneni et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 3082-8, (2007)

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Synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of some novel 6-aryl-2-(p-sulfamylphenyl)-pyridazin-3(2H)-ones. I G Rathish et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 49C, 304-9, (2012)

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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking studies of 2-chloropyridine derivatives possessing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety as potential antitumor agents. Qing-Zhong Zheng et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 7836-41, (2010)

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Trypanoside, anti-tuberculosis, leishmanicidal, and cytotoxic activities of tetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidines. José C Aponte et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2880-6, (2010)

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Novel benzimidazole-pyrimidine conjugates as potent antitumor agents. Heba T Abdel-Mohsen et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 2336-44, (2010)

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Discovery of antiglioma activity of biaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives and conformationally flexible analogues. Michael L Mohler et al J. Med. Chem. 49, 5845-8, (2006)

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Non-melanoma skin cancers: photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, or what? Facts and controversies. Bahner JD and Bordeaux JS Clin. Dermatol. 31(6), 792-8, (2013)

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Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure study and antitumoral evaluations of 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidine derivatives. Tatjana Gazivoda Kraljevi? et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2704-12, (2010)

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Acyl derivatives of boswellic acids as inhibitors of NF-?B and STATs. Ajay Kumar et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 431-5, (2012)

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Synthesis and anticancer activity of N-bis(trifluoromethyl)alkyl-N'-thiazolyl and N-bis(trifluoromethyl)alkyl-N'-benzothiazolyl ureas. Elena L Luzina et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4944-53, (2009)

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Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine- and quinoline-substituted 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives. Miguel Angel Vilchis-Reyes et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 379-86, (2010)

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Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan as potential antitumor agents. Juan Sun et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 6116-21, (2011)

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Design and synthesis of N-phenylacetyl (sulfonyl) 4,5-dihydropyrazole derivatives as potential antitumor agents. Xin-Hua Liu et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 2916-20, (2011)

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Clinical pharmacokinetics of capecitabine and its metabolites in combination with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Farkouh A, Scheithauer W, Buchner P, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(7), 3669-73, (2014)

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The contribution of plukenetione A to the anti-tumoral activity of Cuban propolis. David Díaz-Carballo et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 9635-43, (2008)

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Novel 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole derivatives: synthesis and antiproliferative activity. Xin-Hua Liu et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 3930-5, (2009)

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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor 4 targets MDM2 to deregulate the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. Hye-Ra Lee et al J. Virol. 83, 6739-47, (2009)

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Synthesis and anticancer activity of new 1-[(5 or 6-substituted 2-alkoxyquinoxalin-3-yl)aminocarbonyl]-4-(hetero)arylpiperazine derivatives. Young Bok Lee et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 7966-74, (2010)

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A mechanistic study on the cardiotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil in vitro and clinical and occupational perspectives. Lamberti M, Porto S, Zappavigna S, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 227(3), 151-6, (2014)

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Synthesis of modified pyrimidine bases and positive impact of chemically reactive substituents on their in vitro antiproliferative activity. Steffi Noll et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 1172-9, (2009)

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Diterpenoids from the roots of Suregada glomerulata. Ren-Yi Yan et al J. Nat. Prod. 71, 195-8, (2008)

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Regiospecific microwave-assisted synthesis and cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cells of (RS)-6-substituted-7- or 9-(2,3-dihydro-5H-1,4-benzodioxepin-3-yl)-7H- or -9H-purines. Ana Conejo-García et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 1742-8, (2008)

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Synthesis and antitumour activity of ?-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin analogues. Zhen Rao et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 3934-41, (2011)

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Design, synthesis and in vitro drug release investigation of new potential 5-FU prodrugs. Pierre Daumar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 2867-79, (2011)

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Synthesis of 4?-N-polyaromatic substituted podophyllotoxins: DNA topoisomerase inhibition, anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities. Ahmed Kamal et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 8493-500, (2010)

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Synthesis, anticancer and antioxidant activities of 7-methoxyisoflavanone and 2,3-diarylchromanones. Kanagasabai Kanagalakshmi et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 2447-52, (2010)

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Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of resveratrol derivatives modified in C2 position. Xian-Feng Huang et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 42, 263-7, (2007)

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Basic pharmacology of topical imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, and diclofenac for the dermatologic surgeon. Desai T, Chen CL, Desai A, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 38(1), 97-103, (2012)

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Antifungal thiopeptide cyclothiazomycin B1 exhibits growth inhibition accompanying morphological changes via binding to fungal cell wall chitin. Naoko Mizuhara et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 5300-10, (2011)

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Quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia. Katsunori Miyake et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 2135-40, (2009)

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Cytotoxic constituents of Soymida febrifuga from Myanmar. Suresh Awale et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 1631-6, (2009)

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Exomethylene pyranonucleosides: efficient synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-2-methylene-beta-d-glycero-hex-3-enopyranosyl)thymine. George Agelis et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 5448-56, (2007)

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Orai1 and STIM1 mediate SOCE and contribute to apoptotic resistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Kondratska K, Kondratskyi A, Yassine M, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1843(10), 2263-9, (2014)

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Solvatochromism, DNA binding, antitumor activity and molecular modeling study of mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing the bulky ligand: bis[N-(p-tolyl)imino]acenaphthene. Usama El-Ayaan et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 42, 1325-33, (2007)

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An efficient synthesis of 3-fluoro-5-thio-xylofuranosyl nucleosides of thymine, uracil, and 5-fluorouracil as potential antitumor or/and antiviral agents. Evangelia Tsoukala et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 3241-7, (2007)

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Synthesis and molecular modelling of unsaturated exomethylene pyranonucleoside analogues with antitumor and antiviral activities. George Agelis et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 1366-75, (2008)

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Cytotoxic diterpenoids from the bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi and their structure-activity relationships. Peng Liu et al J. Nat. Prod. 70, 533-7, (2007)

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Influence of dTMP on the phenotypic appearance and intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus. Zander J Infect. Immun. 76(4), 1333-9, (2008)

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The in vitro anti-tumor efficacy and the pharmacokinetics of N3-o-toluyl-fluorouracil loaded nanosuspension (TFu-LNS). Li M, Zhang J, Feng L, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 801-10, (2013)

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Synthetic 2',5'-dimethoxychalcones as G(2)/M arrest-mediated apoptosis-inducing agents and inhibitors of nitric oxide production in rat macrophages. Bai-Luh Wei et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 42, 660-8, (2007)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity of liquiritigenin thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Kun Hu et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3453-8, (2010)

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Kadsuracoccinic acids A-C, ring-A seco-lanostane triterpenes from Kadsura coccinea and their effects on embryonic cell division of Xenopus laevis. Heran Li et al J. Nat. Prod. 71, 739-41, (2008)

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Solar keratoses: photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, or what? Facts and controversies. Schmitt AR and Bordeaux JS Clin. Dermatol. 31(6), 712-7, (2013)

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Semi-synthesis and antitumor activity of 6-isomers of 5, 8-O-dimethyl acylshikonin derivatives. Wen Zhou et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 3420-7, (2011)

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Cytotoxic and protective DNA damage of three new diterpenoids from the brown alga Dictoyota dichotoma. Seif-Eldin N Ayyad et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 175-82, (2011)

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Synthesis and molecular docking studies of novel 2-chloro-pyridine derivatives containing flavone moieties as potential antitumor agents X. Liu, et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 4163-4167, (2010)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 1-O- and 14-O-derivatives of oridonin as potential anticancer drug candidates. Jinyi Xu et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 4741-4, (2008)

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Incidence of cold-induced peripheral neuropathy and dose modification of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for patients with colorectal cancer. Altaf R, Lund Brixen A, Kristensen B, et al. Oncology 87(3), 167-72, (2014)

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Semi-synthesis and anti-tumor activity of 5,8-O-dimethyl acylshikonin derivatives. Wen Zhou et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 6005-11, (2010)

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2,3,5-Substituted tetrahydrofurans as cancer chemopreventives. Part 1: synthesis and anti-cancer activities of 5-hydroxymethyl-2,3-diaryl-tetrahydro-furan-3-ols. Palwinder Singh et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 3990-6, (2007)

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Development of a phospholipidosis database and predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Naomi L Kruhlak et al Toxicol. Mech. Methods 18, 217-27, (2008)

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5-fluorouracil induced cardiotoxicity: review of the literature. Sorrentino MF, Kim J, Foderaro AE, et al. Cardiol. J. 19(5), 453-8, (2012)

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Synthesis of novel 2, 5-dihydrofuran derivatives and evaluation of their anticancer activity. Yikai Zhang et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 48, 69-80, (2012)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity of conjugates of 5-Fluorouracil and emodin. Li-Ming Zhao et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 47, 255-60, (2012)

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Preparation of novel (Z)-4-ylidenebenzo[b]furo[3,2-d][1,3]oxazines and their biological activity. Yukako Tabuchi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 3959-67, (2009)

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QSAR-based solubility model for drug-like compounds. Rafael Gozalbes et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 7078-84, (2010)

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Efficient synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3-benzenedicarbonyl dithioureas. Hao Peng et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 1102-4, (2011)

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QSPR modeling of octanol/water partition coefficient of antineoplastic agents by balance of correlations. Andrey A Toropov et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 1639-47, (2010)

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Synthesis and biological activities of novel dexibuprofen tetraacetylriboflavin conjugates. Christian Banekovich et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 683-7, (2007)

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Synthesis and biological activities of nucleoside-estradiol conjugates. Hasrat Ali et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 317-9, (2006)

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Synthesis and evaluation of unsymmetrical polyamine derivatives as antitumor agents. Jianhong Wang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 7005-12, (2008)

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2-Anilinonicotinyl linked 2-aminobenzothiazoles and [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-b] [1,2,4]benzothiadiazine conjugates as potential mitochondrial apoptotic inducers. Ahmed Kamal et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 7136-50, (2011)

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Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of novel amino analogues of boswellic acids. Bhahwal A Shah et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 6411-6, (2007)

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A quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4 affects cycling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through regulation of TGF-β 2 responsiveness. Serine Avagyan et al J. Immunol. 181, 5904-11, (2008)

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Antiproliferative property of hexadecyloxypropyl 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy) ethyl] guanine (HDP-PMEG) for unwanted ocular proliferation. Jiangping Hou et al Mol. Vis. 17, 627-37, (2011)

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Toxicity of induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for advanced head and neck cancer. Billan S, Kaidar-Person O, Atrash F, et al. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 15(5), 231-5, (2013)

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Anticancer activity of (1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-yl)-pyrimidines and -purines against the MCF-7 cell line: Preliminary cDNA microarray studies. Mónica Díaz-Gavilán et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 1457-60, (2008)

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Porphyrins containing nitric oxide donors: Synthesis and cancer cell-oriented NO release. Wukun Liu et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 1647-9, (2009)

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Anticancer activity of N-bis(trifluoromethyl)alkyl-N'-(polychlorophenyl) and N'-(1,2,4-triazolyl) ureas. Elena L Luzina et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 5507-12, (2010)

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Pluronic-poly[alpha-(4-aminobutyl)-1-glycolic acid] polymeric micelle-like nanoparticles as carrier for drug delivery. Wang Q, Liu P, Sun Y, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(7), 4843-50, (2014)

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Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 17-carboxylic acid modified 23-hydroxy betulinic acid ester derivatives. Yi Bi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 1475-8, (2007)

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Role of neoadjuvant therapy in the multimodality treatment of older patients with pancreatic cancer. Cooper AB, Holmes HM, des Bordes JK, et al. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 219(1), 111-20, (2014)

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Takotsubo syndrome: an underdiagnosed complication of 5-fluorouracil mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Ozturk MA, Ozveren O, Cinar V, et al. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis 24(1), 90-4, (2013)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluations of albumin-binding prodrugs of CC-1065 analog. Yuqiang Wang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 6552-9, (2008)

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Anticancer activity and cDNA microarray studies of a (RS)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-yl]-6-chloro-9H-purine, and an acyclic (RS)-O,N-acetalic 6-chloro-7H-purine. Octavio Caba et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 3802-9, (2011)

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Synthesis, biological evaluation of chrysin derivatives as potential immunosuppressive agents. Peng-Cheng Lv et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 393-8, (2011)

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FOLFIRINOX bevacizumab is a promising therapy for chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Chaix M, Vincent J, Lorgis V, et al. Oncology 87(3), 148-58, (2014)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity of novel 2',3'-diethanethio-2',3',5'-trideoxy-5'-triazolonucleoside analogues. Jin-Lan Yu et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3219-22, (2010)

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Tessaric acid derivatives induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in human solid tumor cell lines. Leticia G León et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 6251-6, (2009)

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Transanal endoscopic microsurgery with entrance into the peritoneal cavity: is it safe? Marks JH, Frenkel JL, Greenleaf CE, et al. Dis. Colon Rectum 57(10), 1176-82, (2014)

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Risk factors for bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a prospective study using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center bowel function instrument. Ihn MH, Kang SB, Kim DW, et al. Dis. Colon Rectum 57(8), 958-66, (2014)

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Definitive chemoradiation therapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF-R) in advanced esophageal cancer: a phase 2 trial (KDOG 0501-P2). Higuchi K, Komori S, Tanabe S, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(4), 872-9, (2014)

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Metronomic adjuvant chemotherapy improves treatment outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with postradiation persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid. Twu CW, Wang WY, Chen CC, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 89(1), 21-9, (2014)

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Selective cytotoxic activity of the marine-derived batzelline compounds against pancreatic cancer cell lines. Guzmán EA, Johnson JD, Carrier MK, et al. Anticancer Drugs 20(2), 149-55, (2009)

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Impact of co-administered drugs on drug monitoring of capecitabine in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Schreiber V, Kitzmueller M, Poxhofer M, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(7), 3371-6, (2014)

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Synthesis and cytotoxicity of 8-cyano-3-substitutedalkyl-5-methyl-4-methylene-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines. Wen-Yan Mo et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 5975-7, (2011)

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Synthesis and anti-tumor activity of novel ethyl 3-aryl-4-oxo-3,3a,4,6-tetrahydro-1H-furo[3,4-c]pyran-3a-carboxylates. Tiantian Wang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 3381-3, (2011)

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A novel brain targeted 5-fU derivative with potential antitumor efficiency and decreased acute toxicity: synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Chen H, Wu W, Li Y, et al. Pharmazie 69(4), 271-6, (2014)

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Study on synthesis and biological activity of a galactosylated piperazinyl porphyrin. He-Ping Li et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 6298-301, (2006)

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A facile synthesis and biological activity of novel tetrahydrobenzo[4',5']thieno[3',2':5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones. Qingyun Ren et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 6713-6, (2009)

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Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 confers resistance to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer by regulating reactive oxygen species and caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway. Yu Z, Zhang C, Wang H, et al. Cancer Lett. 353(2), 182-93, (2014)

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Bio-transformation of artemisinin using soil microbe: Direct C-acetoxylation of artemisinin at C-9 by Penicillium simplissimum. Abhishek Goswami et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 359-61, (2010)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity of the hexacyclic camptothecin derivatives. Heyong Gao et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 3233-6, (2005)

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 for first-line treatment of patients with wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer. Graham CN, Hechmati G, Hjelmgren J, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(16), 2791-801, (2014)

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Simvastatin plus capecitabine-cisplatin versus placebo plus capecitabine-cisplatin in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer: a double-blind randomised phase 3 study. Kim ST, Kang JH, Lee J, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(16), 2822-30, (2014)

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A phase II study of S-1 chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy in elderly patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group Trial 0801. Aoe K, Takigawa N, Hotta K, et al. Eur. J. Cancer 50(16), 2783-90, (2014)

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Synthesis, aerobic cytotoxicity, and radiosensitizing activity of novel 2,4-dinitrophenylamine tethered 5-fluorouracil and hydroxyurea. Ali Khalaj et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 6034-8, (2006)

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SAR studies of 2-arylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides: a novel class of cytotoxic agents for prostate cancer. Veeresa Gududuru et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 4010-3, (2005)

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Novel nucleosides as potent influenza viral inhibitors. Manohar Sharma Vedula et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 6329-39, (2010)

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Interleukin 22 protects colorectal cancer cells from chemotherapy by activating the STAT3 pathway and inducing autocrine expression of interleukin 8. Wu T, Wang Z, Liu Y, et al. Clin. Immunol. 154(2), 116-26, (2014)

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Synthesis, chiral resolution, and determination of novel furan lignan derivatives with potent anti-tumor activity. Hai Ling Sun et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 1961-4, (2010)

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Knockdown of PLA2G2A sensitizes gastric cancer cells to 5-FU in vitro. Chen D, Jiao XL, Liu ZK, et al. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 17(13), 1703-8, (2013)

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Sesquiterpenoids from Pilea cavaleriei subsp. crenata. Gui-Hua Tang et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 5737-40, (2009)

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Doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil induced accumulation and transcriptional activity of p53 are independent of the phosphorylation at serine 15 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Balmer MT, Katz RD, Liao S, et al. Cancer Biol. Ther. 15(8), 1000-12, (2014)

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Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of some novel polycyclic gamma-butyrolactones. M P S Ishar et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 4809-12, (2008)

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Accidental and experimentally induced 5-fluorouracil toxicity in dogs. Sayre RS, Barr JW, and Bailey EM J. Vet. Emerg. Crit. Care (San Antonio.) 22(5), 545-9, (2012)

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Synthesis, cytostatic activity and ADME properties of C-5 substituted and N-acyclic pyrimidine derivatives. Tatjana Gazivoda Kraljevi? et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 308-12, (2012)

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Fish venom (Pterios volitans) peptide reduces tumor burden and ameliorates oxidative stress in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma xenografted mice. M Sri Balasubashini et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 6219-25, (2006)

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Synthesis and antitumor activity of 7-ethyl-9-alkyl derivatives of camptothecin. Heyong Gao et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 2003-6, (2005)

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The actual scenario of neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer in developing country: a report of 80 cases of breast cancer from a tertiary cancer center in India. Das U, Lakshmaiah KC, Govind Babu K, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 140(10), 1777-82, (2014)

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Interval between neoadjuvant treatment and definitive surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer: impact on response and oncologic outcomes. Calvo FA, Morillo V, Santos M, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 140(10), 1651-60, (2014)

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Phase I dose escalation study of capecitabine and erlotinib concurrent with radiation in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Jiang Y, Mackley HB, Kimchi ET, et al. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 74(1), 205-10, (2014)

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MiR-612 suppresses the stemness of liver cancer via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Tang J, Tao ZH, Wen D, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 447(1), 210-5, (2014)

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Folfox4 as a rescue chemotherapy for gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer. Chung JW, Jang HW, Chung MJ, et al. Hepatogastroenterology. 60(122), 363-7, (2013)

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A phase II study of preoperative chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 followed by surgery and postoperative chemoradiation in patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Chen SS, Yang XC, Chi F, et al. Oncol. Res. 20(7), 327-32, (2013)

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Construction of an improved drug delivery system tool with enhanced versatility in cell-targeting. Tabata A, Ohkubo Y, Tamura M, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(7), 2905-10, (2013)

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus low-fidelity polymerase mutants are attenuated. Xie X, Wang H, Zeng J, et al. Arch. Virol. 159(10), 2641-50, (2014)

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Randomized, vehicle-controlled trials of topical 5-fluorouracil therapy for actinic keratosis treatment: an overview. Rahvar M, Lamel SA, and Maibach HI Immunotherapy 4(9), 939-45, (2012)

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Rapid and simplified HPLC-UV method with on-line wavelengths switching for determination of capecitabine in human plasma. Piórkowska E, Kaza M, Fitatiuk J, et al. Pharmazie 69(7), 500-5, (2014)

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Let-7 g microRNA sensitizes fluorouracil-resistant human hepatoma cells. Tang H, Zhang P, Xiang Q, et al. Pharmazie 69(4), 287-92, (2014)

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Carcinoembryonic antigen half-life is an early predictor of therapeutic effects in induction chemotherapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Nagai Y, Beppu T, Sakamoto Y, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(10), 5529-35, (2014)

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Induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil followed by surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves outcome of recurrent advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Yang WC, Chen CH, Tang JY, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(7), 3765-73, (2014)

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The synergistic effect of rapamycin combined with 5-fluorouracil in BALB/cByJNarl mice bearing CT-26 tumor cells. Chao TH, Chang GR, Chen WY, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(7), 3329-35, (2014)

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Molecular basis of 5-fluorouracil-related toxicity: lessons from clinical practice. Papanastasopoulos P and Stebbing J Anticancer Res. 34(4), 1531-5, (2014)

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Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence of sigmoid colon cancer with severe lymph node metastases successfully treated using systemic chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. Ohchi T, Akagi Y, Kinugasa T, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(7), 2935-40, (2013)

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Feasibility of Cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and Panitumumab in Japanese Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck. Tahara M, Onozawa Y, Fujii H, et al. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol., (2014)

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Inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth in vivo by overexpression of adeno-associated virus-mediated survivin mutant C84A. Weng Y, Fei B, Chi AL, et al. Oncol. Res. 20(9), 411-7, (2013)

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Measuring the severity of topical 5-fluorouracil toxicity. Korgavkar K, Firoz EF, Xiong M, et al. J. Cutan. Med. Surg. 18(4), 229-35, (2014)

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Intravitreal low molecular weight heparin and 5-Fluorouracil for the prevention of proliferative vitreoretinopathy following retinal reattachment surgery. Sundaram V, Barsam A, and Virgili G Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1, CD006421, (2013)

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Pulmonary toxicity with oxaliplatin and capecitabine/5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy: a case report and review of the literature. Chan AK, Choo BA, and Glaholm J Onkologie 34(8-9), 443-6, (2011)

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In reply to Putnam. Hickey R, Mulcahy M, and Salem R Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 90(2), 473-4, (2014)

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Tachykinin Peptide, substance p, and its receptor have a significant role in tissue reactions induced by cytotoxic therapy. Satheeshkumar PS and Mohan MP Dig. Dis. Sci. 59(10), 2600-1, (2014)

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Photosensitive lichenoid drug eruption to capecitabine. Walker G, Lane N, and Parekh P J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(2), e52-3, (2014)

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Let's put an expiration date on the current approach to drug expiration dates. Pierson JC J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 71(1), 193-4, (2014)

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The wide gulf between stage III and stage IV colon cancer. Ting DT and Ryan DP Lancet Oncol. 15(8), 785-6, (2014)

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Maintenance therapy for colorectal cancer. Marshall JL Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 28(4), 322, 324, (2014)

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Beyond exon 2--the developing story of RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Berlin J N. Engl. J. Med. 369(11), 1059-60, (2013)

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Liver resection following FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab: a detailed pathological review. Walter H and Thomas AL Br. J. Cancer 108(12), 2417-8, (2013)

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Multiorgan failure in a patient treated with the 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan regimen. Schwartzman AD, Sethi R, and Smith R Clin. Colorectal Cancer 12(2), 136-9, (2013)

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Systemic toxicity from occlusive therapy with topical 5-fluorouracil: a case report and review of the literature. Sargen M, Wanat KA, Jambusaria A, et al. Dermatol. Surg. 38(10), 1756-9, (2012)

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Merck 14,4181

Beil. 24,IV,1229

Aldrich MSDS 1, 978:A / Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1731:B / FT-IR 1 (2), 809:D / FT-IR 2 (3), 3829:C / FT-NMR 1 (3), 362:C / IR-Spectra (3), 1353:H / IR-Spectra (2), 1179:B / NMR-Reference 2 (2), 690:D / RegBook 1 (2), 2565:C / Sax 6, 1449 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (1), 996:C / Structure Index 1, 405:D:4

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